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Borehole depth and its effect on the performance of fluid jets

Description: The use of high pressure water jets as a means of improving drilling rates has led to varying results, where different companies have carreid out the research. This paper explains the reason for the dichotomy in the results and also suggests a means by which the performance of jets on bits, and hence drilling performance, can be improved.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Summers, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Considerations in the use of water jets to enlarge deep submerged cavities

Description: In order to facilitate use of reinjection wells, and to lower their cost, it has been proposed that a single well be reamed from 22-1/2 cm to 2 m diameter over an increment of 70 m at a depth of 2000 m. In this manner a single well would be capable of coping with flow rates which currently necessitate a dozen wells being emplaced. The problems encountered in using high pressure water jets for this reaming operation are described. Limiting parameters on the use of high pressure water jets and their operating diameters are identified. The considerable advantages to the use of long chain polymers in such a hostile environment are also delineated.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Summers, D.A. & Sebastian, Z.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Independent nuclear safety assessment of the Non-nuclear Verification Instrument T562

Description: The System Surety Assessment Department 12332 of Sandia National Laboratories performed an independent nuclear safety assessment of the Non-nuclear Verification Instrument T562. The T562 was assessed for structural integrity, characteristics of its electrical circuits, and its Radiated Electrical Emissions. Department 12332 concluded that the T562 and its Operational Procedures are safe to use with war reserve weapons. However, strict adherence to the Operational Procedures for the T562 is needed to prevent tampering with the instrument.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Summers, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Independent nuclear safety assessment of the non-nuclear verification instrument NNV-470AS

Description: The System Surety Assessment Department 12332 of Sandia National Laboratories performed an independent nuclear safety assessment of the Non-nuclear Verification Instrument NNV-470AS. The NNV-470AS was assessed for structural integrity, characteristics of its electrical circuits, and its Radiated Electrical Emissions. Department 12332 concluded that the NNV-470AS and its Operational Procedures are safe to use with war reserve weapons. However, strict adherence to the Operational Procedures for the NNV-470AS is needed to prevent tampering with the instrument.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Summers, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A comparison of commercial/industry and nuclear weapons safety concepts

Description: In this paper the authors identify factors which influence the safety philosophy used in the US commercial/industrial sector and compare them against those factors which influence nuclear weapons safety. Commercial/industrial safety is guided by private and public safety standards. Generally, private safety standards tend to emphasize product reliability issues while public (i.e., government) safety standards tend to emphasize human factors issues. Safety in the nuclear weapons arena is driven by federal requirements and memoranda of understanding (MOUs) between the Departments of Defense and Energy. Safety is achieved through passive design features integrated into the nuclear weapon. Though the common strand between commercial/industrial and nuclear weapons safety is the minimization of risk posed to the general population (i.e., public safety), the authors found that each sector tends to employ a different safety approach to view and resolve high-consequence safety issues.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Bennett, R.R. & Summers, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Adaptation of jet accumulation techniques for enhanced rock cutting

Description: The velocity of water jet flow can be increased when the jet impacts a target material or another water jet. A theory describing such augmentation in terms of velocity, mass, and energy change is considered. The phenomena is sensitive to jet structure and the jet velocity profile. Jet velocity profiles do not remain constant over great distances from the nozzle, and ultimately disrupt into droplets. Within the droplet the profile is more regular and the velocity constant. The theory is extended to cover this case and experimental evidence of jet augmentation and its effects is presented.
Date: October 26, 1977
Creator: Mazurkiewicz, M.; Barker, C.R. & Summers, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department