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Waste treatability guidance program. User`s guide. Revision 0

Description: DOE sites across the country generate and manage radioactive, hazardous, mixed, and sanitary wastes. It is necessary for each site to find the technologies and associated capacities required to manage its waste. One role of DOE HQ Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management is to facilitate the integration of the site- specific plans into coherent national plans. DOE has developed a standard methodology for defining and categorizing waste streams into treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. This Waste Treatability Guidance Program automates the Guidance Document for the categorization of waste information into treatability groups; this application provides a consistent implementation of the methodology across the National TRU Program. This User`s Guide provides instructions on how to use the program, including installations instructions and program operation. This document satisfies the requirements of the Software Quality Assurance Plan.
Date: December 21, 1995
Creator: Toth, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser guiding at>1018 W/cm2 in plasma channels formed by theignitor heater method

Description: Experiments explore guiding of intense laser pulses, optimization using channel formation beams and gas jet targets, and the interplay of channel guiding and relativistic self guiding. Impact on laser wakefield particle acceleration is being assessed.
Date: May 1, 2004
Creator: Geddes, C.G.R.; Toth, C.; vanTilborg, J. & Leemans, W.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: to couple the THUNDER undulator to the LOASIS Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA). Currently the LWFA has achieved quasi-monoenergetic electron beams with energies up to 1 GeV. These ultra-short, high-peak-current, electron beams are ideal for driving a compact XUV free electron laser (FEL). Understanding the electron beam properties such as the energy spread and emittance is critical for achieving high quality light sources with high brightness. By using an insertion device such as an undulator and observing changes in the spontaneous emission spectrum, the electron beam energy spread and emittance can be measured with high precision. The initial experiments will use spontaneous emission from 1.5 m of undulator. Later experiments will use up to 5 m of undulator with a goal of a high gain, XUV FEL.
Date: May 4, 2009
Creator: Bakeman, M.S.; Fawley, W.M.; Leemans, W. P.; Nakamura, K.; Robinson, K.E.; Schroeder, C.B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

GeV electron beams from a cm-scale accelerator

Description: GeV electron accelerators are essential to synchrotron radiation facilities and free electron lasers, and as modules for high-energy particle physics. Radio frequency based accelerators are limited to relatively low accelerating fields (10-50 MV/m) and hence require tens to hundreds of meters to reach the multi-GeV beam energies needed to drive radiation sources, and many kilometers to generate particle energies of interest to the frontiers of high-energy physics.Laser wakefield accelerators (LWFA) in which particles are accelerated by the field of a plasma wave driven by an intense laser pulse produce electric fields several orders of magnitude stronger (10-100 GV/m) and so offer the potential of very compact devices. However, until now it has not been possible to maintain the required laser intensity, and hence acceleration, over the several centimeters needed to reach GeV energies.For this reason laser-driven accelerators have to date been limited to the 100 MeV scale. Contrary to predictions that PW-class lasers would be needed to reach GeV energies, here we demonstrate production of a high-quality electron beam with 1 GeV energy by channeling a 40 TW peak power laser pulse in a 3.3 cm long gas-filled capillary discharge waveguide. We anticipate that laser-plasma accelerators based on capillary discharge waveguides will have a major impact on the development of future femtosecond radiation sources such as x-ray free electron lasers and become a standard building block for next generation high-energy accelerators.
Date: May 4, 2006
Creator: Leemans, W.P.; Nagler, B.; Gonsalves, A.J.; Toth, C.; Nakamura,K.; Geddes, C.G.R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The BErkeley Lab Laser Accelerator (BELLA): A 10 GeV Laser Plasma Accelerator

Description: An overview is presented of the design of a 10 GeV laser plasma accelerator (LPA) that will be driven by a PW-class laser system and of the BELLA Project, which has as its primary goal to build and install the required Ti:sapphire laser system for the acceleration experiments. The basic design of the 10 GeV stage aims at operation in the quasi-linear regime, where the laser excited wakes are largely sinusoidal and offer the possibility of accelerating both electrons and positrons. Simulations show that a 10 GeV electron beam can be generated in a meter scale plasma channel guided LPA operating at a density of about 1017 cm-3 and powered by laser pulses containing 30-40 J of energy in a 50- 200 fs duration pulse, focused to a spotsize of 50-100 micron. The lay-out of the facility and laser system will be presented as well as the progress on building the facility.
Date: June 1, 2010
Creator: Leemans, W.P.; Duarte, R.; Esarey, E.; Fournier, S.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Lockhart, D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental study of self-trapping in capillary discharge guided laser wakefield acceleration

Description: Laser wakefield acceleration experiments were carried out using hydrogen-filled capillary discharge waveguides. For a 33 mm long, 300 mu m capillary, parameter regimes with high energy electron beams (up to 1 GeV) and stable 0.5 GeV were found. In the high energy regime, the electron beam peak energy was correlated with the number of trapped electrons. For a 15 mm long, 200 mu m diameter capillary, quasi-monoenergetic e beams up to 300 MeV were observed. By de-tuning discharge delay from optimum guiding performance, self-trapping was found to be stabilized.
Date: May 4, 2009
Creator: Panasenko, D.; Esarey, E.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Leemans, W. P.; Lin, C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulations of laser propagation and ionization in l'OASIS experiments

Description: We have conducted particle-in-cell simulations of laser pulse propagation through neutral He, including the effects of tunneling ionization, within the parameter regime of the l'OASIS experiments [1,2] at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The simulations show the theoretically predicted [3] blue shifting of the laser frequency at the leading edge of the pulse. The observed blue shifting is in good agreement with the experimental data. These results indicate that such computations can be used to accurately simulate a number of important effects related to tunneling ionization for laser-plasma accelerator concepts, such as steepening due to ionization-induced pump depletion, which can seed and enhance instabilities. Our simulations show self-modulation occurring earlier when tunneling ionization is included then for a pre-ionized plasma.
Date: June 30, 2002
Creator: Dimitrov, D.A.; Bruhwiler, D.L.; Leemans, W.; Esarey, E.; Catravas, P.; Toth, C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radio-isotope production using laser Wakefield accelerators

Description: A 10 Hz, 10 TW solid state laser system has been used to produce electron beams suitable for radio-isotope production. The laser beam was focused using a 30 cm focal length f/6 off-axis parabola on a gas plume produced by a high pressure pulsed gas jet. Electrons were trapped and accelerated by high gradient wakefields excited in the ionized gas through the self-modulated laser wakefield instability. The electron beam was measured to contain excesses of 5 nC/bunch. A composite Pb/Cu target was used to convert the electron beam into gamma rays which subsequently produced radio-isotopes through (gamma, n) reactions. Isotope identification through gamma-ray spectroscopy and half-life time measurements demonstrated that Cu{sup 61} was produced which indicates that 20-25 MeV gamma rays were produced, and hence electrons with energies greater than 25-30 MeV. The production of high energy electrons was independently confirmed using a bending magnet spectrometer. The measured spectra had an exponential distribution with a 3 MeV width. The amount of activation was on the order of 2.5 uCi after 3 hours of operation at 1 Hz. Future experiments will aim at increasing this yield by post-accelerating the electron beam using a channel guided laser wakefield accelerator.
Date: July 27, 2001
Creator: Leemans, W.P.; Rodgers, D.; Catravas, P.E.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Fubiani, G.; Toth, C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser triggered injection of electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator with the colliding pulse method

Description: An injection scheme for a laser wakefield accelerator that employs a counter propagating laser (colliding with the drive laser pulse, used to generate a plasma wake) is discussed. The threshold laser intensity for electron injection into the wakefield was analyzed using a heuristic model based on phase-space island overlap. Analysis shows that the injection can be performed using modest counter propagating laser intensity a{sub 1} < 0.5 for a drive laser intensity of a{sub 0} = 1.0. Preliminary experiments were preformed using a drive beam and colliding beam. Charge enhancement by the colliding pulse was observed. Increasing the signal-to-noise ratio by means of a preformed plasma channel is discussed.
Date: October 22, 2004
Creator: Nakamura, K.; Fubiani, G.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Michel, P.; van Tilborg, J.; Toth, C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electron yield enhancement in a laser wakefield accelerator driven by asymmetric laser pulses

Description: The effect of asymmetric laser pulses on electron yield from a laser wakefield accelerator has been experimentally studied using > 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} plasmas and a 10 TW, > 45 fs, Ti:Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} laser. Laser pulse shape was controlled through non-linear chirp with a grating pair compressor. Pulses (76 fs FWHM) with a steep rise and positive chirp were found to significantly enhance the electron yield compared to pulses with a gentle rise and negative chirp. Theory and simulation show that fast rising pulses can generate larger amplitude wakes that seed the growth of the self-modulation instability and that frequency chirp is of minimal importance for the experimental parameters.
Date: August 1, 2002
Creator: Leemans, W.P.; Catravas, P.; Esarey, E.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Toth, C.; Trines, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coherent transition radiation from a laser wakefield accelerator as an electron bunch diagnostic

Description: The observation and modeling of coherent transition radiation from femtosecond laser accelerated electron bunches is discussed. The coherent transition radiation, scaling quadratically with bunch charge, is generated as the electrons transit the plasma-vacuum boundary. Due to the limited transverse radius of the plasma boundary, diffraction effects will strongly modify the angular distribution and the total energy radiated is reduced compared to an infinite transverse boundary. The multi-nC electron bunches, concentrated in a length of a few plasma periods (several tens of microns), experience partial charge neutralization while propagating inside the plasma towards the boundary. This reduces the space-charge blowout of the beam, allowing for coherent radiation at relatively high frequencies (several THz). The charge distribution of the electron bunch at the plasma-vacuum boundary can be derived from Fourier analysis of the coherent part of the transition radiation spectrum. A Michelson interferometer was used to measure the coherent spectrum, and electron bunches with duration on the order of 50 fs (rms) were observed.
Date: October 22, 2004
Creator: van Tilborg, J.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Toth, C.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C.B.; Martin, M.C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department