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Plasma crowbars in cylindrical flux compression experiments

Description: We have done a series of one- and two-dimensional calculations of hard-core Z-pinch flux compression experiments in order to study the effect of a plasma on these systems. These calculations show that including a plasma can reduce the amount of flux lost during the compression. Flux losses to the outer wall of such experiments can be greatly reduced by a plasma conducting sheath which forms along the wall. This conducting sheath consists of a cold, dense high ..beta.., unmagnetized plasma which has enough pressure to balance a large field gradient. Flux which is lost into the center conductor is not effectively stopped by this plasma sheath until late in the implosion, at which time a layer similar to the one formed at the outer wall is created. Two-dimensionl simulations show that flux losses due to arching along the sliding contact of the experiment can be effectively stopped by the formation of a plasma conducting sheath.
Date: May 18, 1979
Creator: Suter, L.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prospects for fluorescence based imaging/visualization of hydrodynamic systems on the National Ignition Facility

Description: The next generation of large, high power lasers, such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [1] in the United States, Laser Mega Joule [2] in France or Helen Successor [3] in the United Kingdom offer the prospect of x-ray fluorescence based diagnosis of hydrodynamic experiments The x-ray fluorescence could be pumped by at least two techniques One technique is to use a sizable fraction of these facilities` high power to efficiently make multi-kilovolt x-rays which, in turn, causes dopants placed in experimental packages to fluoresce We call this ``externally pumped x-ray fluorescence`` The second technique is to use the sizable multi-kilovolt photon background that we expect to be present in many hohlraum based experiments, while the driving laser is on, to pump x-ray fluorescence The fluorescing medium could be a dopant in an experimental package or, possibly, a relatively thick slab of material in the hohlraum wall which could serve as a backlighter We call this ``hohlraum hot-corona pumped fluorescence``.
Date: June 4, 1998
Creator: Suter, L. J., LLNL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Target designs for energetics experiments on the National Ignition Facility

Description: The goal of the first hohlraum energetics experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller et al , Optical Eng. 43, 2841 (2004)] is to select the hohlraum design for the first ignition experiments. Sub-scale hohlraums heated by 96 of the 192 laser beams on the NIF are used to emulate the laser-plasma interaction behavior of ignition hohlraums. These ''plasma emulator'' targets are 70% scale versions of the 1.05 MJ, 300 eV ignition hohlraum and have the same energy-density as the full-scale ignition designs. Radiation-hydrodynamics simulations show that the sub-scale target is a good emulator of plasma conditions inside the ignition hohlraum, reproducing density ne within 10% and temperature Te within 15% along a laser beam path. Linear backscatter gain analysis shows the backscatter risk to be comparable to that of the ignition target. A successful energetics campaign will allow the National Ignition Campaign to focus its efforts on optimizing ignition hohlraums with efficient laser coupling.
Date: August 31, 2007
Creator: Meezan, N B; Glenzer, S H & Suter, L J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser Plasma instability reduction by coherence disruption

Description: The saturation levels of stimulated scattering of intense laser light in plasmas and techniques to reduce these levels are of great interest. A simple model is used to highlight the dependence of the reflectivity on the coherence length for the density fluctuations producing the scattering. Sometimes the coherence lengths can be determined nonlinearly. For NIF hohlraum plasmas, a reduction in the coherence lengths might be engineered in several ways. Finally, electron trapping in ion sound waves is briefly examined as a potentially important effect for the saturation of stimulated Brillouin scattering.
Date: April 19, 2006
Creator: Kruer, W l; Amendt, P A; Meezan, N & Suter, L J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thomson scattering from inertial confinement fusion plasmas

Description: Thomson scattering has been developed at the Nova laser facility as a direct and accurate diagnostic to characterize inertial confinement fusion plasmas. Flat disks coated with thin multilayers of gold and beryllium were with one laser beam to produce a two ion species plasma with a controlled amount of both species. Thomson scattering spectra from these plasmas showed two ion acoustic waves belonging to gold and beryllium. The phase velocities of the ion acoustic waves are shown to be a sensitive function of the relative concentrations of the two ion species and are in good agreement with theoretical calculations. These open geometry experiments further show that an accurate measurement of the ion temperature can be derived from the relative damping of the two ion acoustic waves. Subsequent Thomson scattering measurements from methane-filled, ignition-relevant hohlraums apply the theory for two ion species plasmas to obtain the electron and ion temperatures with high accuracy. The experimental data provide a benchmark for two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using LASNEX, which is presently in use to predict the performance of future megajoule laser driven hohlraums of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The data are consistent with modeling using significantly inhibited heat transport at the peak of the drive. Applied to NIF targets, this flux limitation has little effect on x- ray production. The spatial distribution of x-rays is slightly modified but optimal symmetry can be re-established by small changes in power balance or pointing. Furthermore, we find that stagnating plasma regions on the hohlraum axis are well described by the calculations. This result implies that stagnation in gas-filled hohlraums occurs too late to directly affect the capsule implosion in ignition experiments.
Date: July 8, 1997
Creator: Glenzer, S.H.; Back, C.A. & Suter, L.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Efficient production of 2--10 keV x-rays by laser heated ``underdense radiators``

Description: The next generation of high power lasers offers the prospect of creating multi-kilovolt x-rays with {gt}10% efficiency. Such efficiencies are achieved with ``underdense radiators``, a non- traditional source of laser generated x-rays. Applications of these sources with the proposed National Ignition Facility (NIF) include volume preheating of experiments; bright, multi-keV backlighting; pumps for fluorescent imaging of capsule dopants and Doppler velocimetry; uniform irradiation of large test objects. This paper presents two-dimensional numerical simulations for these high power lasers with unprecedented efficiency.
Date: May 22, 1996
Creator: Suter, L.J.; Kauffman, R.L.; Maxon, M.S. & Davis, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiation drive in laser heated hohlraums

Description: Nearly 10 years of Nova experiments and analysis have lead to a relatively detailed quantitative and qualitative understanding of radiation drive in laser heated hohlraums. Our most successful quantitative modelling tool is 2D Lasnex numerical simulations. Analysis of the simulations provides us with insight into the details of the hohlraum drive. In particular we find hohlraum radiation conversion efficiency becomes quite high with longer pulses as the accumulated, high Z blow-off plasma begins to radiate. Extensive Nova experiments corroborate our quantitative and qualitative understanding.
Date: November 3, 1995
Creator: Suter, L.J.; Kauffman, R.L. & Darrow, C.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hohlraum drive and implosion experiments on Nova. Revision 1

Description: Experiments on Nova have demonstrated hohlraum radiation temperatures up to 300 eV and in lower temperature experiments reproducible time integrated symmetry to 1--2%. Detailed 2-D LASNEX simulations satisfactorily reproduce Nova`s drive and symmetry scaling data bases. Hohlraums has been used for implosion experiments achieving convergence ratios (initial capsule radius/final fuel radius) up to 24 with high density glass surrounding a hot gas fill.
Date: September 8, 1994
Creator: Kilkenny, J.D.; Suter, L.J. & Cable, M.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thomson scattering from Inertial Confinement Fusion targets

Description: We have applied ultraviolet Thomson scattering to accurately measure the electron and ion temperature in high-density gas-filled hohlraums at the Nova laser facility. The implementation of a short-wavelength probe laser that operates at 263 nm (4{omega}) has allowed us for the first time to investigate scalings to high gas fill densities and to characterize the hohlraum conditions of the low-Z gas plasma. as well as of the high-Z wall plasma. These measurements have provided us with a unique data set that we use to make critical comparisons with radiation-hydrodynamic modeling using the code LASNEX. This code is presently being applied to design fusion targets for the National Ignition Facility. The Thomson scattering experiments show the existence of electron temperature gradients in the gas plasma that are well modeled when including a self-consistent calculation of magnetic fields. The fields are of relatively small strength not affecting the Thomson scattering spectra directly but limiting the electron thermal transport in the gas resulting into temperature gradients consistent with the experimental observations. In addition, the ion temperature data show that the stagnation time of the gas plasma on the hohlraum axis, which is driven by the radial inward flowing plasma, is sensitive to the gas fill density and is well described by the calculations.
Date: July 22, 1999
Creator: Baldis, H A; Estabrook, K G; Glenzer, S H & Suter, L J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental basis for laser-plasma interactions in ignition hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility

Description: A series of laser plasma interaction experiments at OMEGA (LLE, Rochester) using gas-filled hohlraums shed light on the behavior of stimulated Raman scattering and stimulated Brillouin scattering at various plasma conditions encountered in indirect drive ignition designs. We present detailed experimental results that quantify the density, temperature, and intensity thresholds for both of these instabilities. In addition to controlling plasma parameters, the National Ignition Campaign relies on optical beam smoothing techniques to mitigate backscatter. We show that polarization smoothing is effective at controlling backscatter. These results provide an experimental basis for forthcoming experiments on National Ignition Facility.
Date: November 12, 2009
Creator: Froula, D H; Divol, L; London, R A; Berger, R L; Doeppner, T; Meezan, N B et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

X-ray Conversion Efficiency of high-Z hohlraum wall materials for indirect drive ignition

Description: We measure the conversion efficiency of 351 nm laser light to soft x-rays (0.1-5 keV) for Au, U and high Z mixtures 'cocktails' used for hohlraum wall materials in indirect drive ICF. We use spherical targets in a direct drive geometry, flattop laser pulses and laser smoothing with phase plates to achieve constant and uniform laser intensities of 10{sup 14} and 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2} over the target surface that are relevant for the future ignition experiments on NIF. The absolute time and spectrally-resolved radiation flux is measured with a multichannel soft x-ray power diagnostic. The conversion efficiency is then calculated by dividing the measured x-ray power by the incident laser power from which the measured laser backscattering losses is subtracted. After {approx}0.5 ns, the time resolved x-ray conversion efficiency reaches a slowly increasing plateau of 95% at 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} laser intensity and of 80% at 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. The M-band flux (2-5 keV) is negligible at 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} reaching {approx}1% of the total x-ray flux for all target materials. In contrast, the M-band flux is significant and depends on the target material at 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2} laser intensity, reaching values between 10% of the total flux for U and 27% for Au. Our LASNEX simulations show good agreement in conversion efficiency and radiated spectra with data when using XSN atomic physics model and a flux limiter of 0.15, but they underestimate the generated M-band flux.
Date: February 22, 2008
Creator: Dewald, E; Rosen, M; Glenzer, S H; Suter, L J; Girard, F; Jadaud, J P et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production of multi-kilovolt x-ray from laser-heated targets

Description: Experiments to develop high photon energy x-ray sources were carried out on the Nova laser. Ten laser beams delivered approximately 39 kJ of energy in 2 ns into a Be cylinder filled with Xe gas. The conversion efficiency into x-ray {lt} 4 keV was measured to be 5-15%, which is the highest measured in this photon regime for laser-produced plasmas. The temporal dependence of the x-ray emission indicates that the bulk of the emission is emitted in the first half of the 2 ns pulse. A set of diagnostics were fielded to image the volume in emission as well as provide spectra to measure conversion efficiency.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Back, C.A.; Grum, J.; Decker, C.D.; Davis, J.L.; Landen, O.L.; Suter, L.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of laser-produced fusion plasmas with thomson scattering

Description: Thomson scattering has been developed at the Nova laser facility as a direct and accurate diagnostic to characterize inertial confinement fusion plasmas. Measurements from methane-filled, ignition relevant hohlraums apply the theory for two ion species plasmas, which has been tested in separate open geometry experiments, to obtain electron and ion temperatures. The experimental data provide a benchmark for two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using LASNEX, which is presently in use to predict he performance of future megajoule laser- driven hohlraums of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The data are consistent with modeling using significantly inhibited heat transport at the peak of the drive. Furthermore, we find that stagnating plasma regions on the hohlraum axis are well described by the calculations. The result implies that stagnation in gas-filled hohlraums occurs too late to directly affect the capsule implosion in ignition experiments.
Date: July 9, 1997
Creator: Glenzer, S.H.; Back, C.A.; Suter, L.J.; MacGowan, B.J.; Landen, O.L.; Lindl, J.D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-power laser source evaluation

Description: This document reports progress in these areas: EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FROM NOVA: TAMPED XENON UNDERDENSE X-RAY EMITTERS; MODELING MULTI-KEV RADIATION PRODUCTION OF XENON-FILLED BERYLLIUM CANS; MAPPING A CALCULATION FROM LASNEX TO CALE; HOT X RAYS FROM SEEDED NIF CAPSULES; HOHLRAUM DEBRIS MEASUREMENTS AT NOVA; FOAM AND STRUCTURAL RESPONSE CALCULATIONS FOR NIF NEUTRON EXPOSURE SAMPLE CASE ASSEMBLY DESIGN; NON-IGNITION X-RAY SOURCE FLUENCE-AREA PRODUCTS FOR NUCLEAR EFFECTS TESTING ON NIF. Also appended are reprints of two papers. The first is on the subject of ``X-Ray Production in Laser-Heated Xe Gas Targets.`` The second is on ``Efficient Production and Applications of 2- to 10-keV X Rays by Laser-Heated Underdense Radiators.``
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Back, C.A.; Decker, C.D.; Dipeso, G.J.; Gerassimenko, M.; Managan, R.A.; Serduke, F.J.D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An MPP hydrocode to study laser-plasma interactions

Description: Because of the increased size and power inherent in a laser-AGEX on NIF, laser-plasma interactions (LPI) observed in NOVA AGEX play an increasingly important role. The process by which filamentation and stimulated backscatter grow is complex. Furthermore, there is a competition among the instabilities so that lessening one can increase another. Therefore, simulating them is an integral part to successful experiments on NIF. In this paper, we present a massively parallel hydrocode to simulate laser-plasma interactions in NIF-relevant AGEX regimes.
Date: October 1, 1998
Creator: Berger, R L; Langdon, A B; Langer, S H; Still, C H; Suter, L J & A, Williams E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of thin wall imaging in the diagnosis of laser heated hohlraums

Description: High-Z, laser heated hohlraums can be made thick enough to contain thermal radiation, yet thin enough to let out x-rays >{approximately}6keV produced by hot, relatively dense blow-off plasma. The authors use such ``thin wall hohlraums`` to observe the physical location of hot, dense, laser produced hohlraum plasmas. This technique has allowed them to come to some understanding of laser transport/deposition, plasma stagnation and bulk plasma filling.
Date: May 14, 1996
Creator: Suter, L.J.; Thiessen, A.R.; Ze, F.; Kauffman, R.; Price, R.H.; Rupert, V.C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent implosion experiments at Nova

Description: Both electron (direct) and x-ray (indirect) driven implosions of DT targets have been done using approx.20 kJ of 0.35 ..mu..m light from the ten beam Nova laser facility. The direct drive targets (glass microballoons with nominal dimensions of 1000 ..mu..m x 2 ..mu..m and DT pressures of 12 to 14 atm) produced neutron yields in excess of 10/sup 13/ and fusion efficiencies >0.15%. Recent experiments will be described, with particular emphasis on measurements made using neutron diagnostics.
Date: June 1, 1986
Creator: Cable, M.D.; Lane, S.M.; Prussin, S.G.; Glendinning, S.G.; Munro, D.H.; Hatchett, S.P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Using Laser Entrance Hole Shields to Increase Coupling Efficiency in Indirect Drive Ignition Targets for the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

Description: Coupling efficiency, the ratio of the capsule absorbed energy to the driver energy, is a key parameter in ignition targets. The hohlraum originally proposed for NIF coupled {approx}11% of the absorbed laser energy to the capsule as x-rays. We describe here a second generation of hohlraum target which has higher coupling efficiency, {approx}16%. Because the ignition capsule's ability to withstand 3D effects increases rapidly with absorbed energy, the additional energy can significantly increase the likelihood of ignition. The new target includes laser entrance hole (LEH) shields as a principal method for increasing coupling efficiency while controlling symmetry in indirect-drive ICF. The LEH shields are high Z disks placed inside the hohlraum to block the capsule's view of the cold LEHs. The LEH shields can reduce the amount of laser energy required to drive a target to a given temperature via two mechanisms: (1) keeping the temperature high near the capsule pole by putting a barrier between the capsule and the pole, (2) because the capsule pole does not have a view of the cold LEHs, good symmetry requires a shorter hohlraum with less wall area. Current integrated simulations of this class of target couple 140 kJ of x-rays to a capsule out of 865 kJ of absorbed laser energy and produce {approx}10 MJ of yield. In the current designs, which are not completely optimized, the addition of the LEH shields saves {approx}95 kJ of energy (about 10%) over hohlraums without LEH shields.
Date: November 3, 2005
Creator: Callahan, D A; Amendt, P A; Dewald, E L; Haan, S W; Hinkel, D E; Izumi, N et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiation-driven hydrodynamics of long pulse hohlraums on the National Ignition Facility

Description: The first hohlraum experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) using the first four laser beams have activated the indirect drive experimental capabilities and tested radiation temperature limits imposed by hohlraum plasma filling. Vacuum hohlraums have been irradiated with laser powers up to 6 TW, 1 ns to 9 ns long square pulses and energies of up to 17 kJ to activate several diagnostics, to study the hohlraum radiation temperature scaling with the laser power and hohlraum size, and to make contact with hohlraum experiments performed at the NOVA and Omega laser facilities. Furthermore, for a variety of hohlraum sizes and pulse lengths, the measured x-ray flux shows signatures of plasma filling that coincide with hard x-ray emission from plasma streaming out of the hohlraum. These observations agree with hydrodynamic simulations and with analytical modeling that includes hydrodynamic and coronal radiative losses. The modeling predicts radiation temperature limits on full NIF (1.8 MJ) that are significantly greater than required for ignition hohlraums.
Date: October 17, 2005
Creator: Dewald, D L; Landen, O L; Suter, L J; Schein, J; Holder, J; Campbell, K et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Efficient Coupling of 527 nm Laser Beam Power to a Long Scalelength Plasma

Description: We experimentally demonstrate that application of laser smoothing schemes including smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) and polarization smoothing (PS) increases the intensity range for efficient coupling of frequency doubled (527 nm) laser light to a long scalelength plasma with n{sub e}/n{sub cr} = 0.14 and T{sub e} = 2 keV.
Date: August 24, 2005
Creator: Moody, J. D.; Divol, L.; Glenzer, S. H.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Froula, D. H.; Gregori, G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department