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Development of a Future Representative Concentration Pathway for Use in the IPCC 5th Assessment Earth System Model Simulations

Description: The representative concentration pathway to be delivered is a scenario of atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases and other radiatively important atmospheric species, along with land-use changes, derived from the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). The particular representative concentration pathway (RCP) that the Joint Global Change Research Institute (JGCRI) has been responsible for is a not-to-exceed pathway that stabilizes at a radiative forcing of 4.5Wm-2 in the year 2100.
Date: December 29, 2010
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser Cutting and Size Reduction. Innovative Technology Summary Report

Description: The project utilizes a Neodymium Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser to cut and size reduce equipment in the 324 Laboratory B Hot Cell located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This project will demonstrate the ability of the Nd:Yag laser to remotely and safely dismantle equipment faster, cheaper, and more efficiently than baseline cutting methods, such as the plasma torch and the water knife, in a highly radioactive area using fiber optics.
Date: September 2001
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waste Crate and Container Imaging Using the Vehicle and Cargo Inspection System. Innovative Technology Summary Report

Description: The Vehicle and Cargo Inspection System (VACIS) is a highly penetrating gamma ray imaging system that provides a means to non-invasively image crate contents prior to crate disassembly. The VACIS unit uses a 1.6 Curie collimated source (Cesium-137) aimed at a linear detector to create an image as the unit passes by the crate. In the demonstrated mobile unit, the source and detector were mounted on a boom truck. As the crate passed between the source and detector, a near real-time composite image of the contents was constructed from the linear image of the VACIS unit's on board computer and recorded on disk.
Date: July 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

AEA Fluidic Pulse Jet Mixer. Innovative Technology Summary Report

Description: AEA's Fluidic Pulse Jet Mixer was developed to mix and maintain the suspension of solids and to blend process liquids. The mixer can be used to combine a tank's available supernate with the sludge into a slurry that is suitable for pumping. The system uses jet nozzles in the tank coupled to a charge vessel. Then, a jet pump creates a partial vacuum in the charge vessel allowing it to be filled with waste. Next, air pressure is applied to the charge vessel, forcing sludge back into the tank and mixing it with the liquid waste. When the liquid waste contains 10% solids, a batch is pumped out of the tank.
Date: August 1999
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

915-MHz Radar Wind Profiler (915RWP) Handbook

Description: The 915 MHz radar wind profiler/radio acoustic sounding system (RWP/RASS) measures wind profiles and backscattered signal strength between (nominally) 0.1 km and 5 km and virtual temperature profiles between 0.1 km and 2.5 km. It operates by transmitting electromagnetic energy into the atmosphere and measuring the strength and frequency of backscattered energy. Virtual temperatures are recovered by transmitting an acoustic signal vertically and measuring the electromagnetic energy scattered from the acoustic wavefront. Because the propagation speed of the acoustic wave is proportional to the square root of the virtual temperature of the air, the virtual temperature can be recovered by measuring the Doppler shift of the scattered electromagnetic wave.
Date: January 1, 2005
Creator: Coulter, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Handbook

Description: The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) is a suite of in situ surface measurements of aerosol optical and cloud-forming properties. The instruments measure aerosol properties that influence the earth’s radiative balance. The primary optical measurements are those of the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients as a function of particle size and radiation wavelength and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements as a function of percent supersaturation. Additional measurements include those of the particle number concentration and scattering hygroscopic growth. Aerosol optical measurements are useful for calculating parameters used in radiative forcing calculations such as the aerosol single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, mass scattering efficiency, and hygroscopic growth. CCN measurements are important in cloud microphysical models to predict droplet formation.
Date: January 17, 2011
Creator: Jefferson, A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Total Sky Imager (TSI) Handbook

Description: The total sky imager (TSI) provides time series of hemispheric sky images during daylight hours and retrievals of fractional sky cover for periods when the solar elevation is greater than 10 degrees.
Date: June 1, 2005
Creator: Morris, VR
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tower Camera Handbook

Description: The tower camera in Barrow provides hourly images of ground surrounding the tower. These images may be used to determine fractional snow cover as winter arrives, for comparison with the albedo that can be calculated from downward-looking radiometers, as well as some indication of present weather. Similarly, during spring time, the camera images show the changes in the ground albedo as the snow melts. The tower images are saved in hourly intervals. In addition, two other cameras, the skydeck camera in Barrow and the piling camera in Atqasuk, show the current conditions at those sites.
Date: January 1, 2005
Creator: Moudry, D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tower Temperature and Humidity Sensors (TWR) Handbook

Description: Three tall towers are installed at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility: a 60-meter triangular tower at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (CF), a 21-meter walkup scaffolding tower at the SGP Okmulgee forest site (E21), and a 40-meter triangular tower at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Barrow site. The towers are used for meteorological, radiological, and other measurements.
Date: February 1, 2010
Creator: Cook, DR
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report April 1–June 30, 2011

Description: Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.
Date: July 25, 2011
Creator: Voyles, JW
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Barrow Meteoroloigcal Station (BMET) Handbook

Description: The Barrow meteorology station (BMET) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors mounted at four different heights on a 40 m tower to obtain profiles of wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, and humidity. It also obtains barometric pressure, visibility, and precipitation data.
Date: November 1, 2004
Creator: Ritsche, MT
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems (CO2Flux) Handbook

Description: The Southern Great Plains (SGP) carbon dioxide flux (CO2 flux) measurement systems provide half-hour average fluxes of CO2, H2O (latent heat), and sensible heat. The fluxes are obtained by the eddy covariance technique, which computes the flux as the mean product of the vertical wind component with CO2 and H2O densities, or estimated virtual temperature. A three-dimensional sonic anemometer is used to obtain the orthogonal wind components and the virtual (sonic) temperature. An infrared gas analyzer is used to obtain the CO2 and H2O densities. A separate sub-system also collects half-hour average measures of meteorological and soil variables from separate 4-m towers.
Date: January 1, 2005
Creator: Fischer, M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chilled Mirror Dew Point Hygrometer (CM) Handbook

Description: The CM systems have been developed for the ARM Program to act as a moisture standard traceable to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). There are three CM systems that are each fully portable, self-contained, and require only 110 V AC power. The systems include a CM sensor, air sampling and filtration system, a secondary reference (Rotronic HP043 temperature and relative humidity sensor) to detect system malfunctions, a data acquisition system, and data storage for more than one month of 1-minute data. The CM sensor directly measures dew point temperature at 1 m, air temperature at 2 m, and relative humidity at 2 m. These measurements are intended to represent self-standing data streams that can be used independently or in combinations.
Date: January 1, 2005
Creator: Ritsche, MT
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cimel Sunphotometer (CSPHOT) Handbook

Description: The Cimel sunphotometer (CSPHOT) is a multi-channel, automatic sun-and-sky scanning radiometer that measures the direct solar irradiance and sky radiance at the Earth’s surface. Measurements are taken at pre-determined discrete wavelengths in the visible and near-IR parts of the spectrum to determine atmospheric transmission and scattering properties. This instrument is weather-proof and requires little maintenance during periods of adverse weather conditions. It takes measurements only during daylight hours (sun above horizon).
Date: January 17, 2011
Creator: Gregory, L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook

Description: The main function of the CO instrument is to provide continuous accurate measurements of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at the ARM SGP Central Facility (CF) 60-meter tower (36.607 °N, 97.489 °W, 314 meters above sea level). The essential feature of the control and data acquisition system is to record signals from a Thermo Electron 48C and periodically calibrate out zero and span drifts in the instrument using the combination of a CO scrubber and two concentrations of span gas (100 and 300 ppb CO in air). The system was deployed on May 25, 2005.
Date: February 23, 2011
Creator: Biraud, S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Disdrometer and Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge Handbook

Description: The Distromet disdrometer model RD-80 and NovaLynx tipping bucket rain gauge model 260-2500E-12 are two devices deployed a few meters apart to measure the character and amount of liquid precipitation. The main purpose of the disdrometer is to measure drop size distribution, which it does over 20 size classes from 0.3 mm to 5.4 mm. The data from both instruments can be used to determine rain rate. The disdrometer results can also be used to infer several properties including drop number density, radar reflectivity, liquid water content, and energy flux. Two coefficients, N0 and Λ, from an exponential fit between drop diameter and drop number density, are routinely calculated. Data are collected once a minute. The instruments make completely different kinds of measurements. Rain that falls on the disdrometer sensor moves a plunger on a vertical axis. The disdrometer transforms the plunger motion into electrical impulses whose strength is proportional to drop diameter. The rain gauge is the conventional tipping bucket type. Each tip collects an amount equivalent to 0.01 in. of water, and each tip is counted by a data acquisition system anchored by a Campbell CR1000 data logger.
Date: December 1, 2009
Creator: MJ, Bartholomew.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System (ECOR) Handbook

Description: The eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement system provides in situ, half-hour measurements of the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide (CO2) (and methane at one Southern Great Plains extended facility (SGP EF) and the North Slope of Alaska Central Facility (NSA CF). The fluxes are obtained with the eddy covariance technique, which involves correlation of the vertical wind component with the horizontal wind component, the air temperature, the water vapor density, and the CO2 concentration.
Date: January 31, 2011
Creator: Cook, DR
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station (EBBR) Handbook

Description: The energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.
Date: February 23, 2011
Creator: Cook, DR
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Handbook

Description: The Microwave Radiometer (MWR) provides time-series measurements of column-integrated amounts of water vapor and liquid water. The instrument itself is essentially a sensitive microwave receiver. That is, it is tuned to measure the microwave emissions of the vapor and liquid water molecules in the atmosphere at specific frequencies.
Date: August 1, 2006
Creator: Morris, VR
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department