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US--EC fuel cycle study: Background document to the approach and issues

Description: In February 1991, DOE and the Commission of the European Communities (EC), signed a joint statement regarding the external costs of fuel cycles. This 18-month agreement committed their respective organizations to ``develop a comparative analytical methodology and to develop the best range of estimates of external costs from secondary sources`` for eight fuel cycles and four conservation options. In our study, a fuel cycle is defined as the series of physical and chemical processes and activities that are required to generate electricity from a specific fuel or resource. This foundation phase of the study is primarily limited to developing and demonstrating methods for estimating impacts and their monetized value, what we term ``damages`` or ``benefits,`` leaving aside the extent to which such damages have been internalized. However, Appendix C provides the conceptual framework for evaluating the extent of internalization. This report is a background document to introduce the study approach and to discuss the major conceptual and practical issues entailed by the incremental damage problem. As a background document, the report seeks to communicate an overview of the study and the important methodological choices that were made to conduct the research. In successive sections of the report, the methodological tools used in the study are discussed; the ecological and health impacts are reviewed using the coal fuel cycle as a reference case; and, in the final chapter, the methods for valuing impacts are detailed.
Date: November 1, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

7-GeV Advanced Photon Source Instrumentation Initiative conceptual design report

Description: In this APS Instrumentation Initiative, 2.5-m-long and 5-m-long insertion-device x-ray sources will be built on 9 straight sections of the APS storage ring, and an additional 9 bending-magnet sources will also be put in use. The front ends for these 18 x-ray sources will be built to contain and safeguard access to these bright x-ray beams. In addition, funds will be provided to build state-of-the-art insertion-device beamlines to meet scientific and technological research demands well into the next century. This new initiative will also include four user laboratory modules and a special laboratory designed to meet the x-ray imaging research needs of the users. The Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the APS Instrumentation Initiative describes the scope of all the above technical and conventional construction and provides a detailed cost and schedule for these activities. According to these plans, this new initiative begins in FY 1994 and ends in FY 1998. The document also describes the preconstruction R D plans for the Instrumentation Initiative activities and provides the cost estimates for the required R D.
Date: December 1, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

US--EC fuel cycle study: Background document to the approach and issues

Description: In February 1991, DOE and the Commission of the European Communities (EC), signed a joint statement regarding the external costs of fuel cycles. This 18-month agreement committed their respective organizations to develop a comparative analytical methodology and to develop the best range of estimates of external costs from secondary sources'' for eight fuel cycles and four conservation options. In our study, a fuel cycle is defined as the series of physical and chemical processes and activities that are required to generate electricity from a specific fuel or resource. This foundation phase of the study is primarily limited to developing and demonstrating methods for estimating impacts and their monetized value, what we term damages'' or benefits,'' leaving aside the extent to which such damages have been internalized. However, Appendix C provides the conceptual framework for evaluating the extent of internalization. This report is a background document to introduce the study approach and to discuss the major conceptual and practical issues entailed by the incremental damage problem. As a background document, the report seeks to communicate an overview of the study and the important methodological choices that were made to conduct the research. In successive sections of the report, the methodological tools used in the study are discussed; the ecological and health impacts are reviewed using the coal fuel cycle as a reference case; and, in the final chapter, the methods for valuing impacts are detailed.
Date: November 1, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Probability of detection models for eddy current NDE methods

Description: The development of probability of detection (POD) models for a variety of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods is motivated by a desire to quantify the variability introduced during the process of testing. Sources of variability involved in eddy current methods of NDE include those caused by variations in liftoff, material properties, probe canting angle, scan format, surface roughness and measurement noise. This thesis presents a comprehensive POD model for eddy current NDE. Eddy current methods of nondestructive testing are used widely in industry to inspect a variety of nonferromagnetic and ferromagnetic materials. The development of a comprehensive POD model is therefore of significant importance. The model incorporates several sources of variability characterized by a multivariate Gaussian distribution and employs finite element analysis to predict the signal distribution. The method of mixtures is then used for estimating optimal threshold values. The research demonstrates the use of a finite element model within a probabilistic framework to the spread in the measured signal for eddy current nondestructive methods. Using the signal distributions for various flaw sizes the POD curves for varying defect parameters have been computed. In contrast to experimental POD models, the cost of generating such curves is very low and complex defect shapes can be handled very easily. The results are also operator independent.
Date: April 30, 1993
Creator: Rajesh, S. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mass spectral study of organic sulfur in the polymeric matrix of coal. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

Description: This report reviews the first year progress of a two year project to examine the chemical environment of organic sulfur in the polymeric matrix of Illinois coal by laser desorption ion trap mass spectrometry. This project is developing new laser desorption- ionization schemes for coal which preserve the polymeric matrix. It will compare mass spectra of whole coal with its separated macerals and will analyze organic sulfur in the polymeric matrix of coal by collision induced dissociation and high resolution mass spectrometry. The laser desorption ion trap mass spectrometer has been constructed and computer interfaced. The instrument is presently functioning as predicted. A capability to perform collision induced dissociation experiments for the analysis of organic sulfur has been demonstrated. The ion trap has been demonstrated to be desorbing intact and ionizing trial polymers with masses up to {approximately}10,000 m/e. Laser desorption mass spectra of Pocahontas No. 3 and Illinois No. 6 coal from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Program have been collected and both show high mass peaks ranging from {approximately}1,500 to {approximately}5,500 m/e. It is not presently clear whether or not the peaks observed in these spectra are carbon clusters or intact ions directly representative of the polymeric species in coal. Future collision induced dissociation experiments will address this issue.
Date: December 31, 1992
Creator: Hanley, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Second annual clean coal technology conference: Proceedings. Volume 1

Description: The Second Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference was held at Atlanta, Georgia, September 7--9, 1993. The Conference, cosponsored by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB), seeks to examine the status and role of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) and its projects. The Program is reviewed within the larger context of environmental needs, sustained economic growth, world markets, user performance requirements and supplier commercialization activities. This will be accomplished through in-depth review and discussion of factors affecting domestic and international markets for clean coal technology, the environmental considerations in commercial deployment, the current status of projects, and the timing and effectiveness of transfer of data from these projects to potential users, suppliers, financing entities, regulators, the interested environmental community and the public. Individual papers have been entered separately.
Date: September 9, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Partial and preliminary inventory of NOAA data for ARM/IDASS research

Description: The first quarter of 1991 was an extremely active time for atmospheric measurements in the Denver area. Four field projects were conducted with overlapping schedules and area domains between mid-January and mid-April. The data collected may be of mutual interest to the participants of the various projects. Data inventory catalogs for each project will assist researchers by documenting the kinds of measurements, periods of observation, the data archival mediums, and the data availability. This report provides a partial and preliminary inventory of data obtained for the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program Integrated Data Assimilation and Sounding System (IDASS) research. It includes only those measurements obtained by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration`s Wave Propagation Laboratory and Aeronomy Laboratory (NOAA/WPL and NOAA/AL). Many of these data are currently undergoing post-processing and inspection by each instrument`s operating group to improve and insure data quality. Therefore, the information in this report is preliminary.
Date: June 1, 1991
Creator: Martner, B. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mass spectral study of organic sulfur in the polymeric matrix of coal. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1991

Description: These experiments will examine the chemical environment of organic sulfur in the polymeric matrix of Illinois coal by novel mass spectrometric techniques: High molecular weight ions from the polymeric coal matrix will be formed by laser desorption and photoionization of powdered coal samples. These ions will be subsequently injected into an ion trap mass spectrometer for single and multiple mass analysis for the identification of sulfur containing moieties in the polymeric matrix. Furthermore, comparison of the mass spectra of various separated macerals with that of whole coal will be made to determine whether chemical modification occurs during the separation process.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Hanley, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CFBC evaluation of fuels processed from Illinois coals. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

Description: The fuels studied in this project are (a) flotation slurry fuel beneficiated from coal fines at various stages of the cleaning process and (b) coal-sorbent pellets made from the flotation concentrate of the same beneficiation process using corn starch as binder. These fuels are investigated in a 4-inch internal diameter circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC). The combustion experiments demonstrated that the three coal-water slurry fuels and the pellet fuel could burn well in the CFBC unit. The combustion tests showed that the combustion efficiency of the slurry fuels and the pellets were quite comparable with that of the standard coal in the range of 91--98%. Sulfur dioxide emissions in lbs per million Btu from the slurry fuels were low enough to satisfy EPA emissions requirements with Ca/S ratios of 1.5 or less. At these low Ca/S ratios, the slurry fuels and the pellet emitted less SO{sub 2} than the standard coal. Increasing the Ca/S ratios showed that the standard coal SO{sub 9} emissions reduced at a faster rate than the SO{sub 2} emissions from the pellet and slurry fuels, because of the more efficient dispersion and gas-solid contact of the standard coal particles. Oxides of nitrogen emissions were generally on the order of 0.3 lbs per million Btu from the slurry fuels under the conditions of the present tests, while that from the pellets were between 0.6 to 0.75 lbs per million Btu depending on bed temperature. In comparison, the oxides of nitrogen emissions from the standard coal varied from 0.5 to 0.8 lbs per million Btu in the bed temperature range of 1475--1625{degrees}F.
Date: December 31, 1992
Creator: Rajan, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Core-collapse supernovae and nucleosynthesis

Description: I discuss some of the physics that governs the collapse and explosion of a massive star, including issues such as lepton number losses in the infall stage and neutrino heating and convection following the core bounce. I review recent work on the neutrino process and the r-process, describing how the nucleosynthesis depends on the explosion mechanism. Some of the interesting possibilities for oscillations of closure mass {nu}{sub {tau}}s are discussed, along with their signatures in terrestrial detectors and in nucleosynthesis.
Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: Haxton, W. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermophysical properties of HFC-143a and HFC-152a. Quarterly report, 1 July 1993--30 September 1993

Description: Numerous fluids have been identified as promising alternative refrigerants, but much of the information needed to predict their behavior as pure fluids and as components in mixtures does not exist. In particular, reliable thermophysical properties data and models are needed to predict the performance of the new refrigerants in heating and cooling equipment and to design and optimize equipment to be reliable and energy efficient. Objective of this project is to provide highly accurate, selected thermophysical properties data for refrigerants HFC-143a (CH{sub 3}CF{sub 3}) and HFC-152a (CH{sub 3}CHF{sub 2}) and to use these data to fit complex equations of state and detailed transport property models. The new data will fill gaps in the existing data sets and resolve problems and uncertainties that exist in and between the data sets.
Date: October 1, 1993
Creator: Haynes, W. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conceptual design report, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center

Description: For the next 30 years, the main activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will involve the management, handling, and cleanup of toxic substances. If the DOE is to meet its high standards of safety, the thousands of workers involved in these activities will need systematic training appropriate to their tasks and the risks associated with these tasks. Furthermore, emergency response for DOE shipments is the primary responsibility of state, tribal, and local governments. A collaborative training initiative with the DOE will strengthen emergency response at the Hanford Site and within the regional communities. Local and international labor has joined the Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) partnership, and will share in the HAMMER Training Center core programs and facilities using their own specialized trainers and training programs. The HAMMER Training Center will provide a centralized regional site dedicated to the training of hazardous material, emergency response, and fire fighting personnel.
Date: November 9, 1994
Creator: Kelly, K. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Protocols for the selective cleavage of carbon-sulfur bonds in coal. Quarterly report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991

Description: Removal of the organic sulfur in coal constitutes one of the major challenges facing fossil fuel scientists today. A cost--effective of desulfurizing Illinois coal is non-existent at the present time. Research in our group aims to develop a simple protocol for sulfur removal by gaining understanding of how various additives can enhance the rates of C-S bond cleavage in Illinois coal and coal model compounds, relative to fragmentation of the coal macromolecule via C-C, C-O, and C-N bond cleavage. During this funding period, we plan to carry out examinations of: (a) the effects of various reaction conditions on radical-initiated and Lewis acid-catalyzed C-S bond cleavages; (b) the effects of caustic impregnation and subsequent alcoholic reflux on C-S bond cleavage strategies; (c) the reactions of coal model compounds with electron-deficient substrates; (d) examinations of photooxidative C-S bond cleavage reactions; (e) the effects of moderate (300--400{degrees}C) temperatures and pressures as well as ultrasonic radiation on (a) - (c). Also planned are differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) examinations of selected C-S bond cleavage protocols, including those on Illinois coals that possess varying amounts of organic and inorganic sulfur.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Bausch, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solubility, viscosity and density of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 July 1993--30 September 1993

Description: This report presents results of measurements on low refrigerant concentration mixtures (0, 10, 20, 30 wt %) of CFC-12, HCFC`s 22, 123 and 124, HFC`s 134a, 32 and 125 with mineral oil, alkylbenzene and polyolester lubricants. Viscosity, solubility (vapor pressure) and density data are reported for 23 working fluids composed of combinations of these refrigerants and companion lubricants. These data, reduced to engineering form, are presented in form of a Daniel Chart and a plot of density vs temperature and composition. Extensive numerical analysis has been performed in order to derive equations which allow two independent variables (temperature and composition) and to provide for corrections in composition due to vapor space volume in the test apparatus; details of these calculations are provided.
Date: October 1, 1993
Creator: Henderson, D. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. technical report for the ITER blanket/shield: A. blanket: Topical report, July 1990--November 1990

Description: Three solid-breeder water-cooled blanket concepts have been developed for ITER based on a multilayer configuration. The primary difference among the concepts is in the fabricated form of breeder and multiplier. All the concepts have beryllium for neutron multiplication and solid-breeder temperature control. The blanket design does not use helium gaps or insulator material to control the solid breeder temperature. Lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O) and lithium zirconate (Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}) are the primary and the backup breeder materials, respectively. The lithium-6 enrichment is 95%. The use of high lithium-6 enrichment reduces the solid breeder volume required in the blanket and consequently the total tritium inventory in the solid breeder material. Also, it increases the blanket capability to accommodate power variation. The multilayer blanket configuration can accommodate up to a factor of two change in the neutron wall loading without violating the different design guidelines. The blanket material forms are sintered products and packed bed of small pebbles. The first concept has a sintered product material (blocks) for both the beryllium multiplier and the solid breeder. The second concept, the common ITER blanket, uses a packed bed breeder and beryllium blocks. The last concept is similar to the first except for the first and the last beryllium zones. Two small layers of beryllium pebbles are located behind the first wall and the back of the last beryllium zone to reduce the total inventory of the beryllium material and to improve the blanket performance. The design philosophy adopted for the blanket is to produce the necessary tritium required for the ITER operation and to operate at power reactor conditions as much as possible. Also, the reliability and the safety aspects of the blanket are enhanced by using low-pressure water coolant and the separation of the tritium purge flow from the coolant system by ...
Date: January 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Combustion characterization of the blend of plant coal and recovered coal fines. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1991

Description: The overall objective of this proposed research program is to determine the combustion characteristics of the blend derived from mixing a plant coal and recovered and clean coal fines from the pond. During this study, one plant coal and three blend samples will be prepared and utilized. The blend samples will be of a mixture of 90% plant coal + 10% fines, 85% plant coal + 15% fines, 80% plant coal + 20% fines having particle size distribution of 70% passing through {minus}200 mesh size. These samples` combustion behavior will be examined in two different furnaces at Penn State University, i.e., a down-fired furnace and a drop-tube furnace. The down-fired furnace will be used mainly to measure the emissions and ash deposition study, while the drop tube furnace will be used to determine burning profile, combustion efficiency, etc. This report covers the first quarter`s progress. Major activities during this period were focused on finding the plants where a demo MTU column will be installed to prepare the samples needed to characterize the combustion behavior of slurry effluents. Also, a meeting was held at Penn State University to discuss the availability of the laboratory furnace for testing the plant coal/recovered coal fines blends.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Singh, Shyam
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interagency Advanced Power Group Solar Photovoltaic Panel Fall meeting minutes, October 22, 1992

Description: This report contains discussions on the following topics: Leaf, TPL, and {sup 60}Co Gamma source testing facilities; in-house photovolatic research effort; US Army`s interest developing small thermophotovoatic power source for a variety of missions; charging lead acid batteries with unregulated photovolatic panels; testing of solar array panels for space applications; polycrystalline CuInSe{sub 2} & CdTe PV solar cells and, current activities in the US photovolatic program.
Date: December 31, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influence of sulfur in coals on char morphology and combustion. Technical report, 1 September 1991--30 November 1991

Description: During coal carbonization (pyrolysis), as during the combustion process of pulverized coal in a combustor, not all of the sulfur is released. Significant proportions become pat of the structure of the resultant coke and char. The combustion process of the char within the flames of the combustor in influenced dominantly by char morphology. This, in turn, controls the accessibility of oxidizing gases to the surfaces of the carbonaceous substance of the char. Mineral matter content, its extent and state of distribution, also exerts an influence on char morphology created during pyrolysis/carbonization. This complexity of coal renders it a very difficult material to study, systematically, to distinguish and separate out the contributing factors which influence combustion characteristics. Therefore, in such circumstances, it is necessary to simplify the systems by making use of model chars/cokes/carbons which can be made progressively more complex, but in a controlled way. In this way complicating influence in chars from coals can be eliminated, so enabling specific influences to be studied independently. It is important to note that preliminary work by Marsh and Gryglewicz (1990) indicated that levels of sulfur of about 3 to 5 wt % can reduce reactivities by 10 to 25%. The overall purpose of the study is to provide meaningful kinetic data to establish, quantitatively, the influence of organically-bound sulfur on the reactivity of carbons, and to ascertain if gasification catalysts are effective in the preferential removal of sulfur from the chars.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Marsh, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A proposed framework for establishing integrated cost and performance criteria for environmental technologies. A summary report to the U.S. Department of Energy

Description: Through an Interagency Agreement between the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA directed a project to establish a suite of standard cost and performance criteria to guide the evaluation of environmental cleanup technologies for DOE sites. Ideally, these criteria would be ``generic`` in that they could be used as a basis for evaluating any cleanup technology for any DOE site. To be most useful, however, these criteria would also reflect the interests of diverse decisionmakers who influence DOE technology evaluation. The project was conducted by the National Environmental Technology Applications Center (NETAC), a nonprofit organization specializing in the development and commercialization of new and innovative environmental technologies for national and international markets. To accomplish the project objective, NETAC (1) developed a data gathering questionnaire, (2) interviewed government and industry decisionmakers, (3) identified previous criteria development efforts, (4) conducted a workshop, (5) evaluated workshop discussions, and (6) applied its five years` experience in commercializing environmental technologies to analyze project findings. The project resulted in the development of a unique and comprehensive resource or tool to enhance communication among decisionmakers. This resource, a ``Proposed Framework for Establishing Integrated Cost and Performance Criteria for Evaluating Environmental Cleanup Technologies for DOE Sites,`` offers decisionmakers a first-time comprehensive assessment of major technology evaluation issues by a decisionmaker group.
Date: May 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photonic band gap materials

Description: An overview of the theoretical and experimental efforts in obtaining a photonic band gap, a frequency band in three-dimensional dielectric structures in which electromagnetic waves are forbidden, is presented.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Soukoulis, C. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sampling and analyses report for December 1992 semiannual postburn sampling at the RMI UCG Site, Hanna, Wyoming

Description: During December 1992, groundwater was sampled at the site of the November 1987--February 1988 Rocky Mountain 1 underground coal gasification test near Hanna, Wyoming. The groundwater in near baseline condition. Data from the field measurements and analyzes of samples are presented. Benzene concentrations in the groundwater are below analytical detection limits (<0.01 mg/L) for all wells, except concentrations of 0.016 mg/L and 0.013 mg/L in coal seam wells EMW-3 and EMW-1, respectively.
Date: March 1, 1993
Creator: Lindblom, S. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of the surface properties of Illinois Basin Coals. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1991

Description: The overall objective of this research project is to provide fundamental data on the physical and chemical surface properties of Illinois coals, specifically those of the Illinois Basin Coal Sample Program (IBCSP). This will help coal researchers achieve an optimal match between Illinois Basin coals and potential coal cleaning and conversion processes (or at least reduce the number of coals suitable for a particular process) and may lead to improved desulfurization and increased utilization of Illinois Basin coals. The specific tasks scheduled to meet our objective are: (1) Physical Characterization: Determine total surface area, porosity, pore size and volume distributions of IBCSP coals crushed to two particle sizes, {minus}100 and {minus}400 mesh (exclusive of IBC-108 which is available only in {minus}400 mesh form), in both an unoxidized and oxidized state. (2) Chemical Characterization: Determine the surface charge (electrokinetic mobility) as a function of pH by electrophoresis and analyze the surface chemical structure of the above samples using Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Spectroscopy (DRIS). (3) Multivariate Statistical Analyses: Explore possible relationships among the newly determined surface properties and other available characterization data, including chemical and petrographic compositions, vitrinite reflectance, free swelling index, ash yield, sulfur forms, and other relevant properties.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Demir, I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ASA conference on radiation and health: Health effects of electric and magnetic fields: Statistical support for research strategies. Final report

Description: This report is a collection of papers documenting presentations made at the VIII ASA (American Statistical Association) Conference on Radiation and Health entitled Health Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields: Statistical Support for Research Strategies. Individual papers are abstracted and indexed for the database.
Date: May 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Symplectic structure of isospin particles in Yang-Mills fields

Description: Using Dirac's constraint analysis, we explore the Hamiltonian formalism of isospin particles in external Yang-Mills fields without kinetic and potential energy term. We consider an example of isospin particle in 't Hooft-Polyakov magnetic monopole field and discuss possible quantization condition of magnetic charge in terms of geometric quantization.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Oh, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department