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Final report on the radiological surveys of designated DX firing sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory

Description: CHEMRAD was contracted by Los Alamos National Laboratory to perform USRADS{reg_sign} (UltraSonic Ranging And Data System) radiation scanning surveys at designated DX Sites at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The primary purpose of these scanning surveys was to identify the presence of Depleted Uranium (D-38) resulting from activities at the DX Firing Sites. This effort was conducted to update the most recent surveys of these areas. This current effort was initiated with site orientation on August 12, 1996. Surveys were completed in the field on September 4, 1996. This Executive Summary briefly presents the major findings of this work. The detail survey results are presented in the balance of this report and are organized by Technical Area and Site number in section 2. This organization is not in chronological order. USRADS and the related survey methods are described in section 3. Quality Control issues are addressed in section 4. Surveys were conducted with an array of radiation detectors either mounted on a backpack frame for man-carried use (Manual mode) or on a tricycle cart (RadCart mode). The array included radiation detectors for gamma and beta surface near surface contamination as well as dose rate at 1 meter above grade. The radiation detectors were interfaced directly to an USRADS 2100 Data Pack.
Date: September 9, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of a design-build option

Description: Development of the Nonproliferation and International Security Center (NISC) project was started originally in 1996. The NISC project is to provide 163,375 square feet of laboratory and office space for 465 technical and support staff, The total estimated cost for the facility is about sixty million dollars. DOE has a number of policies and procedures related to the authorization and construction of projects. These policies and procedures generally favor the Design, Bid and Build process. The process include the following key items: (1) Authorization to develop a Conceptual Design Report (CDR); (2) Development of the CDR; (3) Validation of the CDR; (4) Authorization and funding to design the facility; (5) Validation of the design; and (6) Authorization and funding to build the facility. This approach placed the project management team in the position of resolving conflicts between the A/E and the contractor. The project management often also has to resolve conflicts between the facility uses and the A/E and contractor. These activities often distracted from the project management`s main objectives of controlling costs, schedule, and quality assurance. The generally accepted definition of Design-Build is that it is a very condensed process ruled by a single contract between the owner and the design-build team (firm) from the beginning of the project. The main advantages to the design-build approach are single point of responsibility, accurate identification of project costs, faster delivery of facility, improved risk management, and better quality control. Each of these points will be discussed later as related to the NISC project at Los Alamos. Many of these points can be applied to other projects as well.
Date: June 1, 1999
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mixed waste storage facility CDR review, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant; Solid waste landfill CDR review, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

Description: This report consists of two papers reviewing the waste storage facility and the landfill projects proposed for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant complex. The first paper is a review of DOE`s conceptual design report for a mixed waste storage facility. This evaluation is to review the necessity of constructing a separate mixed waste storage facility. The structure is to be capable of receiving, weighing, sampling and the interim storage of wastes for a five year period beginning in 1996. The estimated cost is assessed at approximately $18 million. The review is to help comprehend and decide whether a new storage building is a feasible approach to the PGDP mixed waste storage problem or should some alternate approach be considered. The second paper reviews DOE`s conceptual design report for a solid waste landfill. This solid waste landfill evaluation is to compare costs and the necessity to provide a new landfill that would meet State of Kentucky regulations. The assessment considered funding for a ten year storage facility, but includes a review of other facility needs such as a radiation detection building, compactor/baler machinery, material handling equipment, along with other personnel and equipment storage buildings at a cost of approximately $4.1 million. The review is to help discern whether a landfill only or the addition of compaction equipment is prudent.
Date: August 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ESH Division issue management process

Description: An issue management process that effectively captures, evaluates, and dispositions issues is an important element of the LANL ESH Division`s Management Process. As part of the overall ESH Division Management Process improvement program, an approach to implementing issue management is outlined in this final report. Issues as defined in source documents, or as originally received or defined by ESH Division are called Source Issues. Through issue analysis and integration, a set of Planning Issues are defined for which resolution strategies are developed. This implementation of the Issue Management Process is outlined as follows: issue collection; issue filtering and analysis; issue evaluation and prioritization; issue resolution strategy development; and issue status communication and monitoring.
Date: November 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical support to the ER program subsurface technologies team leader. Final report, March 15, 1993--March 15, 1998

Description: This research included development of a new geologic sample management facility and associated quality assurance systems for the LANL Environmental Restoration Program. Additional work with the LANL Environmental Restoration Program included the development of Sampling and Analysis Plans (SAP) for various Operable Units for the Laboratory. The PI (Davidson) served as the sample curation/sample management specialist on the ER program Subsurface Studies Technical Team. Specialization in Field Unit Data Base systems was the focus of the work towards the end of the contract. A document is included which provides the Statement of Policy for the management of borehole samples collected during environmental restoration activities at LANL.
Date: December 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Urban security annual report for 1997

Description: The work during fiscal year 1997 focused in an effort titled ``Urban Security -- A High-Performance Computing Pilot Project.`` During this year a team was engaged representing five Laboratory divisions and a range of expertise including atmospheric and hydrologic modeling, software design, mathematics, geographic information systems (GIS), geology, and urban planning. One major part of the pilot project was to link regional atmospheric modeling with ground water models in order to assess vulnerability of urban water supplies to climate change. Another part of the pilot project was to model the transport of an airborne toxic gas, including effects of buildings on air flow, and to link this to traffic simulations for effective emergency response. Other activities were to establish connections with potential collaborators and funding agencies, as well as highlighting the project through presentations at professional meetings.
Date: March 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Freedom to mix vulnerable offensive and defensive forces

Description: The freedom to mix offense and defense to expand without diminishing either side`s second strike capability is shown to be counterproductive at large numbers of missiles; effective at intermediate numbers; and progressively less effective at modest numbers. Solutions are less stable for large second strikes.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Canavan, G. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tandem metal-mediated synthesis

Description: This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Boronic acids RB(OH){sub 2} are currently of interest for applications involving molecular recognition such as amine and sugar sensors and selective transport of biomolecules. They have also been shown to be powerful enzyme inhibitors and alpha-aminoboronic acids (ABAs) are particularly selective inhibitors of serine proteases. Unfortunately, current multistep synthetic routes to the latter compounds do not allow for the incorporation of a wide variety of organic substituents R that may lead to new, more selective enzyme inhibitors. In this work the author describes several direct routes to ABAs based on metal-catalyzed addition of diboron compounds to imines and nitriles. Several other applications of diboron additions to heteroatom-containing unsaturated organics are also described.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Baker, R.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electronic transport in unconventional superconductors

Description: The author investigates the electron transport coefficients in unconventional superconductors at low temperatures, where charge and heat transport are dominated by electron scattering from random lattice defects. He discusses the features of the pairing symmetry, Fermi surface, and excitation spectrum which are reflected in the low temperature heat transport. For temperatures {kappa}{sub B}T {approx_lt} {gamma} {much_lt} {Delta}{sub 0}, where {gamma} is the bandwidth of impurity induced Andreev states, certain eigenvalues become universal, i.e., independent of the impurity concentration and phase shift. Deep in the superconducting phase ({kappa}{sub B}T {approx_lt} {gamma}) the Wiedemann-Franz law, with Sommerfeld`s value of the Lorenz number, is recovered. He compares the results for theoretical models of unconventional superconductivity in high-{Tc} and heavy fermion superconductors with experiment. The findings show that impurities are a sensitive probe of the low-energy excitation spectrum, and that the zero-temperature limit of the transport coefficients provides an important test of the order parameter symmetry.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Graf, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiological air quality in a depleted uranium storage vault

Description: The radiological air quality of two storage vaults, one with depleted uranium (DU) and one without, was evaluated and compared. The intent of the study was to determine if the presence of stored DU would significantly contribute to the gaseous/airborne radiation level compared to natural background. Both vaults are constructed out of concrete and are dimensionally similar. The vaults are located on the first floor of the same building. Neither vault has air supply or air exhaust. The doors to both vaults remained closed during the evaluation period, except for brief and infrequent access by the operational group. One vault contained 700 KG of depleted uranium, and the other vault contained documents inside of file cabinets. Radon detectors and giraffe air samplers were used to gather data on the quantity of gaseous/airborne radionuclides in both vaults. The results of this study indicated that there was no significant difference in the quantity of gaseous/airborne radionuclides in the two vaults. This paper gives a discussion of the effects of the stored DU on the air quality, and poses several theories supporting the results.
Date: March 1, 1999
Creator: Robinson, T. & Cucchiara, A.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Explosive morphology from fractal analysis of micrographs

Description: The effect of particle size on the details of the initiation and detonation of condensed explosives has long been known. The effect of the three-dimensional nature of explosive particles as a neat pressings (with voids), or as dispersed in a second (or third) phase (with or without voids), has been the subject of many investigations of detonation phenomena. However, succinct and accurate descriptions of the compacts and pressings are difficult to achieve because the morphology and size distributions are generally altered by processing into useful configurations and densities. Three-dimensional measurements of near-full-density pressings are not easy and have not been done with great accuracy. The authors explore the analysis of various particle-size and morphological measurements using the formalisms of fractal geometry. They intend to show, by a combination of modeling and data analysis, that a three-dimensional description of the explosive, the binder, and the voids can be constructed from one- and two-dimensional measurements of surface. In the long term, they hope to correlate these descriptions with the measurements of explosive behavior.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: McAfee, J.M. & Nelson, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results on the effect of orderings on SSOR and ILU preconditionings

Description: It is known that for SSOR and ILU preconditionings for solving systems of linear equations, orderings can have an enormous impact on robustness, convergence rate and parallelism. Unfortunately, it has been observed that there is an inverse relation between the convergence rate and the parallelism of typical orderings used in practice. This paper presents some numerical experiments with simple matrices to illustrate this behavior as well as a new theoretical result which sheds some light on this phenomenon and also gives an upper bound on the convergence rate of a number of preconditioners in popular use.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Joubert, W. & Knill, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bonneville Power Administration 1998 Annual Report.

Description: This is the 1998 annual report to the President by the Administrator and Chief Executive Officer of the Bonneville Power Administration. The topics of the report include financial highlights, letter to the President, review of 1998, financial data, management`s discussion and analysis, performance measures, financial statements, BPA executives, BPA offices, BPA profile.
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: United States. Bonneville Power Administration.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On Kolmogorov's superpositions and Boolean functions

Description: The paper overviews results dealing with the approximation capabilities of neural networks, as well as bounds on the size of threshold gate circuits. Based on an explicit numerical (i.e., constructive) algorithm for Kolmogorov's superpositions they will show that for obtaining minimum size neutral networks for implementing any Boolean function, the activation function of the neurons is the identity function. Because classical AND-OR implementations, as well as threshold gate implementations require exponential size (in the worst case), it will follow that size-optimal solutions for implementing arbitrary Boolean functions require analog circuitry. Conclusions and several comments on the required precision are ending the paper.
Date: December 1998
Creator: Beiu, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Establishment of a room temperature molten salt capability to measure fundamental thermodynamic properties of actinide elements

Description: This is the final report of a six-month, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this work was to establish a capability for the measurement of fundamental thermodynamic properties of actinide elements in room temperature molten salts. This capability will be used to study in detail the actinide chloro- and oxo-coordination chemistries that dominate in the chloride-based molten salt media. Uranium will be the first actinide element under investigation.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Smith, W.H. & Costa, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Competency development in antibody production in cancer cell biology

Description: This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The main objective of this project was to develop a rapid recombinant antibody production technology. To achieve the objective, the authors employed (1) production of recombinant antigens that are important for cell cycle regulation and DNA repair, (2) immunization and specific selection of antibody-producing lymphocytes using the flow cytometry and magnetic bead capturing procedure, (3) construction of single chain antibody library, (4) development of recombinant vectors that target, express, and regulate the expression of intracellular antibodies, and (5) specific inhibition of tumor cell growth in tissue culture. The authors have accomplished (1) optimization of a selection procedure to isolate antigen-specific lymphocytes, (2) optimization of the construction of a single-chain antibody library, and (3) development of a new antibody expression vector for intracellular immunization. The future direction of this research is to continue to test the potential use of the intracellular immunization procedure as a tool to study functions of biological molecules and as an immuno-cancer therapy procedure to inhibit the growth of cancer cells.
Date: December 1, 1998
Creator: Park, M.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Numerical simulation of in situ bioremediation

Description: Models that couple subsurface flow and transport with microbial processes are an important tool for assessing the effectiveness of bioremediation in field applications. A numerical algorithm is described that differs from previous in situ bioremediation models in that it includes: both vadose and groundwater zones, unsteady air and water flow, limited nutrients and airborne nutrients, toxicity, cometabolic kinetics, kinetic sorption, subgridscale averaging, pore clogging and protozoan grazing.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Travis, B. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Deflection of large near-earth objects

Description: The Earth is periodically hit by near Earth objects (NEOs) ranging in size from dust to mountains. The small ones are a useful source of information, but those larger than about 1 km can cause global damage. The requirements for the deflection of NEOs with significant material strength are known reasonably well; however, the strength of large NEOs is not known, so those requirements may not apply. Meteor impacts on the Earth`s atmosphere give some information on strength as a function of object size and composition. This information is used here to show that large, weak objects could also be deflected efficiently, if addressed properly.
Date: January 11, 1999
Creator: Canavan, G. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The local Jahn-Teller effect in (La/Sr){sub n+1}Mn{sub n}O{sub 3n+1}

Description: Lattice polarons form an important constituent in the mechanism of magnetism and transport of the (La/Sr){sub n+1}Mn{sub n}O{sub 3n+1} (for n = 2 and {infinity}) colossal magnetoresistance manganites. The coupling of the polaronic distortions to the local Jahn-Teller (JT) effect has been characterized by the pulsed neutron pair density function (PDF) analysis. Distortions of equal magnitude to the ones found in perovskites arising from a JT effect are found in the 2-dimensional layer crystals. The coupling of the distortions to the lattice is similar in both systems suggesting that lattice polarons are formed independently to the crystal dimensionality.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Louca, D.; Kwei, G.H. & Egami, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

APT target/blanket design and thermal hydraulics

Description: The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Target/Blanket (T/B) system is comprised of an assembly of tritium producing modules supported by control, heat removal, shielding and retargeting systems. The T/B assembly produces tritium using a high-energy proton beam, a tungsten/lead spallation neutron source and {sup 3}He gas as the tritium producing feedstock. For the nominal production mode, protons are accelerated to an energy of 1030 MeV at a current of 100 mA and are directed onto the T/B assembly. The protons are expanded using a raster/expansion system to illuminate a 0.19m by 1.9m beam spot on the front face of a centrally located tungsten neutron source. A surrounding lead blanket produces additional neutrons from scattered high-energy particles. The tungsten neutron source consists of nested, Inconel-718 clad tungsten cylinders assembled in horizontal Inconel-718 tubes. Each tube contains up to 6 cylinders with annular flow channel gaps of 0.102 cm. These horizontal tubes are manifolded into larger diameter vertical inlet and outlet pipes, which provide coolant. The horizontal and vertical tubes make up a structure similar to that of rungs on a ladder. The entire tungsten neutron source consists of 11 such ladders separated into two modules, one containing five ladders and the other six. Ladders are separated by a 0.3 m void region to increase nucleon leakage. The peak thermal-hydraulic conditions in the tungsten neutron source occur in the second ladder from the front. Because tungsten neutron source design has a significant number of parallel flow channels, the limiting thermal-hydraulic parameter is the onset of significant void (OSV) rather than critical heat flux (CHF). A blanket region surrounds the tungsten neutron source. The lateral blanket region is approximately 120 cm thick and 400 cm high. Blanket material consists of lead, {sup 3}He gas, aluminum, and light-water coolant. The blanket region is subdivided ...
Date: April 1, 1999
Creator: Cappiello, M.; Pitcher, E. & Pasamehmetoglu, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Urban Security Initiative: Earthquake impacts on the urban ``system of systems``

Description: This paper is a discussion of how to address the problems of disasters in a large city, a project titled Urban Security Initiative undertaken by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The paper first discusses the need to address the problems of disasters in large cities and ten provides a framework that is suitable to address this problem. The paper then provides an overview of the module of the project that deals with assessment of earthquake damage on urban infrastructure in large cities and an internet-based approach for consensus building leading to better coordination in the post-disaster period. Finally, the paper discusses the future direction of the project.
Date: June 1, 1999
Creator: Maheshwari, S.; Jones, E. & Rasmussen, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Discussion of long-range weather prediction

Description: A group of scientists at Los Alamos have held a series of discussions of the issues in and prospects for improvements in Long-range Weather Predictions Enabled by Proving of the Atmosphere at High Space-Time Resolution. The group contained the requisite skills for a full evaluation, although this report presents only an informal discussion of the main technical issues. The group discussed all aspects of the proposal, which are grouped below into the headings: (1) predictability; (2) sensors and satellites, (3) DIAL and atmospheric sensing; (4) localized transponders; and (5) summary and integration. Briefly, the group agreed that the relative paucity of observations of the state of the atmosphere severely inhibits the accuracy of weather forecasts, and any program that leads to a more dense and uniform observational network is welcome. As shown in Long-range Weather more dense and uniform observational network is welcome. As shown in Long-range Weather Predictions, the pay-back of accurate long-range forecasts should more than justify the expenditure associated with improved observations and forecast models required. The essential step is to show that the needed technologies are available for field test and space qualification.
Date: September 10, 1998
Creator: Canavan, G. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary studies for a high energy neutron area monitor

Description: Track etch detectors were exposed to neutrons produced by a spallation target struck by a beam of 800 MeV protons. The fields were filtered by 0, 10, and 40 centimeters of polyethylene. The track etch dosimeters were exposed on a polyethylene phantom. The dosimeters were exposed bare and behind lead filters of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25 and 1.50 cm of lead with the face of the dosimeter perpendicular to the beam and bare and behind lead filters of 0.50, 1.0, and 1.5 cm of lead with angle of incidence 45{degree} and 75{degree}. Monte Carlo calculations of these experimental configurations were done using MCNP and LAHET with input from the calculated spectra. These results are compared with the experimental results to understand the basic processes involved in the production of tracks with high energy neutrons and develop a high energy neutron area monitor.
Date: December 1, 1998
Creator: Devine, R.T. & Hsu, H.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flare star monitoring with a new photon-counting imaging detector

Description: This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A search for faint time-varying optical signals from the nighttime sky has been conducted in parallel with the programmatic development of a new type of imaging detector. This detector combines high spatial and high temporal resolution with single-photon-counting sensitivity over a 40-mm diameter large-area format. It is called a microchannel plate with crossed delay line readout, or MCP/CDL, and is placed in the focal plane of a telescope to collect time-resolved images from objects such as flaring stars and other astrophysical transient sources. A short-lived prototype MCP/CDL was used to provide the initial stellar images for this project, but the author could not generate any extended database with which to characterize flare star populations. Consequently, a supplementary experimental search for optical transients was begun, utilizing the NASA 3-meter-aperture Liquid Mirror Telescope (LMT) facility in Cloudcroft, NM.
Date: December 1997
Creator: Casperson, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department