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Phonon Density of States and Sound Velocities of Magnesiow?stite in Earth's Lower Mantle

Description: The partial phonon densities of states of iron in magnesiowuestite [(Mg{sub 0.75},Fe{sub 0.25})O] have been measured by nuclear inelastic X-ray scattering up to 109 GPa. Compressional and shear wave velocities, shear moduli, and their pressure derivatives increase significantly across the spin-pairing transition of iron in (Mg{sub 0.75},Fe{sub 0.25})O at approximately 50 GPa. The effects of the transition on the elastic properties of (Mg,Fe)O at lower-mantle pressures are in contrast to what was predicted by studying MgO and high-spin magnesiowuestite, and need to be considered in future geophysical modeling of the lower mantle. The transition also affects other thermodynamic properties of magnesiowuestite under high pressures.
Date: January 20, 2006
Creator: Lin, J; Jacosben, S D; Sturhahn, W; Jackson, J; Zhao, J & Yoo, C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The phonon density of states measured with synchrotron radiation and nuclear resonances.

Description: In this experiment, we will use synchrotron radiation to measure the density of states of vibrational excitations (phonons.) Each group of students will conduct an experiment at sector 3-ID of the Advanced Photon Source, the nation's premier synchrotron radiation facility. We provide one support staff per group, i.e., Drs. Michael Hu, Sarvjit Shastri, Wolfgang Sturhahn, and Tom Toellner will help their group to perform the experiment and interpret the data. After data collection (1-2 h per group), the remaining time will be spent with evaluation and interpretation. In addition to your own data, we provide similar sets of data. Computer hardware (iMac running as X-terminals) and software for data manipulation will be provided. It is important that you understand the basic principles of the experimental method. Therefore we strongly recommend that you read the next section and the attached article Phonon Density of States Measured by Inelastic Nuclear Resonant Scattering. You are expected to use this description to familiarize yourself with the experimental setup and its individual components before the start of the experiment. You should be able to solve at least 75% of the quiz correctly. If you have particular questions or a general problem in understanding this document, please contact Dr. W. Sturhahn, Bldg. 431, Rm. D007, tel. 0163.
Date: January 26, 2001
Creator: Sturhahn, W.; Hu, M.; Shastri, S. & Toellner, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An inelastic nuclear resonant scattering study of partial entropies of ordered and disordered Fe{sub 3}Al

Description: Inelastic nuclear resonant scattering spectra were measured on alloys of Fe{sub 3}Al that were chemically disordered, partially-ordered, and DO{sub 3}-ordered. The phonon partial DOS for {sup 57}Fe atoms were extracted from these data, and the change upon disordering in the partial vibrational entropy of Fe atoms was obtained. By comparison to previous calorimetry measurements, it is shown that the contribution of the Fe atoms to the vibrational entropy is a factor of 10 smaller than that of the Al atoms. With the assistance of Born - von Karman model calculations on the ordered alloy, it is shown that differences in the vibrational entropy originate primarily with changes in the optical modes upon disordering. The phonon DOS of {sup 57}Fe was found to change systematically with chemical short range order in the alloy. It is argued that changes in the vibrational entropy originate primarily with changes in the chemical short-range order in the alloy, as opposed to long-range order.
Date: November 29, 1999
Creator: Fultz, B.; Sturhahn, W.; Toellner, T. S. & Alp, E. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear resonant scattering beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

Description: The principal and engineering aspects of a dedicated synchrotron radiation beamline under construction at the Advanced Photon Source for nuclear resonant scattering purposes are explained. The expected performance in terms of isotopes to be studied, flux, and timing properties is discussed.
Date: September 1, 1993
Creator: Alp, E. E.; Mooney, T. M.; Toellner, T. & Sturhahn, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mossbauer spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation

Description: The principles underlying observation of the Mossbauer effect with synchrotron radiation are explained. The current status of the field is reviewed, and prospects for dedicated experimental stations on third generation machines are discussed.
Date: July 1, 1993
Creator: Alp, E. E.; Mooney, T. M.; Toellner, T. & Sturhahn, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inelastic scattering of synchrotron radiation from electrons and nuclei for lattice dynamics studies.

Description: The inelastic scattering of x-rays, one of the first applications of x-rays to the field of condensed matter physics, has been rejuvenated in the last decade. The availability of synchrotrons radiation from wiggler and undulator sources combined with advances in monochromatization of the incident beam and analysis of the scattered beam with meV resolution led to the measurement of phonon dispersion relations. In addition, the use of Moessbauer nuclei as scatterer and analyzers has led to the discovery of the inelastic nuclear resonant scattering technique. This new method allows extraction of partial phonon density of states from amorphous materials, thin films, multilayers and interfaces, and liquids.
Date: December 3, 1999
Creator: Alp, E. E.; Sturhahn, W.; Sinn, H.; Toellner, T.; Hu, M.; Sutter, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Phonon density of states in Fe/Cr (001) superlattices and Tb-Fe thin-film alloys.

Description: Inelastic nuclear scattering of X-rays from the 14.413 keV nuclear resonance of {sup 57}Fe was employed to measure directly the Fe-projected phonon density of states (DOS) in MBE-grown Fe/Cr(00l) superlattices on MgO(001). The Moessbauer-inactive {sup 56}Fe isotope was used in the Fe layers. A 1{angstrom} thick Moessbauer-active {sup 57}Fe-probe layer (95% enriched) was placed at different locations within the Fe layers. This procedure permits one to distinguish phonon density of states at the Fe-Cr-interface from that at the center of the Fe-film. Distinct differences have been observed in the DOS of our samples. The phonon DOS of an amorphous Tb{sub 33}Fe{sub 67} alloy film was found to be a broad and structureless hump, contrary to that of an epitaxial TbFe{sub 2} film, which exhibits characteristic features.
Date: February 15, 1999
Creator: Alp, E. E.; Keune, W.; Roehlsberger, R.; Ruckert, T.; Schror, H. & Sturhahn, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synchrotron Mossbauer Spectroscopy of powder samples

Description: Synchrotron Mossbauer Spectroscopy, SMS, is an emerging technique that allows fast and accurate determination of hyperfine field parameters similar to conventional Mossbauer spectroscopy with radioactive sources. This new technique, however, is qualitatively different from Mossbauer spectroscopy in terms of equipment, methodology, and analysis to warrant a new name. In this paper, the authors report on isomer shift and quadrupole splitting measurements of Mohr`s salt, Fe(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O for demonstration purposes. Theoretical calculations were performed and compared to experiments both in energy and time domain to demonstrate the influence of thickness distribution and preferential alignment of powder samples. Such measurements may prove to be useful when the data collection times are reduced to few seconds in the third generation, undulator based synchrotron radiation sources.
Date: August 1, 1994
Creator: Alp, E. E.; Sturhahn, W. & Toellner, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure-Induced Electronic Spin Transition of Iron in Magnesiow?stite-(Mg,Fe)O

Description: An electronic transition of iron in magnesiowuestite has been studied with synchrotron Moessbauer and X-ray emission spectroscopies under high pressures. Synchrotron Moessbauer studies show that the quadrupole splitting disappears and the isomer shift drops significantly across the spin-paring transition of iron in (Mg{sub 0.75},Fe{sub 0.25})O between 62 and 70 GPa, whereas X-ray emission spectroscopy of the Fe-K{sub {beta}} fluorescence lines in dilute (Mg{sub 0.95},Fe{sub 0.05})O also confirms that a high-spin to low-spin transition occurs between 46 GPa and 55 GPa. Based upon current results and percolation theory, we reexamine the high-pressure phase diagram of (Mg,Fe)O and find that iron-iron exchange interaction plays an important role in stabilizing the high-spin state of iron in FeO-rich (Mg,Fe)O.
Date: October 5, 2005
Creator: Lin, J F; Gavriliuk, A G; Struzhkin, V V; Jacobsen, S D; Sturhahn, W; Hu, M Y et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure effect on the electronic structure of iron in (Mg,Fe)(Al,Si)O3 perovskite: A combined synchrotron M?ssbauer and x-ray emission spectroscopy study up to 100 GPa

Description: We investigated the valence and spin state of iron in an Al-bearing ferromagnesian silicate perovskite sample, (Mg{sub 0.88}Fe{sub 0.09})(Si{sub 0.94}Al{sub 0.10})O{sub 3}, at 300 K and up to 100 GPa, using diamond-anvil cells and synchrotron Moessbauer spectroscopy techniques. Under elevated pressures, our Moessbauer time spectra are sufficiently fitted by a ''three-doublet'' model, which assumes two ferrous (Fe{sup 2+}) iron types and one ferric (Fe{sup 3+}) iron type with distinct hyperfine parameters. At pressures above 20 GPa, the fraction of the ferric iron, Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe, is about 75% and remains unchanged to the highest pressure, indicating a fixed valence state of iron within this pressure range. Between 20 and 100 GPa, the quadruple splittings of all three iron types do not change with pressure, while the isomer shift between the Fe{sup 3+} types and the Fe{sup 2+} type increases continuously with increasing pressure. In conjunction with previous x-ray emission data on the same sample, the unchanging quadruple splittings and increasing isomer shift suggest that Fe{sup 2+} undergoes a broad spin crossover towards the low-spin state at 100 GPa, while Fe{sup 3+} remains in the high-spin state. The essentially constant quadruple splittings of Fe{sup 2+} can also be taken as an indication for strong resistance against further distortion of the local iron environment after initial compression.
Date: January 23, 2006
Creator: Li, J; Sturhahn, W; Jackson, J; Struzhkin, V V; Lin, J F; Zhao, J et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Introduction to nuclear resonant scattering with synchrotron radiation

Description: In recent years, the use of synchrotron radiation has enjoyed increasing interest in applications to topics of Moessbauer spectroscopy. The development was initiated by the pioneering experimental work of Gerdau et al. following the original proposal of Ruby to use synchrotron radiation for the excitation of low energy nuclear resonances. From the early experiments it was clear that synchrotron radiation experiments with nuclear resonances would only succeed if familiar energy resolved measurements were replaced with a new time resolved technique. During the last decade, the authors experienced the refinement of this novel method for obtaining hyperfine parameters. This exciting development-materialized because of more intense synchrotron radiation sources at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) and at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), powerful new avalanche photo diode detectors, and improved high energy resolution monochromators. Simultaneously the tools for evaluation of the novel time spectra were created, e.g., Sturhahn and Gerdau developed extensive computer codes based on the theoretical descriptions of Hannon and Trammel. Many beautiful demonstrations of the basic features of the coherent elastic scattering channel using Bragg- and Laue-reflections from single crystals deepened the understanding of nuclear resonant scattering. The concepts leading to the application of synchrotron radiation to elastic and inelastic nuclear resonant scattering are discussed. The resulting new experimental techniques are compared to conventional Moessbauer spectroscopy. A survey of situations that favor experiments with synchrotron radiation is offered.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Sturhahn, W.; Alp, E.E.; Toellner, T.S.; Hession, P.; Hu, M. & Sutter, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Phonon density of states in epitaxial Fe/Cr(001) superlattices

Description: Incoherent nuclear resonant absorption of synchrotron radiation at the 14.413 keV nuclear resonance of {sup 57}Fe was employed to measure directly the Fe-projected (partial) photon density of states (DOS) in epitaxial [Fe(8.7ML)/Cr(8ML)]{sub 200} superlattices and alloy films MBE-grown on MgO(001). Isotopically depleted {sup 56}Fe was used which gives no resonance signal. 0.7 monolayers (ML) thick {sup 57}Fe-probe layer (1{angstrom}) of 95.5% enrichment were placed either at the {sup 56}Fe-on-Cr interfaces or at the center of the {sup 56}Fe layers, thus providing a nuclear resonance signal from different places in the films. In addition, the authors prepared an epitaxial film which contains only a 1{angstrom}-thick {sup 57}Fe submonolayer in Cr(001) and no {sup 56}Fe layers. Moreover, they prepared a 7000 {angstrom}-thick epitaxial {sup 57}Fe{sub 0.03}Cr{sub 0.97}(001) alloy film. The measurements were performed at 300 K with 2.3 meV energy resolution around 14.413 keV. The phonon DOS of the center site was found to be very similar to that of bulk bcc Fe. Compared to the center site, the DOS of the other samples show distinct differences. In particular, longitudinal vibrations of Fe atoms are suppressed at the Fe/Cr interfaces.
Date: October 21, 1999
Creator: Ruckert, T.; Keune, W.; Sturhahn, W.; Hu, M. Y.; Sutter, J. P.; Toellner, T. S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department