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A study of particle generation during laser ablation withapplications

Description: A study has been made of the generation of particles during laser ablation and has included size distribution measurements and observation of the formation processes. The particle size distribution with respect to different laser parameters was obtained in-line using a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and a particle counter. The experimental results show that the particle size varies with laser energy, laser pulsewidth, ambient gas flow rate and sample properties. The results serve as a basis for controlling the size of nanoparticles generated by laser ablation. Laser shadowgraph imaging was used to study mass ejection processes and mechanisms. At higher laser irradiance, some particles were ejected in the liquid and even in the solid phase. Time-resolved images show the propagation of the shockwaves: external shockwaves propagate outward and decelerate, and internal shockwaves reflect back and forth between the gas contact surface and the sample surface. The internal shockwave is proposed to cause the ejection of liquid particles when the internal shockwave strikes the liquid molten layer. A simulation based on vapor plume expansion was carried out and provides satisfactory agreement with experimental results. Different material properties result in different particle ejection behavior:particle ejection for most materials including metals result in a conically shaped envelope for the ejected material while ejection for silicon resembles a liquid jet. The difference in density change when the materials melt was proposed to be an important factor in the different ejection behavior. The characteristics of particles generated by laser ablation have a strong influence on the chemical analysis of the irradiated sample. Large particles are more difficult to completely vaporize and ionize, and induced preferential vaporization causes fractionation (i.e. a detected chemical composition that differs from the sample material). Large particles also result in spikes in measurements using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) which result ...
Date: August 12, 2005
Creator: Liu, Chunyi
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Popular Berkeley Lab X-ray Data Booklet reissued

Description: X-ray scientists and synchrotron-radiation users who have been patiently waiting for an updated version of the popular X-Ray Data Booklet last published in 1986 by the Center for X-Ray Optics at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory can breathe a sigh of relief. The venerable ''little orange book'' has now been reissued under the auspices of CXRO and the Advanced Light Source (ALS) with an April printing of 10,000 paper copies and the posting of a Web edition at http://xdb.lbl.gov.
Date: March 2, 2001
Creator: Robinson, Art
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal Effects During CO2 Leakage from a Geologic Storage Reservoir

Description: Leakage of CO2 from a geologic storage reservoir along an idealized fault zone has been simulated, including transitions between supercritical, liquid, and gaseous CO2. We find strong non-isothermal effects and nonmonotonic leakage behavior, due to an interplay between multiphase flow and heat transfer effects.
Date: June 30, 2004
Creator: Pruess, Karsten
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

lightsources.org: An Internet Site for Light SourceCommunication

Description: Research at the world's accelerator- (storage-ring and linac) based light sources is one of the most dynamic and rapidly growing fields of science. It frequently results in direct benefits to society, thereby demonstrating the value of the research with very concrete examples, but this is not widely understood or appreciated outside of the immediate user community. Our growing group of light source communicators from facilities in Europe, Asia, and the Americas, inspired by the Interactions.org Web site created by high-energy (elementary-particle)physics communicators, concluded that a light source community Web site (lightsources.org) would be the best tool for establishing effective collaboration between the communications offices of the world's light sources and to maximize the impact of our efforts. We envision lightsources.org to serve as a one-stop-shopping site for information about all aspects of light sources and the research they make possible. Audiences to be served include science communicators, the press, policymakers, the light source community, the wider scientific community, the science-interested public, and students and educators. Our proposal has been sent to the world's light source facility directors by J. Murray Gibson (APS) and William G. Stirling (ESRF). As a result,light sources.org is now being supported by a growing list of facilities from Europe, North America, and Asia. We hope to launch lightsources.org before the end of 2004.
Date: October 4, 2004
Creator: Robinson, Art
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Indispensable tool

Description: Synchrotron radiation has become an indispensable research tool for a growing number of scientists in a seemingly ever expanding number of disciplines. We can thank the European Synchrotron Research Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble for taking an innovative step toward achieving the educational goal of explaining the nature and benefits of synchrotron radiation to audiences ranging from the general public (including students) to government officials to scientists who may be unfamiliar with x-ray techniques and synchrotron radiation. ESRF is the driving force behind a new CD-ROM playable on both PCs and Macs titled Synchrotron light to explore matter. Published by Springer-Verlag, the CD contains both English and French versions of a comprehensive overview of the subject.
Date: August 10, 2001
Creator: Robinson, Arthur
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Five-dimensional Hamiltonian-Jacobi approach to relativistic quantum mechanics

Description: A novel theory is outlined for describing the dynamics of relativistic electrons and positrons. By introducing the Lorentz-invariant universal time as a fifth independent variable, the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism of classical mechanics is extended from three to four spatial dimensions. This approach allows one to incorporate gravitation and spin interactions in the extended five-dimensional Lagrangian in a covariant form. The universal time has the function of a hidden Bell parameter. By employing the method of variation with respect to the four coordinates of the particle and the components of the electromagnetic field, the path equation and the electromagnetic field produced by the charge and the spin of the moving particle are derived. In addition the covariant equations for the dynamics of the components of the spin tensor are obtained. These equations can be transformed to the familiar BMT equation in the case of homogeneous electromagnetic fields. The quantization of the five-dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi equation yields a five-dimensional spinor wave equation, which degenerates to the Dirac equation in the stationary case if we neglect gravitation. The quantity which corresponds to the probability density of standard quantum mechanics is the four-dimensional mass density which has a real physical meaning. By means of the Green method the wave equation is transformed into an integral equation enabling a covariant relativistic path integral formulation. Using this approach a very accurate approximation for the four-dimensional propagator is derived. The proposed formalism makes Dirac's hole theory obsolete and can readily be extended to many particles.
Date: December 11, 2003
Creator: Rose, Harald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A week of SRI 2003 in San Francisco

Description: The Eighth International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation (SRI 2003) ended its August 25-28 run at the Yerba Buena Center for the Arts in San Francisco with almost as many in attendance as at the beginning. The steady attendance was surely a tribute to the quality of the program and the excitement it generated among the more than 700 registrants who gathered for four days of plenary talks, parallel sessions, and posters, as well as facility tours of the ALS and SSRL on August 29.
Date: September 29, 2003
Creator: Robinson, Art
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

8th international conference on electronic spectroscopy and structure

Description: Gathering from 33 countries around the world, 408 registrants and a number of local drop-in participants descended on the Clark Kerr Campus of the University of California, Berkeley, from Monday, August 7 through Saturday, August 12, 2000 for the Eighth International Conference on Electronic Structure and Spectroscopy (ICESS8). At the conference, participants benefited from an extensive scientific program comprising more than 100 oral presentations (plenary lectures and invited and contributed talks) and 330 poster presentations, as well as ample time for socializing and a tour of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the nearby Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
Date: October 16, 2000
Creator: Robinson, Art
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ambient and elevated temperature fracture and cyclic-fatigue properties in a series of Al-containing silicon carbides

Description: A series of in situ toughened, Al, B and C containing, silicon carbide ceramics (ABC-SiC) has been examined with Al contents varying from 3 to 7 wt%. With increasing Al additions, the grain morphology in the as-processed microstructures varied from elongated to bimodal to equiaxed, with a change in the nature of the grain-boundary film from amorphous to partially crystalline to fully crystalline. Fracture toughness and cyclic fatigue tests on these microstructures revealed that although the 7 wt.% Al containing material (7ABC) was extremely brittle, the 3 and particularly 5 wt.% Al materials (3ABC and 5ABC, respectively) displayed excellent crack-growth resistance at both ambient (25 C) and elevated (1300 C) temperatures. Indeed, no evidence of creep damage, in the form of grain-boundary cavitation, was seen at temperatures at 1300 C or below. The enhanced toughness of the higher Al-containing materials was associated with extensive crack bridging from both interlocking grains (in 3ABC) and uncracked ligaments (in 5ABC); in contrast, the 7ABC SiC showed no such bridging, concomitant with a marked reduction in the volume fraction of elongated grains. Mechanistically, cyclic fatigue-crack growth in 3ABC and 5ABC SiC involved the progressive degradation of such bridging ligaments in the crack wake, with the difference in the degree of elastic vs. frictional bridging affecting the slope, i.e., Paris law exponent, of the crack-growth curve. In addition an investigation of fracture resistance in non-transforming ceramics toughened by grain bridging mechanism is presented using linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM). Linear superposition theorems are used for the superposition of crack opening displacements, as well as stress intensity factors, resulting from the external tractions and the internal compressive bridging stresses. Specifically weight functions are used to relate the CODs, stress intensity factors, and tractions and the bridging stress. Expressions are derived for apparent material resistance, the bridging ...
Date: August 30, 2004
Creator: Yuan, Rong
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RF Power Detector/Monitor Upgrade for the 500MHz Systems at the ALS

Description: Several systems rely on the accurate and linear detection of 500 MHz signals, (the fundamental frequency of both the Booster Ring and Storage Ring) over a dynamic range in excess of 25dB. Prior to this upgrade, the detector/monitor was diode based and though this type of detector could handle the dynamic range requirement it could not do so in an accurate and linear manner. In order to meet the requirements (dynamic range greater than or equal to 25dB, accurate and linear to +-0.25dB over the range, and additional circuitry to interface to the legacy control system and interlocks), a new RF Power Detector/Monitor has been developed using two AD8361, Analog Devices Tru RMS Detectors and a fuzzy comparator, which extends the overall detector's range to twice that of the AD8361. Further information is available [www.analogedevices.com/]. Details of the design requirements and the detector/monitor's circuit as well as the performance of the detector will be presented.
Date: May 8, 2003
Creator: Baptiste, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ALS user meeting features 10th anniversary celebration

Description: The Advanced Light Source (ALS) saw first light on October 5, 1993, not quite to the day but close to 10 years before the 2003 ALS Users Association meeting, held October 6-8. Fittingly, the proceedings included retrospectives from two of the key players in the early history of the ALS, David Attwood and Jay Marx, and a display of photographs chronicling its construction and commissioning. Science highlights, highlights from young researchers, and posters constituted the meat of the program on Monday and Tuesday morning, while workshops took over Tuesday afternoon and all day Wednesday.
Date: December 5, 2003
Creator: Robinson, Art
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

13th annual meeting of the ALS Users' Association

Description: A complement of 266 users, staff, and vendors descended upon the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) from Monday through Wednesday, October 16-18, 2000 for the thirteenth edition of the annual Advanced Light Source (ALS) users meeting. In a departure from previous practice, the meeting featured an increased emphasis on workshops with the result that the proceedings were equally divided between oral and poster presentations and the workshops. After the traditional welcomes and facility updates on the first morning, science dominated the first day and a half comprising the formal meeting with a session of highlights from young researchers, three sessions of scientific highlights from the ALS and elsewhere, and a poster session that included a student poster competition. A set of seven workshops covering research areas of current or growing interest at the ALS rounded out the final day and a half of the meeting.
Date: November 21, 2000
Creator: Robinson, Art
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Numerical Studies of Fluid Leakage from a Geologic DisposalReservoir for CO2 Show Self-Limiting Feedback between Fluid Flow and HeatTransfer

Description: Leakage of CO2 from a hypothetical geologic storage reservoir along an idealized fault zone has been simulated, including transitions between supercritical, liquid, and gaseous CO2. We find strong non-isothermal effects due to boiling and Joule-Thomson cooling of expanding CO2. Leakage fluxes are limited by limitations in conductive heat transfer to the fault zone. The interplay between multiphase flow and heat transfer effects produces non-monotonic leakage behavior.
Date: March 22, 2005
Creator: Pruess, Karsten
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emittance compensation studies of photoinjector beams with angular momentum

Description: Beam dynamics studies on the FNPL photo injector that seek to optimize the transport of intense electron beams with large values of canonical angular momentum have been performed. These studies investigate the effect of solenoid emittance compensation on beams that evolve under the combined influence of intense space charge forces and large angular momentum. We present details of experimental measurements and supporting simulations of beam envelope evolution.
Date: May 19, 2003
Creator: Lidia, Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Technical Report: Microbial Production of Isoprene

Description: OAK B135 We have discovered that bacteria produce and emit the hydrocarbon isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene), and have suggested that if isoprene-producing enzymes and their genes can be harnessed, useful hydrocarbon-producing systems might be constructed. The main goal of the proposed work was to establish the biochemical mechanism and regulation of isoprene formation in the model bacterial system, Bacillus subtilis. In this 3-year project we (a) characterized the physiological regulation of isoprene formation in B. subtilis and its relationship to isoprene formation in plant chloroplasts; (b) analyzed genetic controls on isoprene formation in B. subtilis; and (c) developed models to explain the biochemical rationale for isoprene formation. We are also pursued (d) new methods for continuous measurement of isoprene release in bioreactors, and (e) determined the presence of isoprene-forming Bacillus on plant roots and used B. subtilis as a biocontrol agent for protection of plant roots from plant pathogenic bacteria. We have made significant advances in several areas. These include: (1) establishing the enzymatic basis of isoprene formation in B. subtilis, and demonstrating throughout growth in a bioreactor that isoprene synthase activity rises and falls with each of three peaks of isoprene release (i.e. it appears to be a regulated enzyme). (2) We have explored genetic aspects of isoprene formation, using gene disruption methods to greatly alter the patterns of isoprene formation in bioreactors. Analysis of these mutants and alteration of cellular levels of dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), the substrate for isoprene synthase, has led to the formulation of two models to explain why isoprene is formed: an isoprenoid overflow model and a signaling model. We have obtained compelling evidence that isoprene releases in bioreactors result from metabolic overflow. However, we have yet to determine the pattern of isoprene formation when these bacteria are grown in a more natural state (e.g. as biofilms ...
Date: September 12, 2003
Creator: Fall, Ray
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Top Quark Pair Production at the Tevatron

Description: The measurement of the top quark pair production crosssection inproton-antiproton collisions at 1.96 TeV is a test ofquantumchromodynamics and could potentially be sensitive to newphysics beyondthe standard model. I report on the latest t-tbarcross section resultsfrom the CDF and DZero experiments in various finalstate topologies whicharise from decays of top quark pairs.
Date: May 17, 2005
Creator: Nielsen, Jason
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EROSION PREDICTION NEAR A STAGNATION POINT RESULTING FROM ENVIRONMENTAL SOLID PARTICLES

Description: Predicting the erosion that results from a gas-solid particle flow in coal energy conversion systems is crucial for the successful operation of coal gasification, magnetohydrodynamic power, and coal-fired turbine facilities. In this study the coupled gas-particle momentum equations are analytically solved to determine the particle trajectories near a plane stagnation point. The momentum equilibration parameter, which is a physical parameter measuring a particle's momentum, is found to be the unique criterion for predicting particle trajectories. It is shown that values of this parameter less than one-fourth identify particles that never impact with a wall. The closed-form solution obtained is used to predict the quantity of material removed from a wall as well as the location of erosion along the wall. The maximum erosion is calculated to occur for the momentum equilibration parameter taking a value of 2.3. The erosion rate is found to be proportional to the particle velocity raised to the exponent of 3.8.
Date: November 1, 1977
Creator: Laitone, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HYDROCARBONS FROM PLANTS: ANALYTICAL METHODS AND OBSERVATIONS

Description: We have suggested that certain plants rich in hydrocarbon-like materials might be cultivated for renewable photosynthetic products. Two species were selected for experimental plantations: Euphorbia lathyris, an annual from seed and Euphorbia tirucalli, a perennial from cuttings, The yield from each species is over 10 barrels of oil/acre/year without genetic or agronomic improvement. In addition to plants, there are trees, such as species of Copaifera in Brazil and other tropical areas, which produce a diesel-like oil upon tapping. Each tree produces approximately 40 liters of hydrocarbon per year, and this material can be used directly by a diesel-powered car. Further efforts to develop plants as alternate energy sources are underway, as well as a continuing search for additional plant species throughout the world which have a similar capability.
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Calvin, Melvin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ENERGY DERIVATIVES FOR CONFIGURATION INTERACTION WAVEFUNCTIONS

Description: Equations providing the first and second derivatives of a configuration interaction (CI) energy with respect to an external parameter are provided. We assume no restriction on the form of the CI expansion built from molecular orbitals obtained in a multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock (MCHF) calculation. Also the coupled perturbed multi-configuration Hartree-Fock formalism is presented for a general MCHF wavefunction and provides the first order and second order changes of the molecular orbital expansion coefficients with respect to an external parameter.
Date: September 1, 1980
Creator: Dupuis, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Charge Transfer and Support Effects in Heterogeneous Catalysis

Description: The kinetic, electronic and spectroscopic properties of two‐dimensional oxide‐supported catalysts were investigated in order to understand the role of charge transfer in catalysis. Pt/TiO{sub 2} nanodiodes were fabricated and used as catalysts for hydrogen oxidation. During the reaction, the current through the diode, as well as its I‐V curve, were monitored, while gas chromatography was used to measure the reaction rate. The current and the turnover rate were found to have the same temperature dependence, indicating that hydrogen oxidation leads to the non‐adiabatic excitation of electrons in Pt. A fraction of these electrons have enough energy to ballistically transport through Pt and overcome the Schottky barrier at the interface with TiO{sub 2}. The yield for this phenomenon is on the order of 10{sup ‐4} electrons per product molecule formed, similar to what has been observed for CO oxidation and for the adsorption of many different molecules. The same Pt/TiO{sub 2} system was used to compare currents in hydrogen oxidation and deuterium oxidation. The current through the diode under deuterium oxidation was found to be greater than under hydrogen oxidation by a factor of three. Weighted by the difference in turnover frequencies for the two isotopes, this would imply a chemicurrent yield 5 times greater for D{sub 2} compared to H{sub 2}, contrary to what is expected given the higher mass of D{sub 2}. Reversible changes in the rectification factor of the diode are observed when switching between D{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. These changes are a likely cause for the differences in current between the two isotopes. In the nanodiode experiments, surface chemistry leads to charge flow, suggesting the possibility of creating charge flow to tune surface chemistry. This was done first by exposing a Pt/Si diode to visible light while using it as a catalyst for H{sub 2} oxidation. ...
Date: December 21, 2011
Creator: Hervier, Antoine
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent International R&D Activities in the Extraction of Uranium from Seawater

Description: A literature survey has been conducted to collect information on the International R&D activities in the extraction of uranium from seawater for the period from the 1960s till the year of 2010. The reported activities, on both the laboratory scale bench experiments and the large scale marine experiments, were summarized by country/region in this report. Among all countries where such activities have been reported, Japan has carried out the most advanced large scale marine experiments with the amidoxime-based system, and achieved the collection efficiency (1.5 g-U/kg-adsorbent for 30 days soaking in the ocean) that could justify the development of industrial scale marine systems to produce uranium from seawater at the price competitive with those from conventional uranium resources. R&D opportunities are discussed for improving the system performance (selectivity for uranium, loading capacity, chemical stability and mechanical durability in the sorption-elution cycle, and sorption kinetics) and making the collection of uranium from seawater more economically competitive.
Date: March 15, 2010
Creator: Rao, Linfeng
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department