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Preliminary evaluation of two-element optical concentrators for use in solar photovoltaic systems

Description: The objective of this program was: to evaluate for photovoltaic applications the use of the compound parabolic concentrator design as a field collector--in conjunction with a primary focusing concentrator. The primary focusing concentrator may be a parabolic reflector, an array of Fresnel mirrors, a Fresnel lens, or some other type; Select several candidate configurations of such compound systems (focusing concentrators/CPC field collectors); Perform an analytic evaluation of the technical performance of these systems; and identify the most promising configurations and perform a cost effectiveness study pertinent to coupling CPC concentrators to solar cells. (WDM)
Date: June 30, 1975
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Solar heating and cooling of buildings: Phase I (non-residential). InterTechnology/Solar Corporation cost/benefit analysis report and supporting opinion survey, commercial buildings. National Solar Demonstration Program, executive summary

Description: A parametric study was performed to provide an estimate of the number of non-residential solar demonstration projects that will be required to start a commercial industry in solar equipment manufacturing, marketing, financing, and installation. An opinion survey was conducted among several experts in the field and results are shown. A techno-economic computer simulation of the solar industry was constructed. This simulation predicts the response of the marketplace to the ERDA program. The computer model showed that ERDA should offer to pay 75% of the initial cost of the system plus 90% of the maintenance and insurance costs over the next 20 years. The predicted response of the marketplace to the ERDA offer of 75%/90% is that 667 demonstration units would be built in all regions of the country, except the region around Seattle, Washington. (MHR)
Date: October 28, 1976
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Goals study for technical development and economic evaluation of the compound parabolic concentrator concept for solar energy collector applications

Description: The Argonne National Laboratories, contracted with Arthur D. Little, Inc. (ADL), to perform a 6 week goal study for the purpose of evaluating the technical applicability and the economic viability of the compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) concept for all solar energy applications except large central power plants. During this period, we studied the use of CPC units in a large number of residential, industrial, and commercial applications. The predicted performance of CPC augmented solar collectors was compared with other available solar collectors. Application of the CPC to on-site power generation using solar Rankine power generation techniques was studied in detail. Techniques and costs for fabricating CPC collectors were studied. Collectors with insulation and with full-surface reflectors were studied along with the use of CPC augmentation for evacuated receivers with selective surfaces. Manufacturing costs are compared with those reported by others. A qualitative comparison was made between the various classes of solar collectors that are either presently available or are expected to become available in the near future. Comparative energy costs for various collectors are discussed based upon the predicted performance and the estimated costs for manufacture. The problems of introducing the CPC, or other advanced technology type of solar collectors, into the U. S. construction and HVAC market are briefly discussed. (auth)
Date: July 18, 1975
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Coal technology program. Progress report, May 1977

Description: Two successful operability tests with sustained operation of the bench-scale hydrocarbonizer were achieved with Illinois No. 6 coal diluted with char. Several activities in the area of nondestructive testing of coatings are reviewed. Failure analysis activities included examination of several components from the solvent refined coal plants at Wilsonville, Alabama, and Tacoma, Washington. In the gas-fired potassium boiler project, all of the design work were completed except for several of the instrument and control drawings. In the design studies of a coal-fired alkali metal vapor topping cycle, the first phase of a cycle analysis and the design and analysis of a metal vapor turbine were completed. A report entitled ''Critical Component Test Facility--Advance Planning for Test Modules'' presents the planning study for the conceptual design of component test modules on a nonsite-specific basis. Engineering studies, project evaluation and process and program analysis of coal conversion processes were continued. A report on the landfill storage of solid wastes from coal conversion is being finalized. In the coal-fueled MIUS project, a series of successful tests of the coal feeding system and a report on the analysis of 500-hr fire-side corrosion tests in a fluidized bed combustor were completed.
Date: July 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Institutional aspects of fuel-cell total-energy system: a summary survey

Description: The institutional impediments to market penetration by fuel cells are briefly discussed including the following topics: (1) ownership of fuel cell and related franchise limitations; (2) backup arrangements; (3) economic effects; (4) fuel policy; (5) regulatory proceedings; and (6) competitive response. (WHK)
Date: July 31, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Energy-utilization analysis of the International Energy Agency test buildings using the Cal-ERDA program

Description: The Cal-ERDA computer program for the analysis of building energy requirements has been used to analyze the International Energy Agency test building. An introduction to Cal-ERDA and a brief description of the system organization and capabilities are provided. The Building Description Language (BDL) used to input Cal-ERDA represents a major advance in ease and flexibility of input. The fundamentals of BDL and illustrative examples of the use of BDL in the analysis of the IEA test building are discussed in some depth.
Date: January 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Mission analysis of photovoltaic solar energy systems. Quarterly progress report, December 1, 1975--February 29, 1976

Description: An appropriate methodology was developed for conducting the mainline activity of the task--a comprehensive survey of near-term (1976--1985) applications for photovoltaic solar energy conversion--and a start was made on the implementation of the methodology. The main emphasis of the first quarter of effort on the task, however, was placed on a quick, preliminary study aimed at the early identification of several promising near-term applications that would make attractive demonstration projects. Four such applications were identified: (a) impressed current corrosion protection of gas well casings, (b) impressed current corrosion protection of gas and oil pipelines, (c) railroad grade crossing signals, and (d) navigation aid buoys. Estimates were made, in each case, of the size of the associated potential market for photovoltaic arrays and of the break-even array price (the array price at which photovoltaic solar energy conversion would be economically competitive with alternative power sources). The estimated market sizes were as high as 1.1 MW/sub pk//yr (in the case of corrosion protection of deep gas wells) and break-even costs ranged from $2/W/sub pk/ to more than $50/W/sub pk/. A start was made on the examination of central station missions for photovoltaic power plants using very high concentration (concentration ratio approx. 1000). Progress was made on the adaptation of computer simulation routines for use in evaluating plant performance and on the computation of the effect of air mass variations on the efficiency of the GaAs cells that are likely to be used in this mission. Also, data on the various elements of social cost resulting from power production were collected from a wide variety of sources. A comprehensive literature search was conducted and supplementary information was obtained through contact with investigators who have studied the various specialized aspects of the overall problem.
Date: March 1, 1976
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Plant Research '76

Description: Overall objective remains unchanged: to contribute to the knowledge, with strong emphasis on fundamental problems, of how plants function, the roles they play in the environment and energy relations of the world, and how these roles may be optimized for the benefit of mankind. (PCS)
Date: January 1, 1976
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Design and development of a continuously variable ratio transmission for an automotive vehicle. Phase IV. Quarterly progress report

Description: Progress in the design and development of a continuously variable ratio transmission for an automotive vehicle is reported. The Major automotive hydromechanical transmission development problem continues to be the reduction of hydrostatic noise and the project plan, therefore, concentrated on the new hydrostatic module. The potential for achieving acceptably low noise levels in the second generation hydromechanical transmission is to be assessed by comparing the noise levels of the hydrostatic modules for the first and second generation transmissions. A set of twelve test points was selected comprising of road load steady state and wide-open-throttle acceleration at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 mph. The module operating conditions for the two transmissions at each of these twelve points were calculated. Baseline noise data was measured on the first generation module. The results are given testing of co-axial hydrostatic module for second generation hydromechanical transmission will be emphasized. (LCL)
Date: May 31, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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European waste-to-energy systems: case study of Geneva-Cheneviers (Switzerland)

Description: The City of Geneva, population 159,000 is the administrative center of the Canton of Geneva, population 340,000. The Canton owns a number of facilities for the treatment of waste. Geneva's chief waste treatment facility is the Cheneviers Incinerator. Two Von Roll integrated boiler incinerator furnaces have a rated capacity of 200 metric tons (220 short tons) per day each. Superheated steam at 360/sup 0/C and 32.4 bars (32 atm) powers a 6200 kW turbo-generator unit. The electricity is sold to the cantonal grid. Total incinerable waste in the Canton of Geneva has varied from 120,000 to 130,000 metric tons (132,000 to 144,000 short tons) annually during the last five years. For the last two years, total per capita tonnage have been declining. Per capita incinerable waste was 363 kilograms (800 lbs) in the year 1975, of which 257 kilograms (606 lbs) were household waste. Eighty-seven thousand, five hundred metric tons (96,386 short tons) of this waste was burned in the Cheneviers Incinerator in 1975. The remainder was landfilled, due to the lack of capacity at the incinerators. The system which began operating in 1966, cost approximately 40 million Swiss Francs ($9.3 million; 1965 or $23 million; 1976). Three-quarters of this sum was for land, buildings, construction, and equipment. A large station and dock for the transfer of waste accounted for the remainder. The Von Roll design ofthis plant is now out of date. Extensive modifications were made to correct corrosion problems in the furnace.
Date: May 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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European waste-to-energy systems. An overview

Description: The recovery of energy through the combustion of municipal solid waste is a well-established technique for conserving energy. Combustion units can produce electricity; hot water for domestic use; and steam for district heating, industrial processes, or the drying of sewage sludge. There are fewer than 20 such waste-to-energy systems in the United States. In Western Europe, however, 243 combustion units are currently recovering energy from municipal solid waste. The oldest of these facilities went into service before World War II. Some key facts about Western European countries and their waste-to-energy units are presented. The items discussed include: some common features of the Western European systems; the combustion techniques available; the end uses to which the recovered energy is put; and the economics of the systems. A tabulation of the systems currently operating or under construction in Western Europe is included. (LCL)
Date: June 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Phase 0: goal study for the technical and economic evaluation of the Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) concept applied to solar thermal and photovoltaic collectors. Final report

Description: This report presents the results of a quick, six-week technical and economic evaluation of the compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) solar collector. The purpose of this effort was to provide an initial phase of a goals study that is directed toward recommending relative priorities for development of the compound parabolic concentrator concept. The findings of this study are of a very preliminary nature. Conclusions based on study findings at this depth should be considered preliminary and subject to revision and review in later phases.
Date: June 1, 1975
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Physics of reactor safety. Quarterly report, April--June 1976. [LMFBR]

Description: Reports on reactor safety research and technical coordination of the RSR safety analysis program by members of the Reactor Safety Appraisals Group, Monte Carlo analysis of safety-related critical assembly experiments by members of the Theoretical Fast Reactor Physics Group, and planning of DEMO safety-related critical experiments by members of the Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) Planning and Experiments Group are presented.
Date: January 1, 1976
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Intertechnology Corporation proposed test and evaluation plan, commercial buildings. National Solar Demonstration Program

Description: This report has three major parts. The first of these derives the requirements for the Test and Evaluation plan from the System Level Plan which is summarized in Section II. The second part contains the proposed plan to fill these requirements and includes hardware and software recommendations as well as procedures and management considerations. Primary emphasis has been given to the remote site because this is the area in which the commercial part of the demonstration is most unique. Finally, some pre-demonstration activities are described. The pilot program is intended to resolve a number of issues which arose in the course of the T and E plan. These relate to choice of scan frequencies, compression algorithms, etc. It is also intended to confirm performance and cost effectiveness of the site data collection package. The base line measurements of attitudes, etc. provide a reference mark against which one can measure the non-technical effectiveness of the demonstration program. (WDM)
Date: September 1, 1976
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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General Electric Company survey to define impact of statewide building codes on solar HVAC systems, commercial buildings. National Solar Demonstration Program

Description: This report is the result of a state building code and solar energy law survey. The objective of the survey is to identify the potential impact of statewide building codes and solar energy laws on the solar heating and cooling of buildings. The survey is limited to building and construction related codes and solar energy laws presently issued and enforced. When knowledge of pending codes or ordinances was obtained, such information is reported. The review of the fire and safety codes were limited to their direct application with construction requirements. (WDM)
Date: July 1, 1976
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Materials Science Division coal technology ninth quarterly report, October--December 1976

Description: Research on ceramic and refractory materials is reported in sections on evaluation of ceramic refractories for slugging gasifiers nondestrictive evaluation methods for coal conversion processes, corrosion behavior of materials in coal-conversion processes, erosion of materials in coal-conversion processes, and component performance. (JRD)
Date: January 1, 1976
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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PuO/sub 2/ dissolution problem for LWR plutonium recycle and LMFBR fuels: fabrication and reprocessing problems and their resolution

Description: A survey was made of the information reported to date for laboratory-scale dissolution experiments on PuO/sub 2/-UO/sub 2/ fuels, of reprocessing plant problems that might be encountered with these fuels, and of the fabrication methods for producing these fuels. The possibility of producing fuels that will be highly soluble in pure nitric acid without resorting to the use of corrosive fluorides for complete dissolution is examined. The report concludes that production of highly soluble fuel is possible, that it is probably economically justifiable, and that fluorides are not necessary for dissolution. Highly soluble fuel would likely have minimal impact on reprocessing criticality and waste disposal problems. Reactor specifications for PuO/sub 2/-UO/sub 2/ fuels seemingly permit a greater degree of nonhomogeneity than is desirable for achieving high solubility. A fuel solubility criteria is therefore proposed that would limit the amount of insoluble PuO/sub 2/ in irradiated fuels to less than or equal to 0.01 percent of the total amount of plutonium present.
Date: July 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Study of the manufacturing costs of lead--acid batteries for peaking power. Final report for the period ending Oct. 1976

Description: A detailed study was made of a postulated 1000-MWh per year lead--acid battery business dedicated to supplying a single design of 40-MWh peaking power batteries to electric utilities. State-of-the-art industrial technology is assumed, but the manufacturing facility and business organization is tailored to the one product. Analysis of the product costs and business expenses associated with such an operation indicates that substantially lower selling prices can be realized as compared with normal industrial battery pricing. Under the low-risk conditions assumed, the selling price would be $36.90/kWh at the 4-h rate. Advanced technology would reduce the cost to $31.62/kWh. 21 figures, 31 tables. (RWR)
Date: December 1, 1976
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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