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Psychotherapy Pre-Training Using an Introductory Document Offering a Choice as to Therapeutic Framework

Description: Previous attempts to alter client expectancy and behavior using brief therapy introduction documents have yielded mixed results. This paper reports on the clinical evaluation of such a document which presented individual therapy clients with suggested in-therapy behaviors and offered them a choice as to therapeutic framework. The document told clients that they would be allowed to choose between short term and long term therapy, but woven into the descriptions of these alternatives were repetitions of suggestions for in-therapy behaviors which were intended to positively alter the therapy process and the clients' attitudes toward it. A third choice, no therapy at all, provided the opportunity to present information about what therapy would not offer (medical treatment, direct advise, etc.). Twenty-nine adult subjects (14 experimental, 15 control) were given either the experimental document or a control document (offering no suggested behaviors and no choices) immediately following their initial intake appointment at the North Texas State University Community Psychology Clinic.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Smith, Albert Hill
Partner: UNT Libraries

Treatment of Preorgasmic Women Utilizing Group Threapy [sic] and Home-Based Training

Description: There have been various approaches to the treatment of nonorgasmic women, including psychoanalysis, desensitization, relaxation, masturbation, and group therapy. The present study was conducted to examine the efficacy of group therapy combined with home-based training in the treatment of primary nonorgasmic women. A no-treatment control group was also employed. Treatment consisted of two weekly 1- hour group sessions for 5 weeks. Educative processes were employed, such as detailed information on physiology of female sexual response. Structured homework exercises were also utilized, such as mastubatory techniques, role-playing orgasm, strengthening vaginal muscles, and assertiveness training in sexual and nonsexual situations. Results indicated an 88% success rate in the treatment group and no change in the control group.
Date: May 1980
Creator: Cole, Carolyn Fillis
Partner: UNT Libraries

Police Attitudes Toward Rape

Description: Research has demonstrated that the general public accepts many rape myths and that rape attitudes are strongly connected to other deeply held and pervasive attitudes. However, it has not been clear whether police officers reflected similar attitudes. This research attempted to ascertain if police share the same antecedents of rape myth acceptance as the general public. Using officers from two police departments, it was demonstrated that attidudes regarding sex role stereotyping, sexual conservatism, acceptance of interpersonal violence, and adversarial sexual beliefs were significantly correlated with acceptance of rape myths. However, police were more pro-victim (p < .01) in their attitudes as compared to the general public. Officers who received specialized rape-related training were not significantly different in rape attitudes from those officers who had not received training.
Date: August 1981
Creator: Best, Connie Lee
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Educational Level on the Appreciation of Sexist Humor

Description: Superiority, control, and dominance theories of disparaging humor were reviewed, and sexist humor was studied as representative of the field. The effects of educational level and sex of subject on the judgment of humor in sexist material were investigated, utilizing a set of 50 cartoons and jokes devised to approximate overlapping standard curves on the dimensions sexist content and humor. Subjects were 71 males and 73 females, comprising 84 undergraduates and 60 doctoral graduate students. Each subject performed a forced Q sort of the jokes, with 104 rating for humor and 40 rating for sexism to establish content weights. Subjects' rankings, age, sex, and educational level were recorded upon completion of the task. Significant negative correlations were found between educational level and judgment of humor in sexist material, and female subjects judged sexist material to be significantly less funny than males. Some support was indicated for existing theories.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Gravley, Norma J. (Norma Jean)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Orgasm Consistency, Causal Attribution, and Inhibitory Control

Description: A group of 44 high-orgasm-consistency and 34 low-orgasmconsistency women were administered the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, a Sexual Behavior Questionnaire, and the Fall Back Task. Excitatory and inhibitory controlling attitudes as manifested in hypnotic susceptibility, reported control of thinking and movement during coitus, causal attributions, and attitude toward alcoholic beverages were related to orgasm consistency. Women experiencing expectancy disconfirmation for coital outcomes attributed outcomes to unstable factors, supporting the application of Weiner's achievement model to the domain of coital orgasm. High and low consistency women showed different patterns of causal attribution for coital outcomes. High consistency women's attributions fit their reported sexual experiences, while low consistency women's attributions suggested the presence of self-esteem enhancing cognitive distortions.
Date: December 1981
Creator: Bridges, Charles Frederick
Partner: UNT Libraries

Sex Differences in Performance Expectancies

Description: Previous research demonstrates expectations predict actual performance. These studies evaluated the influence of other variables, specifically task sex orientation, biological gender, and sex-role identification, on performance expectancies. Two studies investigated sex differences in performance expectancies: Study 1 used a task normatively favoring males; Study 2 used a task normatively unbiased by gender. Subjects were 207 undergraduates, approximately equal numbers of males and females. Experimenter sex was controlled. Performance expectancies were influenced by interactions of task sex orientation with biological gender and task sex orientation with sex-role identification, but these variables became secondary to personal experience. These findings were interpreted as having implications on initial choice and consequent involvement in novel activities and situations.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Horne, Amy Beth
Partner: UNT Libraries

Development of the Ecological Q-Sort: A Self Concept Instrument for Use with the Elderly

Description: Attempts to measure self concept in the elderly have been characterized by a variety of differing definitions of self concept, and differing methodological procedures. Previous investigations have used instruments which are stereotypic and not ecologically valid for elderly, test formats which make excessive demands on some elderly persons' cognitive and sensory-motor abilities, and administration procedures which penalize the less psychologically sophisticated older person, factors precluding adequate assessment of self concept in the elderly. In order to address the limitations of previous research, the present investigation developed and tested the Ecological Q-sort, a self concept instrument designed especially for use with the elderly. Items for the Ecological Q-sort were life situations which were ecologically representative and meaningful for older persons as self-defined by them. Two forms of the Ecological Q-sort were developed: the pictorial form consisting of pictorial representations of situations plus one sentence descriptions of situations; another form consisted of only one sentence written descriptions of situations.
Date: May 1983
Creator: Redus, Karan
Partner: UNT Libraries

Relationships of Sex-Role Identification, Self-Esteem and Attitudes Toward Women to Responses on a Scale of Sexist Humor

Description: Theories and research in the field of disparaging humor were reviewed, and sexist humor was studied as representative of this field. The relationships of sex-role identification, self-esteem, and attitudes toward women to the judgement of humor in sexist material were investigated. The Scale of Sexist Humor, developed for this investigation, utilized a set of 50 cartoons and jokes devised to approximate overlapping standard curves on the dimensions of sexist content and humor. Subjects were 57 males and 70 female undergraduate students. Each subject performed a forced Q^-sort of the cartoons and jokes, thereby rating them on a five-point scale of funniness, then completed instruments designed to evaluate sex-role identification (the Personal Attributes Questionnaire), self-esteem (The Texas Social Behavior Inventory), and attitudes toward women (the Attitudes Toward Women Scale), A demographic information sheet was also obtained from each subject to utilize in ancillary analysis.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Gravley, Norma J. (Norma Jean)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Separation-Individuation in Female Adult Development

Description: This study examined separation—individuation developmental issues for young adult women, from the perspective of object-relations theory. Its purpose was to explore a woman's perception of her relationship with mother as it is affected by age and request for psychotherapy as well as the relationship between the mother-daughter bond and selfreported personality characteristics. Ninety-six women from 17 to 40 years of age volunteered to participate, and they were grouped into two age ranges. Life Stage 1 women were 17-22 years of age, while Life Stage 2 women ranged from 23-40. Within each Life Stage, the women were further categorized into clinical and non-clinical groups. All of the participants were college students and/or working women from clerical, managerial, and professional occupations who were recruited from their respective schools, jobs and outpatient clinics. Each woman completed the test packet which included a demographic data questionnare; the Identity vis-a-vis Mother Questionnaie (IVM-20) developed by Crastnopol (1980); the Clinical Analysis Questionnaire (CAQ) and Rotter1s Locus of Control Scale. The IVM-20 contains four scales, each designed to measure a unique mother-daughter relationship: Individuated (Ind), Symbiosis (Syra), Practicing (Prac) and Distancing (Dist). Ind is supposed to reflect a healthy autonomy with a loving mother-daughter bond, while Prac should represent ambivalence toward mother. Sym represents an overly dependent relationship and Dist was designed to measure an angry rejection of mother.
Date: May 1983
Creator: Mullins, Deborah
Partner: UNT Libraries

Theoretical Orientation, Style, and Compatibility as Factors in Spouse Cotherapy

Description: Cotherapy has been advocated as an effective treatment mode, especially with groups, couples, and families. The relationship between the cotherapists has been identified as an important determinant in the success of this method. This relationship has been compared to the marital relationship between spouses, and the marriages of therapists have been viewed as offering advantages for cotherapy. Since not all therapists who are married to each other work as cotherapists, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not spouse cotherapists differ from other therapists who are also married to each other but who do not work together on a regular basis as cotherapists. The five dimensions measured for all subject couples include frequency of differing theoretical orientation, similarity of self-reported behavior in therapy, compatibility of needs for inclusion, compatibility of needs for control, and compatibility of needs for affection. Subjects for this study were 6 5 married couples in which both spouses were psychotherapists. The couples were divided into two groups according to whether or not they worked together as cotherapists on a regular basis. The group of spouse cotherapists included 29 couples who reported regular cotherapy together. The group of therapist couples included 37 couples who reported no regular cotherapy with their spouses. All subject couples were provided a packet of materials which included a letter explaining the general purpose of the study, two copies of the Therapist Personal Data Form, two copies of the Self-Description of Therapist's Behavior, two copies of the Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior, and a stamped envelope addressed to the experimenter for the return of the materials.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Benningfield, Anna Beth
Partner: UNT Libraries

Depression: Assessment of Factors

Description: Depression received much attention in the professional literature as a stimulus both for experimental as well as applied research. It continued to be the subject of much controversy in respect to its definition, identification, and classification. Attempts were made to objectify the assessment of depression using self-report scales to tap various aspects though to be related to its etiology as well as its symptomology. Two of the most popular and reportedly well-validated self-report scales identified in the literature for determining and quantifying depressive symptoms were the Beck Depression Inventory (Beck) and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (Zung).The present study was designed to determine if there were factors in common between the Beck and the Zung scales and, in addition, to test whether these factors would differentiate subjects by sex class membership, diagnostic category, and by some linear combination of biographical or life-history information. The major purpose was the identification of outstanding charactersitics of depression predicted from biographical data and the determination of the relationship of these data to self-rating psychometric measures of depression. This study makes it clear that the Beck and Zung scales are measuring different aspects of depression and thus are likely based on separate constructs. The need of developing a depression index based on separate factor scores is highlighted. Also, a multimodal approach to assessment in general is indicated. Studies relating biographical information to factors of depression are suggested. This study makes several inroads, generating descriptive factors and significant biographical or life history correlates. These findings could be expanded and further research could lead to the development of assessment tools useful in the identification of patients with distinct depressive syndromes, as well as at-risk subject groups, in order to implement both primary and secondary prevention.
Date: May 1980
Creator: Cozort, Donna
Partner: UNT Libraries

Female Sexual Orientation: Behavior and Developmental History

Description: The present study investigated female sexuality by examining a range of experiential, historical, attitudinal, and behavioral variables, and conceptualizing sexual orientation along several dimensions on a heterosexual/homosexual continuum. The focus was on determining what, if any, important etiological factors emerged, as well as differences in behavior, attitudes, and preferences among women with various sexual orientations. It was concluded that a nonconventionality factor could be interacting with certain experiential and situational variables to produce a bisexual or homosexual lifestyle. Consequently, the ideosyncratic variable nature of such a paradigm could partially explain inconsistencies in past research. Results of this study were comparable to previous ones indicating that the women were similar (across sexual orientations) in their emphasis on emotional aspects of a relationship, history of heterosexual dating and coitus, few (relative to males) sex partners, and a less (than males) actively assertive sexual pattern of behavior. Future research might include males in the investigation of the role of a nonconventionality factor in sexual orientation. Also, relationship between cognitive/perceptual styles and sexual orientation could be explored.
Date: August 1979
Creator: Van Buskirk, Susan Swann
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Psychoanalytic Developmental Psychology Approach to the Classification of Separation-Individuation in the Adult

Description: A diagnostic classification of Borderline subgroups was developed for the purpose of reducing the current ambiguities existing in the range of pathologies between the psychoses and neuroses. This classification is a questionnaire of forty items and is intended to be used in treatment settings as a measure of object relations, i.e., of ego development and arrest. The criteria which define the Borderline subgroups were derived from the normative developmental data of Mahler, Pine, and Bergman (1975). In Experiment I, raters used the Mahler criteria as operational definitions of the developmental stages and sorted 180 items taken from Benjamin's structural Analysis Social Behavior (SASB) into the four Mahler substages. Those items which were reliably sorted eight out of nine times into the same Mahler stage or substage were retained as critical items to be administered in Experiment II to three groups of subjects. These groups consisted of nineteen schizophrenic inpatients, eighteen outpatients, and twenty nonpsychiatric volunteers. These subjects rated each item of the SASB questionnaire on a scale of 0 to 100; means for each type of psychiatric group according to sex were submitted to a repeated measures 2 (sex) X 3 (group) X 4 (Mahler substage) Analysis of Variance.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Little, Myrna M. (Myrna Marie)
Partner: UNT Libraries