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Near net shape forming processes for chemically prepared zinc oxide varistors.

Description: Chemically prepared zinc oxide powders are fabricated for the production of high aspect ratio varistor components. Colloidal processing in water was performed to reduce agglomerates to primary particles, form a high solids loading slurry, and prevent dopant migration. The milled and dispersed powder exhibited a viscoelastic to elastic behavioral transition at a volume loading of 43-46%. The origin of this transition was studied using acoustic spectroscopy, zeta potential measurements and oscillatory rheology. The phenomenon occurs due to a volume fraction solids dependent reduction in the zeta potential of the solid phase. It is postulated to result from divalent ion binding within the polyelectrolyte dispersant chain, and was mitigated using a polyethylene glycol plasticizing additive. Chemically prepared zinc oxide powders were processed for the production of high aspect ratio varistor components. Near net shape casting methods including slip casting and agarose gelcasting were evaluated for effectiveness in achieving a uniform green microstructure achieving density values near the theoretical maximum during sintering. The structure of the green parts was examined by mercury porisimetry. Agarose gelcasting produced green parts with low solids loading values and did not achieve high fired density. Isopressing the agarose cast parts after drying raised the fired density to greater than 95%, but the parts exhibited catastrophic shorting during electrical testing. Slip casting produced high green density parts, which exhibited high fired density values. The electrical characteristics of slip cast parts are comparable with dry pressed powder compacts. Alternative methods for near net shape forming of ceramic dispersions were investigated for use with the chemically prepared ZnO material. Recommendations for further investigation to achieve a viable production process are presented.
Date: January 1, 2005
Creator: Lockwood, Steven John; Voigt, James A.; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew & Bell, Nelson Simmons
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of Microstructural Variables on the Shock Wave Response of PZT 95/5

Description: The particular lead zirconate/titanate composition PZT 95/5-2Nb was identified many years ago as a promising ferroelectric ceramic for use in shock-driven pulsed power supplies. The bulk density and the corresponding porous microstructure of this material can be varied by adding different types and quantities of organic pore formers prior to bisque firing and sintering. Early studies showed that the porous microstructure could have a significant effect on power supply performance, with only a relatively narrow range of densities providing acceptable shock wave response. However, relatively few studies were performed over the years to characterize the shock response of this material, yielding few insights on how microstructural features actually influence the constitutive mechanical, electrical, and phase-transition properties. The goal of the current work was to address these issues through comparative shock wave experiments on PZT 95/5-2Nb materials having different porous microstructures. A gas-gun facility was used to generate uniaxial-strain shock waves in test materials under carefully controlled impact conditions. Reverse-impact experiments were conducted to obtain basic Hugoniot data, and transmitted-wave experiments were conducted to examine both constitutive mechanical properties and shock-driven electrical currents. The present work benefited from a recent study in which a baseline material with a particular microstructure had been examined in detail. This study identified a complex mechanical behavior governed by anomalous compressibility and incomplete phase transformation at low shock amplitudes, and by a relatively slow yielding process at high shock amplitudes. Depoling currents are reduced at low shock stresses due to the incomplete transformation, and are reduced further in the presence of a strong electrical field. At high shock stresses, depoling currents are driven by a wave structure governed by the threshold for dynamic yielding. This wave structure is insensitive to the final wave amplitude, resulting in depoling currents that do not increase with shock amplitude for ...
Date: February 1, 2003
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chem-prep PZT 95/5 for neutron generator applicatios : powder preparation characterization utilizing design of experiments.

Description: Niobium doped PZT 95/5 (lead zirconate-lead titanate) is the material used in voltage bars for all ferroelectric neutron generator power supplies. In June of 1999, the transfer and scale-up of the Sandia Process from Department 1846 to Department 14192 was initiated. The laboratory-scale process of 1.6 kg has been successfully scaled to a production batch quantity of 10 kg. This report documents efforts to characterize and optimize the production-scale process utilizing Design of Experiments methodology. Of the 34 factors identified in the powder preparation sub-process, 11 were initially selected for the screening design. Additional experiments and safety analysis subsequently reduced the screening design to six factors. Three of the six factors (Milling Time, Media Size, and Pyrolysis Air Flow) were identified as statistically significant for one or more responses and were further investigated through a full factorial interaction design. Analysis of the interaction design resulted in developing models for Powder Bulk Density, Powder Tap Density, and +20 Mesh Fraction. Subsequent batches validated the models. The initial baseline powder preparation conditions were modified, resulting in improved powder yield by significantly reducing the +20 mesh waste fraction. Response variation analysis indicated additional investigation of the powder preparation sub-process steps was necessary to identify and reduce the sources of variation to further optimize the process.
Date: July 1, 2003
Creator: Lockwood, Steven John; Rodman-Gonzales, Emily Diane; Voigt, James A. & Moore, Diana Lynn
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

X-Ray Powder Diffraction Study of Synthetic Palmierite, K{sub 2}Pb(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}

Description: Palmierite (K{sub 2}Pb(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}) has been prepared via a chemical synthesis method. Intensity differences were observed when X-ray powder data from the newly synthesized compound were compared to the published powder diffraction card (PDF) 29-1015 for Palmierite. Investigation of these differences indicated the possibility of preferred orientation and/or chemical inhomogeneity affecting intensities, particularly those of the basal (00{ell}) reflections. Annealing of the Palmierite was found to reduce the effects of preferred orientation. Electron microprobe analysis confirmed K:Pb:S as 2:1:2 for the annealed Palmierite powder. Subsequent least-squares refinement and Rietveld analysis of the annealed powder showed peak intensities very close to that of a calculated Palmierite pattern (based on single crystal data), yet substantially higher than many of the PDF 29-1015 published intensities. Further investigation of peak intensity variation via calculated patterns suggested that the intensity discrepancies between the annealed sample and those found in PDF 29-1015 were potentially due to chemical variation in the K{sub 2}Pb(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} composition. X-ray powder diffraction and crystal data for Palmierite are reported for the annealed sample. Palmierite is Trigonal/Hexagonal with unit cell parameters a = 5.497(1){angstrom}, c = 20.864(2) {angstrom}, space group R-3m (166), and Z = 3.
Date: December 19, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chem-Prep PZT 95/5 for Neutron Generator Applications: Particle Size Distribution Comparison of Development and Production-Scale Powders

Description: The Materials Chemistry Department 1846 has developed a lab-scale chem-prep process for the synthesis of PNZT 95/5, a ferroelectric material that is used in neutron generator power supplies. This process (Sandia Process, or SP) has been successfully transferred to and scaled by Department 14192 (Ceramics and Glass Department), (Transferred Sandia Process, or TSP), to meet the future supply needs of Sandia for its neutron generator production responsibilities. In going from the development-size SP batch (1.6 kg/batch) to the production-scale TSP powder batch size (10 kg/batch), it was important that it be determined if the scaling process caused any ''performance-critical'' changes in the PNZT 95/5 being produced. One area where a difference was found was in the particle size distributions of the calcined PNZT powders. Documented in this SAND report are the results of an experimental study to determine the origin of the differences in the particle size distribution of the SP and TSP powders.
Date: July 1, 2002
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

All-Ceramic Thin Film Battery

Description: We have undertaken the synthesis of a thin film ''All Ceramic Battery'' (ACB) using solution route processes. Based on the literature and experimental results, we selected SnO{sub 2}, LiCoO{sub 2}, and LiLaTiO{sub 3} (LLT) as the anode, cathode, and electrolyte, respectively. Strain induced by lattice mismatch between the cathode and bottom electrode, as estimated by computational calculations, indicate that thin film orientations for batteries when thicknesses are as low as 500 {angstrom} are strongly controlled by surface energies. Therefore, we chose platinized silicon as the basal platform based on our previous experience with this material. The anode thin films were generated by standard spin-cast methods and processing using a solution of [Sn(ONep)]{sub 8} and HOAc which was found to form Sn{sub 6}(O){sub 4}(ONep){sub 4}. Electrochemical evaluation showed that the SnO{sub 2} was converted to Sn{sup o} during the first cycle. The cathode was also prepared by spin coating using the novel [Li(ONep)]{sub 8} and Co(OAc){sub 2}. The films could be electrochemically cycled (i.e., charged/discharged), with all of the associated structural changes being observable by XRD. Computational models indicated that the LLT electrolyte would be the best available ceramic material for use as the electrolyte. The LLT was synthesized from [Li(ONep)]{sub 8}, [Ti(ONep){sub 4}]{sub 2}, and La(DIP){sub 3}(py){sub 3} with RTP processing at 900 C being necessary to form the perovskite phase. Alternatively, a novel route to thin films of the block co-polymer ORMOLYTE was developed. The integration of these components was undertaken with each part of the assembly being identifiably by XRD analysis (this will allow us to follow the progress of the charge/discharge cycles of the battery during use). SEM investigations revealed the films were continuous with minimal mixing. All initial testing of the thin-film cathode/electrolyte/anode ACB devices revealed electrical shorting. Alternative approaches for preparing non-shorted devices (e.g. inverted ...
Date: November 1, 2002
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Desalination of brackish ground waters and produced waters using in-situ precipitation.

Description: The need for fresh water has increased exponentially during the last several decades due to the continuous growth of human population and industrial and agricultural activities. Yet existing resources are limited often because of their high salinity. This unfavorable situation requires the development of new, long-term strategies and alternative technologies for desalination of saline waters presently not being used to supply the population growth occurring in arid regions. We have developed a novel environmentally friendly method for desalinating inland brackish waters. This process can be applied to either brackish ground water or produced waters (i.e., coal-bed methane or oil and gas produced waters). Using a set of ion exchange and sorption materials, our process effectively removes anions and cations in separate steps. The ion exchange materials were chosen because of their specific selectivity for ions of interest, and for their ability to work in the temperature and pH regions necessary for cost and energy effectiveness. For anion exchange, we have focused on hydrotalcite (HTC), a layered hydroxide similar to clay in structure. For cation exchange, we have developed an amorphous silica material that has enhanced cation (in particular Na{sup +}) selectivity. In the case of produced waters with high concentrations of Ca{sup 2+}, a lime softening step is included.
Date: August 1, 2004
Creator: Krumhansl, James Lee; Pless, Jason; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Voigt, James A.; Phillips, Mark L. F.; Axness, Marlene et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chem-prep PZT95/5 for neutron generator applications : the effect of pore former type and density on the depoling behavior of chemically prepared PZT 95/5 ceramics.

Description: The hydrostatically induced ferroelectric(FE)-to-antiferroelectric(AFE) phase transformation for chemically prepared niobium modified PZT 95/5 ceramics was studied as a function of density and pore former type (Lucite or Avicel). Special attention was placed on the effect of different pore formers on the charge release behavior associated with the FE-to-AFE phase transformation. Within the same density range (7.26 g/cm3 to 7.44 g/cm3), results showed that ceramics prepared with Lucite pore former exhibit a higher bulk modulus and a sharper polarization release behavior than those prepared with Avicel. In addition, the average transformation pressure was 10.7% greater and the amount of polarization released was 2.1% higher for ceramics with Lucite pore former. The increased transformation pressure was attributed to the increase of bulk modulus associated with Lucite pore former. Data indicated that a minimum volumetric transformational strain of -0.42% was required to trigger the hydrostatically induced FE-to-AFE phase transformation. This work has important implications for increasing the high temperature charge output for neutron generator power supply units.
Date: October 1, 2003
Creator: Lockwood, Steven John; Scofield, Timothy W.; Yang, Pin; Voigt, James A.; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew & Moore, Roger Howard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Robocast Pb(Zr{sub 0.95}Ti{sub 0.05})O{sub 3} Ceramic Monoliths and Composites

Description: Robocasting, a computer controlled slurry deposition technique, was used to fabricate ceramic monoliths and composites of chemically prepared Pb(Zr{sub 0.95}Ti{sub 0.05})O{sub 3} (PZT 95/5) ceramics. Densities and electrical properties of the robocast samples were equivalent to those obtained for cold isostatically pressed (CIP) parts formed at 200 MPa. Robocast composites consisting of alternate layers of the following sintered densities: (93.9%--96.1%--93.9%), were fabricated using different levels of organic pore former additions. Modification from a single to a multiple material deposition robocaster was essential to the fabrication of composites that could withstand repeated cycles of saturated polarization switching under 30 kV/cm fields. Further, these composites withstood 500 MPa hydrostatic pressure induced poled ferroelectric (FE) to antiferroelectric (AFE) phase transformation during which strain differences on the order of 0.8% occurred between composite elements.
Date: July 18, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dielectric Properties and Depoling Characteristics of Pb(Zr(0.95)Ti(0.05))O(3) Based Ceramics: Near-Critical Grain Size Behavior

Description: Chemically prepared Pb(Zr{sub 0.951}Ti{sub 0.949}){sub 0.982}Nb{sub 0.018}O{sub 3} ceramics were fabricated that were greater than 95% dense for sintering temperatures as low as 925 C. Achieving high density at low firing temperatures permitted isolation of the effects of grain size, from those due to porosity, on both dielectric and pressure induced transformation properties. Specifically, two samples of similar high density, but with grain sizes of 0.7 {micro}m and 8.5 {micro}m, respectively, were characterized. The hydrostatic ferroelectric (FE) to antiferroelectric (AFE) transformation pressure was substantially less (150 MPa) for the lower grain size material than for the larger grain size material. In addition, the dielectric constant increased and the Curie temperature decreased for the sample with lower grain size. All three properties: dielectric constant magnitude, Curie point shift, and FE to AFE phase transformation pressure were shown to be semi-quantitatively consistent with internal stress levels on the order of 100 MPa.
Date: September 30, 1999
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solution-based nanoengineering of materials.

Description: Solution-based synthesis is a powerful approach for creating nano-structured materials. Although there have been significant recent successes in its application to fabricating nanomaterials, the general principles that control solution synthesis are not well understood. The purpose of this LDRD project was to develop the scientific principles required to design and build unique nanostructures in crystalline oxides and II/VI semiconductors using solution-based molecular self-assembly techniques. The ability to synthesize these materials in a range of different nano-architectures (from controlled morphology nanocrystals to surface templated 3-D structures) has provided the foundation for new opportunities in such areas as interactive interfaces for optics, electronics, and sensors. The homogeneous precipitation of ZnO in aqueous solution was used primarily as the model system for the project. We developed a low temperature, aqueous solution synthesis route for preparation of large arrays of oriented ZnO nanostructures. Through control of heterogeneous nucleation and growth, methods to predicatively alter the ZnO microstructures by tailoring the surface chemistry of the crystals were established. Molecular mechanics simulations, involving single point energy calculations and full geometry optimizations, were developed to assist in selecting appropriate chemical systems and understanding physical adsorption and ultimately growth mechanisms in the design of oxide nanoarrays. The versatility of peptide chemistry in controlling the formation of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles and zinc oxide/cadmium sulfide heterostructures was also demonstrated.
Date: February 1, 2005
Creator: Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Spoerke, Erik David; Liu, Jun; Voigt, James A.; Cygan, Randall Timothy; Machesky, Michael L. (Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL) et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chem-Prep PZT 95/5 for Neutron Generator Applications: Powder Fractionation Study of Production-Scale Powders

Description: The Materials Chemistry Department 1846 has developed a lab-scale chem-prep process for the synthesis of PNZT 95/5, referred to as the ''SP'' process (Sandia Process). This process (TSP) has been successfully transferred to and scaled-up by Department 14192 (Ceramics and Glass Department), producing the larger quantities of PZT powder required to meet the future supply needs of Sandia for neutron generator production. The particle size distributions of TSP powders routinely have been found to contain a large particle size fraction that was absent in development (SP) powders. This SAND report documents experimental studies focused on characterizing these particles and assessing their potential impact on material performance. To characterize these larger particles, fractionation of several TSP powders was performed. The ''large particle size fractions'' obtained were characterized by particle size analysis, SEM, and ICP analysis and incorporated into compacts and sintered. Large particles were found to be very similar in structure and composition as the bulk of the powder. Studies showed that the large-size fractions of the powders behave similarly to the non-fractionated powder with respect to the types of microstructural features once sintered. Powders were also compared that were prepared using different post-synthesis processing (i.e. differences in precipitate drying). Results showed that these powders contained different amounts and sizes of porous inclusions when sintered. How this affects the functional performance of the PZT 95/5 material is the subject of future investigations.
Date: June 1, 2003
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The impact of solution agglomeration on the deposition of self-assembled monolayers

Description: Self-assembled monolayers (SAMS) are commonly produced by immersing substrates in organic solutions containing trichlorosilane coupling agents. Unfortunately, such deposition solutions can also form alternate structures including inverse micelles and lamellar phases. The formation of alternate phases is one reason for the sensitivity of SAM depositions to factors such as the water content of the deposition solvent. If such phases are present, the performance of thin films used for applications such as minimization of friction and stiction in micromachines can be seriously compromised. Inverse micelle formation has been studied in detail for depositions involve 1H-, 1H-, 2H-, 2H-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS) in isooctane. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments have been used to monitor the kinetics of hydrolysis and condensation reactions between water and FDTS. Light scattering experiments show that when hydrolyzed FDTS concentrations reach a critical concentration, there is a burst of nucleation to form high concentrations of spherical agglomerates. Atomic force microscopy results show that the agglomerates then deposit on substrate surfaces. Deposition conditions leading to monolayer formation involve using deposition times that are short relative to the induction time for agglomeration. After deposition, inverse micelles can be converted into lamellar or monolayer structures with appropriate heat treatments if surface concentrations are relatively low.
Date: April 17, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure Induced Phase Transformation of Pb(Zr(0.95)Ti(0.05))O(3) Based Ceramics: Grain Size Dependence

Description: A substantial decrease in hydrostatic ferroelectric (FE) to antiferroelectric (AFE) transformation pressure was measured for Pb(Zr{sub 0.949}Ti{sub 0.051}){sub 0.989}Nb{sub 0.0182}O{sub 3} ceramics with decreasing grain size. The 150 MPa decrease in hydrostatic FE to AFE transformation pressure over the grain size range of 8.5 {micro}m to 0.7{micro}m was shown to be consistent with enhanced internal stress with decreasing grain size. Further, the Curie Point decreased and the dielectric constant measured at 25 C increased with decreasing grain size. All three properties: dielectric constant magnitude, Curie point shift and FE to AFE phase transformation pressure were shown to be semi-quantitatively consistent with internal stress differences on the order of 100 MPa. Calculations of Curie point shifts from the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, using internal stress levels derived from the hydrostatic depoling characteristics, were consistent with measured values.
Date: December 21, 1999
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department