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NIF PEPC Mechanical Test Stand Safety Note

Description: The NIF PEPC Mechanical Test Stand is to be used in the building 432. Building 432 is being used to test components and processes for NIF. The test stand is to be bolted to the floor. The test stand provides a platform from which the PEPC kinematic repeatability and vibrational characteristics of the PEPC LRU can be tested. The test stand will allow user access to the LRU to install instrumentation and to make adjustments to the kinematics. The mechanical test stand is designed to hold the 1700 lb. PEPC LRU.
Date: May 21, 1998
Creator: Trent, J W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-Efficiency Steam Electrolyzer

Description: A hydrogen economy will require readily available and affordable hydrogen fuel. Current methods of hydrogen production do not fulfill these requirements. We are working on an electrolyzer system that can provide distributed hydrogen production while taking advantage of the nation's existing natural gas infrastructure. Electrolysis is a promising hydrogen production technology both because of its ability to produce pure hydrogen from water and because it does not require large, centralized plants. Unlike other technologies, the cost of hydrogen production scales well from larger to smaller systems. Electrolysis units could be widely distributed and scaled to meet the hydrogen requirements of different users such as individual households, local fueling stations and industrial facilities. A significant drawback to traditional electrolysis is the large electricity consumption required to convert water to hydrogen and oxygen. The electricity requirements mean such systems are expensive to operate. In addition, if the electricity is provided from coal or gas-fired power plants, electrolytic hydrogen production does not mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The concept described in this report is intended to resolve some of the problems associated with electrolytic hydrogen production. By utilizing natural gas in place of air in the anode compartment in a solid oxide electrolyzer, the electricity requirements of the system are greatly reduced. The system has the capability to produce pure hydrogen, or hydrogen humidified to levels appropriate for direct use in a PEM fuel cell. With inherent electrochemical compression, the requirement for external compression for pressurization could be reduced. This technology offers numerous advantages for distributed hydrogen production of stationary and transportation hydrogen fuel cells. Our preliminary calculations indicate that using this concept, hydrogen could be produced at a cost competitive with gasoline (on a per gallon equivalent basis) while also lowering carbon dioxide emissions.
Date: June 30, 2003
Creator: Vance, A L; Trent, J W; See, E F & Glass, R S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Physics Analysis of a Gas Attenuator with Argon as a Working Gas (Rev. 1)

Description: A gas attenuator is an important element of the LCLS facility. The attenuator has to operate in a broad range of x-ray energies, provide attenuation coefficient between 1 and 10{sup 4} with the accuracy of 1% and, at the same time, be reliable and allow for many months of un-interrupted operation. A detailed design study of the attenuator based on the use of nitrogen as a working gas has been recently carried out by S. Shen [1]. In this note we assess the features of the attenuator based on the use of argon. We concentrate on the physics issues; the design features will probably be not that different from the aforementioned nitrogen attenuator. Although specific results obtained in our note pertain to argon, the general framework (and many equations obtained) are applicable also to the nitrogen attenuator. In the past, an analysis of the attenuator based on the use of a noble gas has already been carried out [2]. This analysis was performed for an extremely stringent set of specifications. In particular, a very large diameter for the unobstructed x-ray beam was set (1 cm) to accommodate the spontaneous radiation; the attenuator was supposed to cover the whole range of energies of the coherent radiation, from 800 eV to 8000 eV; the maximum attenuation was set at the level of 10{sup 4}; the use of solid attenuators was not allowed, as well as the use of rotating shutters. The need to reach a sufficient absorption at the high-energy end of the spectrum predetermined the choice of Xe as the working gas (in order to have a reasonable absorption at a not-too-high pressure). A sophisticated differential pumping system that included a Penning-type ion pump was suggested in order to minimize the gas leak into the undulator/accelerator part of the facility. A ...
Date: January 3, 2006
Creator: Ryutov, D D; Bionta, R M; McKernan, M A; Shen, S & Trent, J W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Physics Analysis of a Gas Attenuator with Argon as a Working Gas

Description: A gas attenuator is an important element of the LCLS facility. The attenuator has to operate in a broad range of x-ray energies, provide attenuation coefficient between 1 and 10{sup 4} with the accuracy of 1% and, at the same time, be reliable and allow for many months of un-interrupted operation. A detailed design study of the attenuator based on the use of nitrogen as a working gas has been recently carried out by S. Shen et al [1]. In this note we assess the features of the attenuator based on the use of argon. We concentrate on the physics issues; the design features will probably be not that different from the aforementioned nitrogen attenuator. Although specific results obtained in our note pertain to argon, the general framework (and many equations obtained) are applicable also to the nitrogen attenuator. In the past, an analysis of the attenuator based on the use of a noble gas has already been carried out [2]. This analysis was performed for an extremely stringent set of specifications. In particular, a very large diameter for the unobstructed x-ray beam was set (1 cm) to accommodate the spontaneous radiation; the attenuator was supposed to cover the whole range of energies of the coherent radiation, from 800 eV to 8000 eV; the maximum attenuation was set at the level of 10{sup 4}; the use of solid attenuators was not allowed, as well as the use of rotating shutters. The need to reach a sufficient absorption at the high-energy end of the spectrum predetermined the choice of Xe as the working gas (in order to have a reasonable absorption at a not-too-high pressure). A sophisticated differential pumping system that included a Penning-type ion pump was suggested in order to minimize the gas leak into the undulator/accelerator part of the ...
Date: December 19, 2005
Creator: Ryutov, D D; Bionta, R M; McKernan, M A; Shen, S & Trent, J W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department