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Borehole depth and its effect on the performance of fluid jets

Description: The use of high pressure water jets as a means of improving drilling rates has led to varying results, where different companies have carreid out the research. This paper explains the reason for the dichotomy in the results and also suggests a means by which the performance of jets on bits, and hence drilling performance, can be improved.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Summers, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Considerations in the use of water jets to enlarge deep submerged cavities

Description: In order to facilitate use of reinjection wells, and to lower their cost, it has been proposed that a single well be reamed from 22-1/2 cm to 2 m diameter over an increment of 70 m at a depth of 2000 m. In this manner a single well would be capable of coping with flow rates which currently necessitate a dozen wells being emplaced. The problems encountered in using high pressure water jets for this reaming operation are described. Limiting parameters on the use of high pressure water jets and their operating diameters are identified. The considerable advantages to the use of long chain polymers in such a hostile environment are also delineated.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Summers, D.A. & Sebastian, Z.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Independent nuclear safety assessment of the Non-nuclear Verification Instrument T562

Description: The System Surety Assessment Department 12332 of Sandia National Laboratories performed an independent nuclear safety assessment of the Non-nuclear Verification Instrument T562. The T562 was assessed for structural integrity, characteristics of its electrical circuits, and its Radiated Electrical Emissions. Department 12332 concluded that the T562 and its Operational Procedures are safe to use with war reserve weapons. However, strict adherence to the Operational Procedures for the T562 is needed to prevent tampering with the instrument.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Summers, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of a water jet drill for development of geothermal resources. Progress report, June 1, 1976--August 1, 1976

Description: Research has concentrated on two areas: firstly, the laboratory testing of harder rock material such as granite and limestone, and secondly, the development of the field testing equipment and its preliminary proof-testing in the field.
Date: August 1, 1976
Creator: Summers, D. A. & Bushnell, D. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of a water jet drill for development of geothermal resources. Progress report, December 1, 1976--February 1, 1977

Description: A nozzle design was established, and the effects from rock confining pressure and hole back pressure on drilling rate were determined in granular rock. A paper presented at the 31st annual meeting of the Petroleum-Mechanical Engineering Conference of ASME in Mexico City in September 1976 and entitled ''Environmental Effects on a High Pressure Jet Drill'' is appended. The results to date from this ongoing research program suggest that because of the high drilling rates achieved in the laboratory, that high pressure jet drilling has a useful potential in industry, but that the parameters controlling such application are as yet undetermined. It is evident that the rock properties have a greater effect on the drillability than jet cutting pressures. The use of polymeric additives does not appear to have as great a potential for improving drilling rate as they have in other applications where standoff distances are greater. (JGB)
Date: February 1, 1977
Creator: Summers, D. A. & Lehnhoff, T. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Independent nuclear safety assessment of the non-nuclear verification instrument NNV-470AS

Description: The System Surety Assessment Department 12332 of Sandia National Laboratories performed an independent nuclear safety assessment of the Non-nuclear Verification Instrument NNV-470AS. The NNV-470AS was assessed for structural integrity, characteristics of its electrical circuits, and its Radiated Electrical Emissions. Department 12332 concluded that the NNV-470AS and its Operational Procedures are safe to use with war reserve weapons. However, strict adherence to the Operational Procedures for the NNV-470AS is needed to prevent tampering with the instrument.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Summers, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of a water jet drill for development of geothermal resources. Progress report, June 1, 1975--January 15, 1976

Description: The initial experimentation leading to the design of a water jet drilling device is described. The effect of change in nozzle design on cutting rate is illustrated. An improved nozzle design giving advance rates of over 200 ft/hr is described. Preliminary experimentation using cavitating jet flows is illustrated. The effect of feed rate, rotational speed, and anisotropy are also described.
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: Summers, D. A. & Bushnell, D. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of a water jet drill for development of geothermal resources. Progress report, June 1, 1975--June 1, 1976

Description: A nozzle design has drilled Berea sandstone at rates up to 280 in./min. This requires high rotational speeds and a large (30/sup 0/) angle between the forward and the inclined orifices of the nozzle. Tests carried out under simulated borehole conditions show an initial reduction in penetration rate of up to 50 percent as rock and fluid back pressures over 500 psi are applied, but that this effect is reduced as these pressures are further increased. Tests in four rock types show that the uniaxial compressive strength is not a measure of jet drilling performance. Preliminary experimentation has shown that long-chain polymers add 15 percent to the cutting ability of the jets at low concentrations but do not improve jet cutting in concentrations over 200 ppm. The design of the field drilling unit, which is currently under construction, is presented.
Date: June 1, 1976
Creator: Summers, D. A. & Bushnell, D. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A comparison of commercial/industry and nuclear weapons safety concepts

Description: In this paper the authors identify factors which influence the safety philosophy used in the US commercial/industrial sector and compare them against those factors which influence nuclear weapons safety. Commercial/industrial safety is guided by private and public safety standards. Generally, private safety standards tend to emphasize product reliability issues while public (i.e., government) safety standards tend to emphasize human factors issues. Safety in the nuclear weapons arena is driven by federal requirements and memoranda of understanding (MOUs) between the Departments of Defense and Energy. Safety is achieved through passive design features integrated into the nuclear weapon. Though the common strand between commercial/industrial and nuclear weapons safety is the minimization of risk posed to the general population (i.e., public safety), the authors found that each sector tends to employ a different safety approach to view and resolve high-consequence safety issues.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Bennett, R.R. & Summers, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Adaptation of jet accumulation techniques for enhanced rock cutting

Description: The velocity of water jet flow can be increased when the jet impacts a target material or another water jet. A theory describing such augmentation in terms of velocity, mass, and energy change is considered. The phenomena is sensitive to jet structure and the jet velocity profile. Jet velocity profiles do not remain constant over great distances from the nozzle, and ultimately disrupt into droplets. Within the droplet the profile is more regular and the velocity constant. The theory is extended to cover this case and experimental evidence of jet augmentation and its effects is presented.
Date: October 26, 1977
Creator: Mazurkiewicz, M.; Barker, C.R. & Summers, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A waterjet mining machine for use in room and pillar mining operations. [Final report]

Description: A new mining machine is constructed for use in room and pillar mining operations. This machine uses the action of computer controlled, centrally located high pressure cutting lances to cut deep slots in a coal face. These slots stress relieve the coal ahead of the machine and outline blocks of coal. The movement forward of the machine then wedges up the lower block of coal. This wedging action is assisted by the gathering arms of the loader section of the machine, and by underlying oscillating waterjets which create a slot ahead of the loading wedge as it advances. Finally the top section of coal is brought down by the sequential advance of wedge faced roof support members, again assisted by the waterjet action from the central cutting arms. The machine is designed to overcome major disadvantages of existing room and pillar mining machines in regard to a reduction in respirable dust, the creation of an immediate roof support, and an increase in product size, with concomitant reduction in cleaning costs.
Date: June 1, 1990
Creator: Summers, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A waterjet mining machine for use in room and pillar mining operations

Description: A new mining machine is constructed for use in room and pillar mining operations. This machine uses the action of computer controlled, centrally located high pressure cutting lances to cut deep slots in a coal face. These slots stress relieve the coal ahead of the machine and outline blocks of coal. The movement forward of the machine then wedges up the lower block of coal. This wedging action is assisted by the gathering arms of the loader section of the machine, and by underlying oscillating waterjets which create a slot ahead of the loading wedge as it advances. Finally the top section of coal is brought down by the sequential advance of wedge faced roof support members, again assisted by the waterjet action from the central cutting arms. The machine is designed to overcome major disadvantages of existing room and pillar mining machines in regard to a reduction in respirable dust, the creation of an immediate roof support, and an increase in product size, with concomitant reduction in cleaning costs.
Date: June 1, 1990
Creator: Summers, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hazardous waste dislodging and conveyance: The confined sluicing method

Description: This report describes an investigation of a means for dislodging and conveying waste currently stored in underground storage tanks. A series of experiments have been carried out to evaluate the potential of a medium pressure, medium flow rate cutting system as a means of dislodging the waste. It has been found that waterjets at a pressure of 10,000 psi can effectively cut the material which has been chosen to simulate the hardened saltcake within the storage tanks. Based on a parameterization test it has thus been calculated that an inlet flow volume of approximately 30 gallons per minute will be sufficient to excavate 30 gallons per minute of waste from a tank. In order to transport the resulting slurry from the tank, a modified jet pump has been developed and has demonstrated its capability of conveying fluid and waste particles, up to one inch in diameter, to a height of more than 60 feet. Experiments were conducted to examine different configurations to achieve the production levels required for waste removal and to clean the walls of residual material. It was found more effective to clean the walls using an inclined angle of impact rather than a perpendicular angle of impact in order to provide a safeguard against driving the water through any cracks in the containment. It was demonstrated that excavation can take place with almost total immediate extraction of the water and debris from the cutting process. The results have qualitatively shown the potential of a medium pressure waterjet system for achieving the required results for underground storage tank waste retrieval.
Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: Summers, D. A.; Fossey, R. D.; Mann, M. D.; Blaine, J. G. & Rinker, M. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department