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Elemental Analysis of Brainstem in Victims of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

Description: A brainstem-related abnormality in respiratory control appears to be one of the most compelling mechanisms for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The elements calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus, sulfur, and zinc were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy in the brainstem of 30 infants who died from SIDS and 10 infants who died from other causes (control). No differences were found between SIDS and control for any element except for more calcium in the SIDS group. A multivariate analysis of the data failed to group the majority of SIDS and control subjects in different clusters. Further research is required to determine the biological significance of the higher calcium found in the SIDS group.,
Date: December 1988
Creator: Oquendo, Javier
Partner: UNT Libraries

Manufacturer [Sic] of Densified-Refuse Derived Fuel (d-RDF) Pellets and Methods for the Determination of d-RDF Pellet Densities

Description: There are 150 million tons of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) annually produced in the United States, which is approximately equivalent to 150 million barrels of oil. MSW production is inexhaustible, and is increasing on an annual per capita basis of approximately three per cent. After controlling the moisture and adding a binder, the combustible portion of MSW was converted to pellets. The objects of this project were to 1) evaluate the binder, 2) prepare the pellets, and 3) evaluate the pellets with regard to density. The manufacture of pellets was conducted at the Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida. The evaluation of the binders and the pellets was done at North Texas State University (NTSU). There were three procedures for measuring the density. The first, using water displacement, was from the American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM). The second, using wax coating, was also from ASTM. The third, using sharply-cut cylindrical pellets, was developed at NTSU.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Attili, Bassam Saleem
Partner: UNT Libraries

Determination of Halogens in Organic Compounds by Using Sodium Fusion-Ion Chromatography Method

Description: A sodium fusion-Ion chromatographic method for determination of fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine in organic compounds is described. Seventeen organic halogen compounds and eleven mixtures were decomposed by Na fumes at 280-290°C for one hour or longer. The absorbing solutions were injected for ion chromatographic analysis using electrochemical and conductometric detectors. The arrangement of the apparatus includes the placement of the electrochemical and conductometric detectors. This method provides a mechanism providing for complete analysis for all four halogens in one ion chromatographic sample injection. Reproducibility is excellent and liquid sample handling is mentioned.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Wang, Chung-Yu
Partner: UNT Libraries

Ion Chromatography of Soluble Cr(III) and Cr(VI)

Description: Ion chromatography coupled with a conductivity detector was used to investigate the analysis of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in aqueous samples. An IC methodology for Cr(III) was developed using a cation column and an eluent containing tartaric acid, ethylenediamine, and acetonitrile at pH 2.9. The detection limit of this method can reach 0.1 ppm level with good precision. Several operational parameters were evaluated during the regular use of the method. Comparison of the IC method with AA method showed good agreement between the two methods. The anion exchange column was used for Cr(VI) determination. The best results were obtained with an eluent containing sodium gluconate, borate buffer, glycerin, and acetonitrile. The retention time for the Cr207 2 - sample was 11 min. and the calibration curve was linear between 1.0 and 100 ppm.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Huang, Julie Shiong-Jiun
Partner: UNT Libraries

Detector Comparison for Simultaneous Determination of Organic Acids and Inorganic Anions

Description: The research reported here is a study of detector systems to determine those most suited for simultaneous organic acid, inorganic anion determination. Comparisons are made on the basis of detection limits and sensitivities for conductivity, UV/Vis, photoconductivity, and derivative conductivity detection systems. The investigation was made using a constant chromatographic system with the only variable component being the detector system. Eluant optimization conditions for each detector are reported along with tables reporting detection limits and sensitivities for each detector system. Various chromatograms are also shown to provide a visual comparison between detector results.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Pannell, Daniel K. (Daniel Kirk)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Separation of Transition Metal Ions by HPLC, Using UV-VIS Detection

Description: HPLC has been used and can quickly determine several ions simultaneously. The method of determination described for transition metals [Cr(III), Fe(III), Ni(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Mn(II)] and [Ca(II), Pb(II)] using HPLC with UV-VIS detection is better than the PAR complexation method commonly used. The effects of both eluent pH and detector wavelength were investigated. Results from using different pHs and wavelengths, optional analytical conditions for the separation of [Ni(II), Co(II), Cu(II)], [Cr(III), Fe(III), Ca(II), Ni(II), Cu(II)], and [Ca(II), Zn(II), Pb(II)] in one injection, respectively, are described. The influence of adding different concentrations of Na_2EDTA solvent to the sample is shown. Detection limits, linear range, and the comparisons between this study and a post-column PAR method are given.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Lien, Wan-Fu
Partner: UNT Libraries

Simultaneous Part-Per-Billion Determination of Sodium and Chloride Ions

Description: The method utilizes both cation and anion concentrator columns in parallel as a preconcentration system. The preconcentrator system is loaded using a reagent delivery module operated for a specific time at a preset flow rate. Total injection volumes of 2-5 ml are routinely used. Various chromatograms are discussed along with detailed information concerning detection limits for sodium and chloride, the system operating conditions, and the solutions to other pitfalls which have arisen during the course of this work.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Gan, Din-Chung
Partner: UNT Libraries

Methods Development for Ion Chromatography

Description: Ion chromatography (IC) as developed by Small et. al. in 1975 has become an efficient and reliable analytical technique for simultaneous analysis of multiple ions in solution. The principle requirement prior to use the IC for an analysis is sample preparation; these include sample decomposition, solvent extraction, and trapping in case the target element is in the gas phase, etc. Solvent extractions for fluoride, chloride, sodium, ammonium, and potassium ions which are soluble in soils are described. Sample decompositions include silicate rocks using hydrofluoric acid for the determination of phosphorus; organic pesticides using lithium fusion technique for the determination of halide and cyanide ions are also described. After these sample preparation techniques, the aqueous solutions obtained were analyzed on the ion chromatograph for the analyses of the anions and cations mentioned above. Recovery and reproducibility of each technique is in general quite good and the comparison between the results obtained from the IC method and other instrumentation are given.
Date: May 1986
Creator: Supachai Maketon
Partner: UNT Libraries

Molecular Dynamics and Interactions in Liquids

Description: Various modern spectroscopies have been utilized with considerable success in recent years to probe the dynamics of vibrational and reorientational relaxation of molecules in condensed phases. We have studied the temperature dependence of the polarized and depolarized Raman spectra of various modes in the following dihalomethanes: dibromomethane, dichloromethane, dichloromethane-d2, and bromochloromethane. Among other observed trends, we have found the following: Vibrational dephasing times calculated from the bend) and (C-Br stretch) lineshapes are of the same magnitude in CI^B^. The vibrational dephasing time of [C-D(H) stretch] is twice as long in CD2Cl2 as in CH-^C^, and the relaxation time of (C-Cl stretch) is greater in CI^C^ than in CD2CI2. Isotropic relaxation times for all three stretching vibrations are significantly shorter in C^BrCl than in CI^C^ or CI^B^. Application of the Kubo model revealed that derived modulation times are close to equal for equivalent vibrations in the various dihalomethanes. Thus, the more efficient relaxation of the A^ modes in CE^BrCl can be attributed almost entirely to the broader mean squared frequency perturbation of the vibrations in this molecule.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Chen, Jen Hui
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Quantitative Determination of Glass in Slag and Fly Ash by Infrared Spectroscopy

Description: The present study was aimed at developing a new inexpensive and accurate analytical method for determining the glass content of slag and fly ash. Infrared absorption spectroscopy using an internal standard proved to be the method of choice. Both synthetic and commercial slags and fly ashes were investigated.
Date: December 1983
Creator: Eberendu, Alexis N. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Methods Development for Simultaneous Determination of Anions and Cations by Ion Chromatography

Description: The problem with which this research is concerned is the determination of inorganic anions and cations with single injection ion chromatography. Direct detection of the separated analyte ions occurs after the analyte ions have passed through ion-exchange resins where they are separated according to their affinity for the ion-exchange resin active sites. The techniques involve the use of essentially a non-suppressed ion chromatographic system followed by a suppressed ion chromatographic system. With this system it is possible to accomplish both qualitative and quantitative determinations.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Jones, Vonda K. (Vonda Kaye)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Molecular Dynamics in the Liquid Phase by FT-NMR, FT-IR and Laser Raman Lineshape Analysis

Description: Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) provides a convenient probe for the study of molecular reorientation in liquids because nuclear spin-lattice relaxation times are dependent upon the details of molecular motion. The combined application of Raman and Infrared (IR) lineshape analysis can furnish more complete information to characterize the anisotropic rotation of molecules. Presented here are the studies of NMR relaxation times, together with Raman/IR Mneshape analysis of the solvent and temperature dependence of rotational diffusion in 1,3,5-tribromobenzene and 1,3,5-trifluorobenzene. In these experiments, it was found that the rotational diffusion constants calculated from Perrin's stick model were two to three times smaller than the measured values of D, and D,,. Similarly, rotational diffusion constants predicted by the Hu-Zwanzig slip model were too large by a factor of 2. Application of the newer Hynes-Kapral-Weinberg model furnished rotational diffusion constants that were in reasonable agreement with the experimental results. The vibrational peak frequencies and relaxation times of the isotropic Raman spectra of the υ1 modes of CD2Br2 and CHBr3 were studied in solution. The frequency shifts in non-interactive solvents were explained well on the basis of solution variations in the dispersion energy. In Lewis bases, the displacements were in some, but not all, cases greater than predicted. On the other hand, it was found that the vibrational relaxation times of the C-H/C-D modes decreased dramatically in all Lewis base solvents. Therefore, it was concluded that relaxation times of the υ1 modes, rather than frequency shifts, furnish a more reliable measure of hydrogen bonding interactions of halomethanes in solution.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Chen, Fu-Tseng Andy
Partner: UNT Libraries

Silenes and Silenoids in the Chemistry of Cyclopentadienylsilanes

Description: Evidence is presented that apparent silene products obtained from the metalation of cyclopentadienyldimethyl - chlorosilane either with tert-butyl1ithium or with methylenetriphenylphosphorane actually arise from the metalated starting material, a silenoid, rather than from a silafulvene intermediate. Trimethylmethoxysi1ane is shown to be an effective trap for dimethylsilafulvene. A new dimethylsilafulvene precursor, bis(dimethylmethoxysi1yl) cyclopentadiene, which gives high yields of dimethyldimethoxysi1ane and the silafulvene at temperatures as low as 240°C is reported.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Rozell, James M. (James Morris)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Model Development for the Catalytic Calcination of Calcium Carbonate

Description: Lime is one of the largest manufactured chemicals in the United States. The conversion of calcium carbonate into calcium oxide is an endothermic reaction and requires approximately two to four times the theoretical quantity of energy predicted from thermodynamic analysis. With the skyrocketing costs of fossil fuels, how to decrease the energy consumption in the calcination process has become a very important problem in the lime industry. In the present study, many chemicals including lithium carbonate, sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate, lithium chloride, magnesium chloride, and calcium chloride have been proved to be the catalysts to enhance the calcination rate of calcium carbonate. By mixing these chemicals with pure calcium carbonate, these additives can increase the calcination rate of calcium carbonate at constant temperatures; also, they can complete the calcination of calcium carbonate at relatively low temperatures. As a result, the energy required for the calcination of calcium carbonate can be decreased. The present study has aimed at developing a physical model, which is called the extended shell model, to explain the results of the catalytic calcination. In this model, heat transfer and mass transfer are two main factors used to predict the calcination rate of calcium carbonate. By using the extended shell model, not only the catalytic calcination but also the inhibitive calcination of calcium carbonate have been explained.
Date: December 1987
Creator: Huang, Jin-Mo
Partner: UNT Libraries

Raman and NMR Relaxation Studies of Molecular Dynamics in Liquids

Description: Raman vibrational bands are sensitive to fluctuations in the molecular environment. Variations in the bandwidth and peak position can then be utilized to monitor molecular forces and interactions present in condense phases. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) provides a convenient probe for the study of molecular reorientation in liquids since nuclear spin relaxation times are dependent on the details of molecular motion. Presented here is the solvent study of the Raman bandwidths and frequency displacements of the mode of the compounds CH3MCI3 (M = C, Si, Ge, Sn) in a number of solvents of widely varying molecular structure. Also, a detailed isotope dilution study of the modes in CH2CI2/CD2CI2 mixtures is presented. In this set of experiments, I observed broadening of the v1 mode of CH2C12 upon dilution,which is the first experimental observation of such behavior. The temperature-dependent carbon-13 relaxation times and nuclear Overhauser enhancements in neat dichloromethane were measured. In this study we found that the molecular reorientation of this molecule was highly anisotropic, but could be well characterized assuming quasi-symmetric top behavior. In addition, in order to gain a more complete understanding of the reorientational dynamics in dichloromethane, we analyzed the 13-C NMR relaxation of CH2CI2 both in "inert" solvents of differing viscosities and in interactive solvents of varying Lewis basicities. Various theoretical models were also applied in order to characterize dichloromethane1s reorientational dynamics.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Rodriguez, Arturo A. (Arturo Angel)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Calcium Aluminates Synthesis, Characterization, and Hydration Behavior

Description: The hydration behavior of the calcium aluminates as a function of the glass content, the curing temperature, and the water-solid ratio was investigated. In order to keep them from influencing the results, the free-lime content and the surface area of all samples were kept constant, whenever possible. Samples were hydrated with a water-solid ratio of 10/1 for periods of 1 to 90 days. Three curing temperatures were studied; 2°C, 25°C, and 50°C. Samples were hydrated in tightly sealed polyethylene containers to prevent reactions with atmospheric carbon dioxide. The hydration was followed by X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. Only two samples, Hexacalcium Tetra-alumino Magnesium Silicate and Tricalcium Magnesium Dialuminate, were successfully prepared in an amorphous form. These compounds were used to investigate the effect of glass content on the hydration behavior. Results indicate that when the glass content is increased a corresponding increase is found in the percent combined water. Samples hydrated at 25°C were influenced by changes in the glass content to a greater degree than were those hydrated at either 2°C or 50°C. The effect of the water-solid ratio on the hydration behavior of the calcium aluminates was studied using the compounds; Hexacalcium Tetra-Alumino Magnesium Silicate/ and Dodecacalcium Hepta-Aluminate. In general, samples that were hydrated with large water-solid ratios reacted more completely than did those hydrated with small water-solid ratios. The presence of sufficient water to theoretically hydrate the samples to completion did not guarantee that the sample would do so. The curing temperature influenced the hydration behavior to a greater degree than did the glass content or the water-solid ratio. Increasing the curing temperature not only increased the rate of hydration, but, in some cases, also changed the hydration products.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Griffin, Joseph George
Partner: UNT Libraries

Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Studies on Aquatic Fulvic Acid

Description: High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to investigate the utility of this technique for the analytical and preparative separation of components of aquatic fulvic acids (FA). Three modes of HPLC namely adsorption, anion exchange and reversed phase were evaluated. Aquatic fulvic acids were either extracted from surface water and sediment samples collected from the Southwest of the U.S., or were provided in a high purity form from the USGS. On the adsorption mode, a major fraction of aquatic fulvic acid was isolated on a semipreparative scale and subjected to Carbon-13 NMR and FAB Mass Spectroscopy. Results indicated that (1) The analyzed fraction of fulvic acid contains more aliphatic than aromatic moieties; (2) Methoxy, carboxylic acids, and esters are well-defined moieties of the macromolecule; (3) Phenolic components of the macromolecules were not detected in the Carbon-13 NMR spectrum possibly because of the presence of stable free radicals. Results of the anion exchange mode have shown that at least three types of acidic functionalities in aquatic fulvic acid can be separated. Results also indicated that aquatic fulvic acid can be progressively fractionated by using subsequent modes of HPLC. Results of reversed phase mode have shown that (1) The fractionation of aquatic fulvic acid by RP-HPLC is essentially controlled by the polarity and/or pH of the carrier solvent system; (2) Under different RP-HPLC conditions aquatic fulvic acid from several locations are fractionated into the same major components; (3) Fulvic acid extracted from water and sediment from the same site are more similar than those extracted from different sites; (4) Cationic and anionic ion pair reagents indicated the presence of amphoteric compounds within the polymeric structure of fulvic acid. Each mode of HPLC provided a characteristic profile of fulvic acid. The results of this research provided basic information on the behavior of aquatic ...
Date: August 1986
Creator: Chang, David Juan-Yuan
Partner: UNT Libraries

Analysis of Acid Gas Emissions in the Combustion of the Binder Enhanced d-RDF by Ion Chromatography

Description: Waste-to-energy has become an attractive alternative to landfills. One concern in this development is the release of pollutants in the combustion process. The binder enhanced d-RDF pellets satisfy the requirements of environmental acceptance, chemical/biological stability, and being storeable. The acid gas emissions of combusting d-RDF pellets with sulfur-rich coal were analyzed by ion chromatography and decreased when d-RDF pellets were utilized. The results imply the possibility of using d-RDF pellets to substitute for sulfur-rich coal as fuel, and also substantiate the effectiveness of a binder, calcium hydroxide, in decreasing emissions of SOx. In order to perform the analysis of the combustion sample, sampling and sample pretreatment methods prior to the IC analysis and the first derivative detection mode in IC are investigated as well. At least two trapping reagents are necessary for collecting acid gases: one for hydrogen halides, and the other for NOx and SOx. Factors affecting the absorption of acid gases are studied, and the strength of an oxidizing agent is the main factor affecting the collection of NOx and SOx. The absorption preference series of acid gases are determined and the absorption models of acid gases in trapping reagents are derived from the analytical results. To prevent the back-flushing of trapping reagents between impingers when leak-checking, a design for the sampling train is suggested, which can be adopted in sample collections. Several reducing agents are studied for pretreating the sample collected in alkali-permanganate media. Besides the recommendation of the hydrogen peroxide solution in EPA method, methanol and formic acid are worth considering as alternate reducing agents in the pretreatment of alkaline-permanganate media prior to IC analysis. The first derivative conductivity detection mode is developed and used in IC system. It is efficient for the detection and quantification of overlapping peaks as well as being applicable for non-overlapping ...
Date: August 1988
Creator: Jen, Jen-Fon
Partner: UNT Libraries

Catalytic Calcination of Calcium Carbonate

Description: The calcination of calcium carbonate in a cement or a lime kiln uses approximately two to four times the theoretical quantity of energy predicted from thermodynamic calculation depending upon the type of the kiln used (1.4 x 10^6 Btu/ton theoretical to 6 x 10^6 Btu/ton actual). The objective of this research was to attempt to reduce the energy required for the calcination by 1. decreasing the calcination temperature of calcium carbonate, and/or 2. increasing the rate of calcination at a specific temperature. Assuming a catalytic enhancement of 20 percent in the industrial applications, an energy savings of 300 million dollars annually in the United States could be reached in the cement and lime industries. Three classes of compounds to date have shown a positive catalytic effect on the calcination of calcium carbonate. These include alkali halides, phospho- and silico-molybdate complexes, and the fused carbonates system.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Safa, Ali Ibrahim, 1953-
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Analysis of PCDD and PCDF Emissions from the Cofiring of Densified Refuse Derived Fuel and Coal

Description: The United States leads the world in per capita production of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), generating approximately 200 million tons per year. By 2000 A.D. the US EPA predicts a 20% rise in these numbers. Currently the major strategies of MSW disposal are (i) landfill and (ii) incineration. The amount of landfill space in the US is on a rapid decline. There are -10,000 landfill sites in the country, of which only 65-70% are still in use. The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) predicts an 80% landfill closure rate in the next 20 years. The development of a viable energy resource from MSW, in the form of densified Refuse Derived Fuel (dRDF), provides solutions to the problems of MSW generation and fossil fuel depletions. Every 2 tons of MSW yields approximately 1 ton of dRDF. Each ton of dRDF has an energy equivalent of more than two barrels of oil. At current production rates the US is "throwing away" over 200,000,000 barrels of oil a year. In order to be considered a truly viable product dRDF must be extensively studied; in terms of it's cost of production, it's combustion properties, and it's potential for environmental pollution. In 1987 a research team from the University of North Texas, in conjunction with the US DOE and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), cofired over 550 tons of dRDF and bdRDF with a high sulfur Kentucky coal in a boiler at ANL. This work examines the emission rates of polychlorinated dioxins (PCDDs) and furans (PCDFs) during the combustion of the dRDF, bdRDF, and coal. Even at levels of 50% by Btu content of dRDF in the fuel feedstock, emission rates of PCDDs and PCDFs were below detection limits. The dRDF is shown to be an environmentally acceptable product, which could help resolve one of the ...
Date: August 1990
Creator: Moore, Paul, 1962-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Physiological Responses of Myriophyllum spicatum to Time Varying Exposures of Diquat, 2,4-D and Copper

Description: The physiological responses of Myriophyllum spicatum to 2,4-D, diquat and copper were quantified using a plant tissue viability assay, and daily measures of dissolved oxygen and pH. Correlations of herbicide tissue residues to physiological response measures were determined and the relationship was used to develop exposure-response models. Diquat and copper had a greater effect on plant tissue viability than was observed for 2,4-D. Diquat produced greater reductions in dissolved oxygen concentrations and pH values than 2,4-D or copper. Copper exposure had the least effect on these parameters. Exposure-response models developed for 2,4-D predicted effective control at plant tissue residues ranging from 4000 to 4700 mg/kg. Aqueous exposure concentrations necessary to produce effective control plant tissue residues ranged from 0.20 to 0.40 mg/L. Exposure-response models developed for diquat predicted effective control at plant tissue residues ranging from 225 to 280 mg/kg. Aqueous exposure concentrations necessary to produce effective control plant tissue residues ranged from 0.113 to 0.169 mg/L. Exposure-response models developed for copper predicted effective control at plant tissue residues ranging from 680 to 790 mg/kg. Aqueous exposure concentrations necessary to produce effective control plant tissue residues ranged from 0.32 to 0.64 mg/L. Model predictions for 2,4-D, diquat and copper were within 0.5 mg/L of the manufacturers' label recommendations for these herbicides. The use of laboratory microcosms in development of exposure-response models for diquat and copper produced results comparable to those using the larger-scale greenhouse systems. Diquat effectively controlled M. spicatum at lower tissue residues than 2,4-D or copper. In addition, initial aqueous exposure concentrations were also lower for diquat. Use of these models in field situations should be coupled with considerations of quantity of biomass present and environmental conditions, such as turbidity, in order to accurately calculate exposure concentrations necessary for effective tissue residues. Thus, the use of these models ...
Date: May 1988
Creator: Rocchio, Patricia Mary
Partner: UNT Libraries

Calcium Silicates: Glass Content and Hydration Behavior

Description: Pure, MgO doped and B2C3 doped monocalcium, dicalcium, and tricalcium silicates were prepared with different glass contents. Characterization of the anhydrous materials was carried out using optical microscopy, infrared absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The hydration of these compounds was studied as a function of the glass contents. The hydration studies were conducted at 25°C. Water/solid ratios of 0.5, 1, 10, and 16 were used for the various experiments. The hydration behavior was monitored through calorimetry, conductometry, pH measurements, morphological developments by scanning electron microscopy, phase development by X-ray powder diffraction, and percent combined water by thermogravimetry. A highly sensitive ten cell pseudo-adiabatic microcalorimeter was designed and constructed for early hydration studies. Conductometry was found to be of great utility in monitoring the hydration of monocalcium silicate and the borate doped dicalcium silicates.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Zgambo, Thomas P. (Thomas Patrick)
Partner: UNT Libraries