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Drillers' logs of wells in the Hanford reservation. Volume I

Description: More than 3000 wells and test holes have been drilled within the Hanford Reservation. Information on these wells range from complete sample suites complemented by bore hole geophysical studies to no record at all. Often the driller's log is the only record available for a well. This report is a product of the continuing project aimed at quantifying the hydraulic parameters of the synthetic flow system of the Hanford Reservation. The subsurface geology of the Hanford Reservation must be understood before the hydrologic parameters of the rocks can be estimated with any accuracy. To refine the state of our knowledge of the hydrologic regime all available data concerning the reservation geology must be considered and evaluated. Transcriptions are presented of 417 drillers' logs. This compilation includes every original driller's report we could obtain for the 600, 1100, and 3000 areas of the Hanford Reservation, but only a few logs from each of the 100, 200, and 300 areas where holes are very close together. The standard format consists of two parts: a heading that gives the general information for the well, and the description of the material penetrated.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Summers, W.K. & Schwab, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drillers' logs of wells in the Hanford reservation. Volume II

Description: Transcribed drillers' logs, in the same order as presented in Hanford Wells, 1973, are included for some 200 wells. The geologic structures at various depths are recorded. Drillers' notes are included when they help define the character of the strata being drilled or the nature or quality of the samples taken.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Summers, W.K. & Schwab, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HYBRID SULFUR ELECTROLYZER DEVELOPMENT, NHI WORK PACKAGE N-SR07TC0301, FY07 FIRST QUARTER REPORT

Description: The proof of concept of SO2 electrolysis for the hybrid sulfur (HyS) process is the second priority research target of the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative's thermochemical program for FY07. The proof of concept of the liquid-phase option must be demonstrated at the single cell level for an extended run times (>100 hours). The rate of development of HyS will depend on the identification of a promising membrane or an alternative means for controlling sulfur formation. Once successful long-duration operation has been demonstrated, SRNL will develop a multi-cell stack that can be connected to the H2SO4 decomposer being developed by SNL for the S-I ILS for a Hybrid Sulfur Integrated Laboratory-Scale Experiment during FY 2008. During the first quarter of FY07, SRNL continued the component development and membrane development activities with the goal of identifying and characterizing improved electrodes, electrocatalysts, membranes and MEA configurations which could then be tested at larger scale in the SDE test facility. A modified glass cell was fabricated to allow measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2) transport across membrane samples at elevated temperatures (up to 70 C). This testing also includes evaluating SO2 transport in different sulfuric acid concentrations (30-70 wt%). A new potentiostat/frequency analyzer was installed for determining ionic conductivity of membranes. This instrument enhances our capabilities to characterize membrane, electrocatalyst and MEA properties and performance. Continuing work from FY06, evaluations were preformed on various commercial and experimental membranes and electrocatalyst materials for the SDE. Several different types of commercially-available membranes were analyzed for sulfur dioxide transport as a function of acid strength including perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA), sulfonated polyetherketone-ketone, and poly-benzimidazole (PBI) membranes. Experimental membranes from the sulfonated diels-alder polyphenylenes (SDAPP) and modified Nafion{reg_sign} 117 were evaluated for SO{sub 2} transport as well. These membranes exhibited reduced transport coefficient for SO{sub 2} transport without the ...
Date: December 20, 2006
Creator: Summers, W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HYBRID SULFUR ELECROLYZER DEVELOPMENT, NHI WORK PACKAGE N-SR07TC0301, FY08 FIRST QUARTER REPORT

Description: Hydrogen has been identified as a leading candidate to replace petroleum as part of the transition to a sustainable energy system, and major efforts are being conducted worldwide to develop the technologies and supporting activities required for this transition. In the United States, the federal research efforts are led by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The U.S. DOE Hydrogen Program is an integrated inter-office program being conducted by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), Office of Fossil Energy and Office of Science. The primary objective of the DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) is to develop the nuclear hydrogen production technologies necessary to produce hydrogen at a cost competitive with other alternative transportation fuels. The focus of the NHI is on thermochemical cycles and high temperature electrolysis. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been tasked with the primary responsibility to perform research and development in order to characterize, evaluate and develop the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) thermochemical process. The HyS Process uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to split water and produce hydrogen. During FY05 and FY06, SRNL designed and conducted proof-of-concept testing for a SDE using a low temperature, PEM fuel cell-type design concept. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small footprint, characteristics that are crucial for successful implementation on a commercial scale. During FY07, SRNL extended the range of testing of the SDE to higher temperature and pressure, conducted a 100-hour longevity test, and designed and built a larger, multi-cell stack electrolyzer. The proof of concept of SO2 electrolysis for the HyS Process is a priority research target for the FY 2008 NHI Program. Technical options must be better defined and the challenges better understood. The current status of electrolyzer performance must be established by ...
Date: December 20, 2007
Creator: Summers, W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Core sample descriptions and summary logs of six wells within the Hanford Reservation

Description: From February through May, 1976, selected sites on the Hanford Reservation were core drilled. These six holes provide a loose network of observation holes traversing the reservation in an east--west direction between the Columbia River and State Highway 240. This program represents the first attempt to recover cores from the glaciofluviatile material and Ringold Formation beneath the Hanford Reservation. This contains three parts: an introductory text describing the method of inspection and format for written description; summary logs that illustrate in condensed form the rocks penetrated by the wells drilled; and the detailed written descriptions of core samples. 3 figures, 7 tables. (RWR)
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Summers, W.K. & Hanson, R.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sample descriptions and summary logs of selected wells within the Hanford Reservation

Description: As part of a program aimed at quantifying the hydraulic parameters of the synthetic flow systems of the Hanford Reservation a systematic study was made of the samples from selected wells. This report presents the description and summary logs of cuttings samples from 114 wells and test holes drilled within the Hanford Reservation. Written descriptive matter as required, including color, fossils, trace constituents, total drilled depth, and any other nonstandard features observed is included.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Summers, W.K. & Hanson, R.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sample descriptions and summary logs of selected wells within the Hanford Reservation

Description: This report presents the description and summary logs of cuttings samples from 114 wells and test holes drilled within the Hanford Reservation. Written descriptive matter as required including color, fossils, trace constituents, total drilled depth, and any other nonstandard features observed is included.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Summers, W.K. & Hanson, R.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sample descriptions and summary logs of selected wells within the Hanford Reservation

Description: This report presents the description and summary logs of cuttings samples from 114 wells and test holes drilled within the Hanford Reservation. Written descriptive matter is included as required, including color, fossils, trace constituents, total drilled depth, and any other nonstandard features observed.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Summers, W.K. & Hanson, R.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sample descriptions and summary logs of selected wells within the Hanford Reservation

Description: This report presents the description and summary logs of cuttings samples from 114 wells and test holes drilled within the Hanford Reservation. Written descriptive matter as required, including color, fossils, trace constituents, total drilled depth, and any other nonstandard features observed is included.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Summers, W.K. & Hanson, R.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THE EFFECT OF ANOLYTE PRODUCT ACID CONCENTRATION ON HYBRID SULFUR CYCLE PERFORMANCE

Description: The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) cycle (Fig. 1) is one of the simplest, all-fluids thermochemical cycles that has been devised for splitting water with a high-temperature nuclear or solar heat source. It was originally patented by Brecher and Wu in 1975 and extensively developed by Westinghouse in the late 1970s and early 1980s. As its name suggests, the only element used besides hydrogen and oxygen is sulfur, which is cycled between the +4 and +6 oxidation states. HyS comprises two steps. One is the thermochemical (>800 C) decomposition of sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), oxygen (O{sub 2}), and water. H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} = SO{sub 2} + 1/2 O{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O. The other is the SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis of water to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and hydrogen (H{sub 2}), SO{sub 2} + 2 H{sub 2}O = H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + H{sub 2}, E{sup o} = -0.156 V, explaining the 'hybrid' designation. These two steps taken together split water into H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} using heat and electricity. Researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and at the University of South Carolina (USC) have successfully demonstrated the use of proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzers (Fig. 2) for the SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis (sulfur oxidation) step, while Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) successfully demonstrated the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition (sulfur reduction) step using a bayonet-type reactor (Fig. 3). This latter work was performed as part of the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) cycle Integrated Laboratory Scale demonstration at General Atomics (GA). The combination of these two operations results in a simple process that will be more efficient and cost-effective for the massive production of hydrogen than alkaline electrolysis. Recent developments suggest that the use of PEMs other than Nafion will allow sulfuric acid to be produced at higher concentrations (>60 wt%), ...
Date: March 24, 2010
Creator: Gorensek, M. & Summers, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FINAL REPORT ON GDE GAP CELL

Description: A project has been undertaken to develop an electrochemical cell and support equipment for evaluation of a gas diffusion electrode-based, narrow-electrolyte-gap anode for SO{sub 2} oxidation in the hydrogen production cycle of the hybrid sulfur (HyS) process. The project supported the HyS development program at the Savannah River National Lab (SRNL). The benefits of using a gas diffusion electrode in conjunction with the narrow anolyte gap are being determined through electrochemical polarization testing under a variety conditions, and by comparison to results produced by SRNL and others using anode technologies that have no anolyte gap. These test results indicate that the NGA cell has low resistance suitable for use in the HyS electrolyzer, exhibits good efficiency at high current densities compared to the direct feed HyS electrolyzer, and indicates robust performance in extended testing over 65 hours. Seepage episodes were mostly caused by port clogging, which can be mitigated in future designs through minor modifications to the hardware. Significant reductions in sulfur crossover have not yet been demonstrated in the NGA configuration compared to in-house direct feed testing, but corroborative sulfur layer analysis is as yet incomplete. Further testing in a single-pass anolyte configuration is recommended for complete evaluation of steady-state electrochemical efficiency and SO{sub 2} crossover in the narrow gap configuration.
Date: September 28, 2009
Creator: Herman, D.; Summers, W. & Danko, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HYBRID SULFUR FLOWSHEETS USING PEM ELECTROLYSIS AND A BAYONET DECOMPOSITION REACTOR

Description: A conceptual design is presented for a Hybrid Sulfur process for the production of hydrogen using a high-temperature nuclear heat source to split water. The process combines proton exchange membrane-based SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolyzer technology being developed at Savannah River National Laboratory with silicon carbide bayonet decomposition reactor technology being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Both are part of the US DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. The flowsheet otherwise uses only proven chemical process components. Electrolyzer product is concentrated from 50 wt% sulfuric acid to 75 wt% via recuperative vacuum distillation. Pinch analysis is used to predict the high-temperature heat requirement for sulfuric acid decomposition. An Aspen Plus{trademark} model of the flowsheet indicates 340.3 kJ high-temperature heat, 75.5 kJ low-temperature heat, 1.31 kJ low-pressure steam, and 120.9 kJ electric power are consumed per mole of H{sub 2} product, giving an LHV efficiency of 35.3% (41.7% HHV efficiency) if electric power is available at a conversion efficiency of 45%.
Date: May 30, 2008
Creator: Gorensek, M & William Summers, W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CRADA Final Report For CRADA NO. CR-12-006 [Operation and Testing of an SO{sub 2}-depolarized Electrolyzer (SDE) for the Purpose of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid Production]

Description: Over the past several years, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has led a team of collaborators under the Department of Energy’s (DOE) nuclear hydrogen production program to develop the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process. HyS is a 2-step water-splitting process consisting of high temperature decomposition of sulfuric acid to generate SO{sub 2}, followed by the electrolysis of aqueous SO{sub 2} to generate hydrogen and sulfuric acid. The latter is fed back into the high temperature reactor. SRNL designed and built an SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) and a test facility. Over 40 SDE’s were tested using different catalysts, membranes and other components. SRNL demonstrated that an SDE could be operated continuously for approximately 200 hours under certain conditions without buildup of sulfur at the SDE’s cathode, thus solving a key technical problem with SDE technology. Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) is a major supplier of hydrogen production systems, and they have proprietary technology that could benefit from the SDE developed by SRNS, or some improved version thereof. However, to demonstrate that SRNL’s SDE is a truly viable approach to the electrolyzer design, continuous operation for far greater periods of time than 200 hours must be demonstrated, and the electrolyzer must be scaled up to greater hydrogen production capacities. SRNL and Air Products entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the objective of demonstrating the effectiveness of the SDE for hydrogen and sulfuric acid production and to demonstrate long-term continuous operation so as to dramatically increase the confidence in the SDE design for commercial operation. SRNL prepared a detailed technical report documenting previous SDE development, including the current SDE design and operating conditions that led to the 200-hour sulfurfree testing. SRNL refurbished its single cell SDE test facility and qualified the equipment for continuous operation. A new membrane electrode assembly ...
Date: February 24, 2014
Creator: Summers, W. A.; Colon-Mercado, H. R.; Steimke, J. L. & Zahn, Steffen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS REFERENCE DESIGN AND COST ANALYSIS

Description: This report documents a detailed study to determine the expected efficiency and product costs for producing hydrogen via water-splitting using energy from an advanced nuclear reactor. It was determined that the overall efficiency from nuclear heat to hydrogen is high, and the cost of hydrogen is competitive under a high energy cost scenario. It would require over 40% more nuclear energy to generate an equivalent amount of hydrogen using conventional water-cooled nuclear reactors combined with water electrolysis compared to the proposed plant design described herein. There is a great deal of interest worldwide in reducing dependence on fossil fuels, while also minimizing the impact of the energy sector on global climate change. One potential opportunity to contribute to this effort is to replace the use of fossil fuels for hydrogen production by the use of water-splitting powered by nuclear energy. Hydrogen production is required for fertilizer (e.g. ammonia) production, oil refining, synfuels production, and other important industrial applications. It is typically produced by reacting natural gas, naphtha or coal with steam, which consumes significant amounts of energy and produces carbon dioxide as a byproduct. In the future, hydrogen could also be used as a transportation fuel, replacing petroleum. New processes are being developed that would permit hydrogen to be produced from water using only heat or a combination of heat and electricity produced by advanced, high temperature nuclear reactors. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing these processes under a program known as the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI). The Republic of South Africa (RSA) also is interested in developing advanced high temperature nuclear reactors and related chemical processes that could produce hydrogen fuel via water-splitting. This report focuses on the analysis of a nuclear hydrogen production system that combines the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), under development by PBMR ...
Date: May 12, 2009
Creator: Gorensek, M.; Summers, W.; Boltrunis, C.; Lahoda, E.; Allen, D. & Greyvenstein, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pumping tests of well Campbell et al. No. 2, Gila Hot Springs, Grant County, New Mexico

Description: Well Campbell et al. No. 2 near Gila Hot Springs in southwestern New Mexico (Section 5, Township 13 South, Range 13 West) was pumped for a five-step test and a 48-hour constant-rate test during October 1981. Measurements included depth to water in the pumping well and two observation wells, and discharge rates at the pumping well and two springs. The water level in the pumping well responded during both tests. However, water-level changes in the observation wells were too small for analytical use and discharge rates from the springs showed no change. Chemical analyses of water samples collected from two springs and the pumping well show very similar water chemistries. Estimates of hydraulic properties show transmissivity from 12,000 to 14,000 gpd/ft and a storativity of 0.05. Combining these parameters with well data gives the first-year optimum discharge rate as 50 gpm with 20 feet of drawdown. Pumping this well at 50 gpm for forty years should produce only small water-level changes in wells a few hundred feet away. It would diminish the flow of the springs, and for planning purposes the combined discharge of the springs and well should be considered constant.
Date: March 1, 1982
Creator: Schwab, G.E.; Summers, W.K.; Colpitts, R.M. Jr.; Teuten, C.E. & Young, W.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

Description: The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, coking and composite fabrication continued using coal-derived samples. These samples were tested in direct carbon fuel cells. Methodology was refined for determining the aromatic character of hydro treated liquid, based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). Tests at GrafTech International showed that binder pitches produced using the WVU solvent extraction protocol can result in acceptable graphite electrodes for use in arc furnaces. These tests were made at the pilot scale.
Date: May 12, 2006
Creator: Kennel, Elliot B.; Bergen, R. Michael; Carpenter, Stephen P.; Dadyburjor, Dady; Katakdaunde, Manoj; Magean, Liviu et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department