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Glass--Industry of the Future; Industrial Partnerships: Advancing Energy and Environmental Goals

Description: This tri-fold brochure describe the partnering activities of the Office of Industrial Technologies' (OIT) Industries of the Future (IOF) for Glass. Information on what works for the Glass industry, examples of successful partnerships, and benefits of partnering with OIT are included.
Date: February 12, 2001
Creator: United States. Department of Energy. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Office of Industrial Technologies.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT): Profiles and Partnerships

Description: A 126-page brochure that describes the Office of Industrial Technologies' (OIT) Industries of the Future (IOF) Strategy. Through the IOF initiatives, OIT partners with the nation's nine most energy intensive industries to improve their energy and cost efficiencies.
Date: January 17, 2001
Creator: United States. Department of Energy. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Office of Industrial Technologies.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Steam Energy Tips Fact Sheet

Description: BestPractices Steam tip sheet about recovering low-pressure steam by flashing high-pressure condensates in plant-wide steam systems.
Date: May 11, 2001
Creator: United States. Department of Energy. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Office of Industrial Technologies.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Suspension Hydrogen Reduction of Iron Oxide Concentrates

Description: The objective of the project is to develop a new ironmaking technology based on hydrogen and fine iron oxide concentrates in a suspension reduction process. The ultimate objective of the new technology is to replace the blast furnace and to drastically reduce CO2 emissions in the steel industry. The goals of this phase of development are; the performance of detailed material and energy balances, thermochemical and equilibrium calculations for sulfur and phosphorus impurities, the determination of the complete kinetics of hydrogen reduction and bench-scale testing of the suspension reduction process using a large laboratory flash reactor.
Date: March 31, 2008
Creator: Sohn, H. Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corrosion Monitoring System

Description: The Corrosion Monitoring System (CMS) program developed and demonstrated a continuously on-line system that provides real-time corrosion information. The program focused on detecting pitting corrosion in its early stages. A new invention called the Intelligent Ultrasonic Probe (IUP) was patented on the program. The IUP uses ultrasonic guided waves to detect small defects and a Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT) algorithm to provide an image of the pits. Testing of the CMS demonstrated the capability to detect pits with dimensionality in the sub-millimeter range. The CMS was tested in both the laboratory and in a pulp and paper industrial plant. The system is capable of monitoring the plant from a remote location using the internet.
Date: October 31, 2004
Creator: Braunling, Russ
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potlining Additives

Description: In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.
Date: August 10, 2004
Creator: Keller, Rudolf
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High Value Scrap Tire Recycle

Description: The objectives of this project were to further develop and scale-up a novel technology for reuse of scrap tire rubber, to identify and develop end uses for the technology (products), and to characterize the technology's energy savings and environmental impact.
Date: February 1, 2003
Creator: Bauman, B. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Elimination or Minimization of Oscillation Marks: A Path To Improved Cast Surface Quality

Description: Oscillation marks are the most recognizable feature of continuous casting and can be related to the subsurface defects that can be found on product rolled from continuous cast slabs. The purpose of this work was to develop strategies that can be used on industrial continuous casters to reduce oscillation mark depth and, in particular, to minimize the formation of hook type defects that are prevalent on ultra low carbon grades. The major focus of the work was on developing a technique to allow heat transfer in the meniscus region of the continuous caster to be measured and the effect of mold slag chemistry and chrystallization to be documented. A new experimental technique was developed that allowed the effect of mold flux chemistry and chrystallization on the radiation heat transfer rate to be measured dynamically.
Date: December 17, 2007
Creator: Cramb, Dr. Alan W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

GE Appliance Park Louisville, KY Plant Wide Assessment Final Report October 25th, 2007

Description: Used a team of experts to analyze and model major systems at a large industrial appliance manufacturer. During the data gathering stage, the team specifically looked for baselining the efficiency of the systems as well as developing short term and longer term efficiency projects. Electrical distribution, Compressed air generation and thermal heat recovery for the production facility and front office heating and cooling optimization were all baselined during the study.
Date: October 25, 2007
Creator: Rao, Chandon & Urschel, Richard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Louisiana Industrial Assessment Center--Final Technical Report

Description: This is the Final Report for the Louisiana Industrial Assessment Center for the period of 9/1/2002 through 11/30/2006, although we were still gathering data through 02/16/2007. During this period, our Industrial Assessment Center completed 109 energy assessments for manufacturing firms in our area, offered 3 Save Energy Workshops, taught 26 students (9 graduate and 17 undergraduate) energy management savings techniques and offered an Energy Management Graduate class three times. These 109 energy assessments made a total of 738 energy savings recommendations, 33 waste reduction recommendations, and 108 productivity improvement recommendations. These combined recommendations would save client companies more than $87,741,221.16, annually at the then current energy costs. If all of these recommendations were implemented separately, the implementation cost would have been $34,113,482.10 or a Simple Payback Period, SPP=4.7 months. Between 9 months and 12 months after the assessment, we surveyed the manufacturing firms to find out what they implemented. They had implemented approximately 50 percent of our recommendations at an annual saving of $25,867,613.18. The three Save Energy Workshops had an average attendance of twelve individuals. The three graduate Energy Management courses had an average attendance of eleven students.
Date: October 17, 2007
Creator: Kozman, Dr. Theodore A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Molten Metal Treatment by Salt Fluxing with Low Environmental Emissions

Description: Abstract: Chlorine gas is traditionally used for fluxing of aluminum melt for removal of alkali and alkaline earth elements. However this results in undesirable emissions of particulate matter and gases such as HCl and chlorine, which are often at unacceptable levels. Additionally, chlorine gas is highly toxic and its handling, storage, and use pose risks to employees and the local community. Holding of even minimal amounts of chlorine necessitates extensive training for all plant employees. Fugitive emissions from chlorine usage within the plant cause accelerated corrosion of plant equipment. The Secondary Aluminum Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) under the Clean Air Act, finalized in March 2000 has set very tough new limits on particulate matter (PM) and total hydrogen chloride emissions from aluminum melting and holding furnaces. These limits are 0.4 and 0.1 lbs per ton of aluminum for hydrogen chloride and particulate emissions, respectively. Assuming new technologies for meeting these limits can be found, additional requirements under the Clean Air Act (Prevention of Significant Deterioration and New Source Review) trigger Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for new sources with annual emissions (net emissions not expressed per ton of production) over specified amounts. BACT currently is lime coated bag-houses for control of particulate and HCl emissions. These controls are expensive, difficult to operate and maintain, and result in reduced American competitiveness in the global economy. Solid salt fluxing is emerging as a viable option for the replacement of chlorine gas fluxing, provided emissions can be consistently maintained below the required levels. This project was a cooperative effort between the Ohio State University and Alcoa to investigate and optimize the effects of solid chloride flux addition in molten metal for alkali impurity and non-metallic inclusion removal minimizing dust and toxic emissions and maximizing energy conservation. In this program, the salt metal ...
Date: July 31, 2007
Creator: Sahai, Yogeshwar
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final report on the project entitled: Highly Preheated Combustion Air System with/without Oxygen Enrichment for Metal Processing Furnaces

Description: This work develops and demonstrates a laboratory-scale high temperature natural gas furnace that can operate with/without oxygen enrichment to significantly improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions. The laboratory-scale is 5ft in diameter & 8ft tall. This furnace was constructed and tested. This report demonstrates the efficiency and pollutant prevention capabilities of this test furnace. The project also developed optical detection technology to control the furnace output.
Date: February 16, 2007
Creator: Atreya, Arvind
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carpet As An Alternative Fuel in Cement Kilns

Description: Approximately 5 billion lbs of carpet will be removed from buildings in the US each year for the foreseeable future. This carpet is potentially a valuable resource because it contains plastic in the face of the carpet that can be re-used. However, there are many different types of carpet, and at least four major different plastics used to make the face. The face is woven through a backing fabric and held in place by a “glue” that is in most cases a latex cross-linked polymer which is heavily loaded with chalk (calcium carbonate). This backing has almost no value as a recycled material. In addition, carpet is a bulky material that is difficult to handle and ship and must be kept dry. It would be of significant benefit to the public if this stream of material could be kept out of landfills and some of its potential value unlocked by having high volume alternatives for recycled carpet use. The research question that this project investigated was whether carpet could be used as a fuel in a cement kiln. If this could be done successfully, there is significant capacity in the US cement industry to absorb carpet and use it as a fuel. Cement kilns could serve as a way to stimulate carpet collection and then side streams be taken for higher value uses. The research demonstrated that carpet was technically a suitable fuel, but was unable to conclude that the overall system could be economically feasible at this time with the constraints placed on the project by using an existing system for feeding the kiln. Collection and transportation were relatively straightforward, using an existing collector who had the capacity to collect high volumes of material. The shredding of the carpet into a suitable form for feeding was more challenging, but ...
Date: February 6, 2007
Creator: Realff, Matthew J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fast Curing of Composite Wood Products

Description: The overall objective of this program is to develop low temperature curing technologies for UF and PF resins. This will be accomplished by: • Identifying the rate limiting UF and PF curing reactions for current market resins; • Developing new catalysts to accelerate curing reactions at reduced press temperatures and times. In summary, these new curing technologies will improve the strength properties of the composite wood products and minimize the detrimental effects of wood extractives on the final product while significantly reducing energy costs for wood composites. This study is related to the accelerated curing of resins for wood composites such as medium density fiberboard (MDF), particle board (PB) and oriented strandboard (OSB). The latter is frequently manufactured with a phenol-formaldehyde resin whereas ureaformaldehyde (UF) resins are usually used in for the former two grades of composite wood products. One of the reasons that hinder wider use of these resins in the manufacturing of wood composites is the slow curing speed as well as inferior bondability of UF resin. The fast curing of UP and PF resins has been identified as an attractive process development that would allow wood to be bonded at higher moisture contents and at lower press temperatures that currently employed. Several differing additives have been developed to enhance cure rates of PF resins including the use of organic esters, lactones and organic carbonates. A model compound study by Conner, Lorenz and Hirth (2002) employed 2- and 4-hydroxymethylphenol with organic esters to examine the chemical basis for the reported enhanced reactivity. Their studies suggested that the enhance curing in the presence of esters could be due to enhanced quinone methide formation or enhanced intermolecular SN2 reactions. In either case the esters do not function as true catalysts as they are consumed in the reaction and were not ...
Date: April 26, 2006
Creator: Ragauskas, Dr. Arthur J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Technical Report - High-Performance, Oxide-Dispersion-Strengthened Tubes for Production of Ethylene adn Other Industrial Chemicals

Description: This project was undertaken by Michigan Technological University and Special Metals Corporation to develop creep-resistant, coking-resistant oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) tubes for use in industrial-scale ethylene pyrolysis and steam methane reforming operations. Ethylene pyrolysis tubes are exposed to some of the most severe service conditions for metallic materials found anywhere in the chemical process industries, including elevated temperatures, oxidizing atmospheres and high carbon potentials. During service, hard deposits of carbon (coke) build up on the inner wall of the tube, reducing heat transfer and restricting the flow of the hydrocarbon feedstocks. About every 20 to 60 days, the reactor must be taken off-line and decoked by burning out the accumulated carbon. This decoking costs on the order of $9 million per year per ethylene plant, accelerates tube degradation, and requires that tubes be replaced about every 5 years. The technology developed under this program seeks to reduce the energy and economic cost of coking by creating novel bimetallic tubes offering a combination of improved coking resistance, creep resistance and fabricability not available in current single-alloy tubes. The inner core of this tube consists of Incoloy(R) MA956, a commercial ferritic Fe-Cr-Al alloy offering a 50% reduction in coke buildup combined with improved carburization resistance. The outer sheath consists of a new material - oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Alloy 803(R) developed under the program. This new alloy retains the good fireside environmental resistance of Alloy 803, a commercial wrought alloy currently used for ethylene production, and provides an austenitic casing to alleviate the inherently-limited fabricability of the ferritic Incoloy(R) MA956 core. To provide mechanical compatibility between the two alloys and maximize creep resistance of the bimetallic tube, both the inner Incoloy(R) MA956 and the outer ODS Alloy 803 are oxide dispersion strengthened materials produced using mechanical alloying technology. To minimize cost, the bimetallic tube ...
Date: April 6, 2006
Creator: McKimpson, Marvin G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A New Process for Hot Metal Production at Low Fuel Rate - Phase 1 Feasibility Study

Description: The project is part of the continuing effort by the North American steel industry to develop a coal-based, cokeless process for hot metal production. The objective of Phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of designing and constructing a pilot scale facility with the capacity of 42,000 mtpy of direct reduced iron (DRI) with 95% metallization. The primary effort is performed by Bricmont, Inc., an international engineering firm, under the supervision of McMaster University. The study focused on the Paired Straight Hearth furnace concept developed previously by McMaster University, The American Iron and Steel Institute and the US Department of Energy.
Date: February 1, 2006
Creator: Lu, Dr. Wei-Kao
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Technical Report

Description: The objective of the research is the reduction of emissions of NOx and carbon from wood waste combustion and dryer systems. Focus in on suspension (dust) burners, especially the cyclone burners that are widely used in the industry. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to help understand the details of combustion and pollutant formation in wood waste combustion systems, and to help determine the potential of combustion modification for reducing emissions. Field burners are examined with the modeling.
Date: November 30, 2004
Creator: Malte, Philip
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrochromic Windows: Advanced Processing Technology

Description: This project addresses the development of advanced fabrication capabilities for energy saving electrochromic (EC) windows. SAGE EC windows consist of an inorganic stack of thin films deposited onto a glass substrate. The window tint can be reversibly changed by the application of a low power dc voltage. This property can be used to modulate the amount of light and heat entering buildings (or vehicles) through the glazings. By judicious management of this so-called solar heat gain, it is possible to derive significant energy savings due to reductions in heating lighting, and air conditioning (HVAC). Several areas of SAGE’s production were targeted during this project to allow significant improvements to processing throughput, yield and overall quality of the processing, in an effort to reduce the cost and thereby improve the market penetration. First, the overall thin film process was optimized to allow a more robust set of operating points to be used, thereby maximizing the yield due to the thin film deposition themselves. Other significant efforts aimed at improving yield were relating to implementing new procedures and processes for the manufacturing process, to improve the quality of the substrate preparation, and the quality of the IGU fabrication. Furthermore, methods for reworking defective devices were developed, to enable devices which would otherwise be scrapped to be made into useful product. This involved the in-house development of some customized equipment. Finally, the improvements made during this project were validated to ensure that they did not impact the exceptional durability of the SageGlass® products. Given conservative estimates for cost and market penetration, energy savings due to EC windows in residences in the US are calculated to be of the order 0.026 quad (0.026×1015BTU/yr) by the year 2017.
Date: December 13, 2006
Creator: Sage Electrochromics, Inc.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Distributed Wireless Multi-Sensor Technologies, A Novel Approach to Reduce Motor Energy Usage

Description: This report is the final report for the General Electric Distributed Wireless Multi-Sensor Technologies project. The report covers the research activities and benefits surrounding wireless technology used for industrial sensing applications. The main goal of this project was to develop wireless sensor technology that would be commercialized and adopted by industry for a various set of applications. Many of these applications will yield significant energy savings. One application where there was significant information to estimate a potential energy savings was focused on equipment condition monitoring and in particular electric motor monitoring. The results of the testing of the technology developed are described in this report along with the commercialization activities and various new applications and benefits realized.
Date: March 28, 2008
Creator: Sexton, Daniel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

American Institute of Chemical Engineers Final report for Office of Industrial Technologies, U.S. Department of Energy. Collaborative research (DE-FC02-94CE41107) [Technology transfer and educational activities in the area of industrial waste reduction and pollution prevention]

Description: The report discusses various programs undertaken by various industry consortia to develop tools and methodologies useful for driving energy efficiency and pollution prevention initiatives.
Date: January 1, 2003
Creator: Rogers, Joseph E.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Report for DOE Project DE-FC07-99CH11010

Description: Department of Energy award number DE-FC07-99CH11010, Enhanced Utilization of Corn Based Biomaterials, supported a technology development program sponsored by Cargill Dow LLC from September 30, 1999 through June 30, 2003. The work involved fundamental scientific studies on poly lactic acid (PLA), a new environmentally benign plastic material from renewable resources. DOE funds supported academic research at the Colorado School of Mines and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and industry cost share was directed towards applied research into new product development utilizing the fundamental information generated by the academic partners. Under the arrangement of the grant, the fundamental information is published so that other companies can utilize it in evaluating the applicability of PLA in their own products. The overall project objective is to increase the utilization of PLA, a renewable resource based plastic, currently produced from fermented corn sugar.
Date: October 22, 2003
Creator: Randall, Jed & Kean, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intelligent Potroom Operation

Description: The Intelligent Potroom Operation project focuses on maximizing the performance of an aluminum smelter by innovating components for an intelligent manufacturing system. The Intelligent Potroom Advisor (IPA) monitors process data to identify reduction cells exhibiting behaviors that require immediate attention. It then advises operational personnel on those heuristic-based actions to bring the cell back to an optimal operating state in order to reduce the duration and frequency of substandard reduction cell performance referred to as ''Off-Peak Modes'' (OPMs). Techniques developed to identify cells exhibiting OPMs include the use of a finite element model-based cell state estimator for defining the cell's current operating state via advanced cell noise analyses. In addition, rule induction was also employed to identify statistically significant complex behaviors that occur prior to OPMs. The intelligent manufacturing system design, concepts and formalisms developed in this project w ere used as a basis for an intelligent manufacturing system design. Future research will incorporate an adaptive component to automate continuous process improvement, a technology platform with the potential to improve process performance in many of the other Industries of the Future applications as well.
Date: July 29, 2003
Creator: Berkow, Jan & Banta, Larry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recovery of Valuable Chlorosilane Intermediates by a Novel Waste Conversion Process, Phase IIIB (Progress)

Description: From June 1998 through September 1999, direct process residue (DPR, a waste byproduct) hydrogenolysis has been studied at a large pilot plant within Dow Corning's Carrollton, KY, facility. The system reacts filtered DPR with chlorosilane monomers at high temperature and pressure. The process routinely demonstrates DPR conversions from 59% to 89% on a monthly basis. The reaction product contains high concentrations of valuable monomers such as dimethyldichlorosilane and methyldichlorosilane. An expansion of the current unit's capacity is planned to be on-line by the end of CY2000. Furthermore, a larger DPR hydrogenolysis reactor based on these results is being designed for operation in Europe at Dow Corning's Barry, Wales, site.
Date: March 31, 2000
Creator: Anderson, Kurt E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department