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Evaluations of alternatives for management of INEL transuranic waste

Description: The results of studies to identify and evaluate alternatives for long-term management of transuranic-contaminated waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory are discussed. Three processing approaches have been studied: incineration; compaction and immobilization; and repackaging only. Four locations and four methods have been identified for possible onsite disposal of retrieved waste.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Smith, T.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent advances in technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals

Description: From 11th international annual meeting of the German Society of Nuclear Medicine; Athens, Greece (24 Sep 1973). The development of a number of new technetium-99m-labeled radiopharmaceuticals for use in scintiscanning is described. The effectiveness of colloids, chelates, and complexes that localize in a variety of body organs is discussed. The use of /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red blood cells for cardiovascular diagnostics is discussed. (CH)
Date: January 1, 1973
Creator: Richards, P. & Smith, T.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MEASUREMENT OF SURFACE AREA OF URANIUM DIOXIDE POWDER AND SINTERED PELLETS

Description: The surface areas of sintered uranium dioxide pellets (individual pellets ranging from 50 to 2000 cm/sup 2/) were measured with a precision of 1.3% and a reproducibility of about 4% with a BET adsorption apparatus, using krypton as the adsorbate. Powder samples (10 to 50 mg) of uranium dioxide, anatase, zirconia, and ceria were measured with a precision of 0.5% and a reproducibility of about 3%. An excellent correlation was found between the surface area and the average particle diameter, as measured with a Fisher Sub-Sieve Sizer. An equation, relating the surface area(S) and the average particle diameter(D) (S= 1.67/D, as compared to S = 0.547/D (if the particles were spherical)) shows the powder has a shape factor of about 3. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1960
Creator: Smith, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stress, seismicity and structure of shallow oil reservoirs of Clinton County, Kentucky. Final report

Description: Between 1993 and 1995 geophysicists of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, in a project funded by the US Department of Energy, conducted extensive microseismic monitoring of oil production in the recently discovered High Bridge pools of Clinton County and were able to acquire abundant, high-quality data in the northern of the two pools. This investigation provided both three-dimensional spatial and kinetic data relating to the High Bridge fracture system that previously had not been available. Funded in part by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Kentucky Geological Survey committed to develop a geological interpretation of these geophysical results, that would be of practical benefit to future oils exploration. This publication is a summary of the results of that project. Contents include the following: introduction; discovery and development; regional geology; fractured reservoir geology; oil migration and entrapment; subsurface stress; induced seismicity; structural geology; references; and appendices.
Date: December 12, 1995
Creator: Hamilton-Smith, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mode identification and cavity stretching for the prototype storage ring cavity

Description: The Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring uses single cell cavities. As described in the paper ``Coupled Bunch Instabilities in the APS Ring`` by L. Emery, several of the higher order modes (HOM) in these cavities cause instability thresholds below the desired operating level. In order to clearly identify these modes, an experimental method of measuring the fields is necessary. A well- known technique is measurement with probes or loops extending in from the walls, but this cannot be used in the interior. A different approach is the use of small perturbations which cause a frequency shift that is related in a known way to the local field. This perturbation can be calculated for objects of needle-shaped, spherical, and disk-shaped form. With proper use this method can give very accurate measurements of the direction and magnitude of the electric and magnetic fields. This report gives examples of a method of measuring electric field strengths in a resonant cavity. It is shown that insertion of a metallic bead (needle), whose dimensions are small compared to the wavelength, perturbs the frequency of a resonant electromagnetic cavity by an amount that depends upon the local electric field at the position of the perturbing object.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Smith, T.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vector network analyzer techniques to measure WR340 waveguide windows.

Description: In its fundamental form, network analysis involves the measurement of incident, reflected, and transmitted waves that travel along transmission lines. Measuring both magnitude and phase of components is important for several reasons. First, both measurements are required to fully characterize a linear network and ensure distortion-free transmission. To design effective matching networks, complex impedances must be measured. In the development of computer-aided-design (CAD) circuit simulation programs, magnitude and phase data are required for accurate models. In addition, time-domain characterization requires magnitude and phase information in order to perform an inverse Fourier transform [1]. To acquire accurate data using network analyzers special care must be taken when performing calibrations and measurements. Various calibrations and measurement techniques using a vector network analyzer (HP8510C) will be discussed. The design of a WR340 waveguide rf window will be used as an example for explaining some of these techniques. A major problem encountered when making network measurements is the need to separate the effects of the transmission medium from the device characteristics. While it is advantageous to be able to predict how a device will behave in the environment of its final application, it can be difficult to measure this way. In most microwave measurements, systematic errors are the most significant source of measurement uncertainty. Systematic errors are caused by imperfections in the test equipment and test setup. If these errors do not vary over time, they can be characterized through calibration and mathematically removed during the measurement process [2]. The process of removing systematic errors from the network analyzer S-parameter measurement is called ''measurement calibration.''
Date: August 14, 2002
Creator: Smith, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Time rate collision matrix

Description: The collision integral terms in Boltzmann equation are reformulated numerically leading to the substitution of the multiple integrals with a multiplicative matrix of the two colliding species velocity distribution functions which varies with the differential collision cross section. A matrix of lower rank may be constructed when one of the distribution functions is specified, in which case the matrix elements represent kinetic transition probabilities in the velocity space and the multiplication of the time rate collision matrix with the unknown velocity distribution function expresses the time rate of change of the distribution. The collision matrix may be used to describe the time evolution of systems in nonequilibrium conditions, to evaluate the rate of momentum and energy transfer between given species, or to generate validity criteria for linearized kinetic equations.
Date: February 1, 1980
Creator: Stoenescu, M.L. & Smith, T.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Long-term subsurface migration of radionuclides from buried INEL transuranic waste

Description: Studies have been conducted to project long-term subsurface migration of radionuclides from transuranic (TRU-contaminated solid waste buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Projections are given for several conceptual methods of waste confinement.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Humphrey, T.G. & Smith, T.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Risk evaluations of transuranic waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

Description: Approximately 75% of the defense low-level transuranic (TRU) waste stored in the United States and 25% of the buried TRU waste is located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Studies have been performed to identify and evaluate technical alternatives for the long-term management of this waste. (The alternatives range from leaving the waste in place as is to reviewing, processing, and shipping it to an offsite geological repository.) Among the evalations that have been performed were preliminary risk evaluations. The dose commitment and risk of hypothetical, near-term, accidental or uncontrolled releases of radionuclides have been evaluated for each alternative. The following potential causes of radionuclide release have been studied: process and handling accidents, shipping accidents, natural events (e.g., earthquakes), man-caused events (e.g., airplane crashes), and future intrusion by individuals or small populations after loss of societal control over the waste. The hypothetical releases have been evaluated, in terms of dose commitment and (if pertinent) probability and risk, for all operational steps making up each concept. The dominant scanerios in terms of near-term risk are (1) lava flow up through or over the waste, leading to airbone releases; (2) an explosion or a criticality accident in the waste-processing facility; and (3) a tornado strike or a fire during waste retrieval. The dominant long-term releases are (1) volcanic action; and (2) intrusion of people on the waste site.Although substantial dose commitments to individual members of the public were calculated for the lava flow and intrusion scenarios, no prompt health effects would be expected from the exposures. The effects would be in the form of a slightly increased likelihood of latent cancer induction.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Smith, T.H. & Keneshea, F.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of neutral particles on anomalous skin current in tokamaks

Description: The anomalously rapid skin current relaxation observed in some experiments may be explained by any mechanism which cools the electrons thus increases the resistivity and limits the current increase in the plasma boundary, such as enhanced ion conduction, loss of high energy tail electrons or influx of cold neutrals. The current penetration into the plasma and the evolution of the electron temperature from hollow to central peaked radial profile are evaluated for a PLT (Princeton Large Torus) experiment and indicate the significant influence of the neutrals on radial gradients and thus on the conditions favoring unstable regimes. One observes the skin current relaxation in the presence of neutrals in contrast with the skin current persistence in the absence of neutrals.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Stoenescu, M.L. & Smith, T.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Community relations for the transport of TMI-2 core debris

Description: This paper describes community relations for the transport of Three Mile Island Unit 2 core debris, before and during the first two years of the campaign. The author defines community relations as interactions with groups or individuals to influence public perception. Members of Congress, state and local officials, news media, special interest groups, and private citizens are included in the definition of community. The paper discusses issues of concern to the community, level of interest generated by the transport campaign, events that kept community interest focused on the campaign, and communication techniques employed to provide the community with factual information and to generate public confidence. Finally, the paper describes lessons learned from the community relations effort. 10 refs., 3 figs.
Date: January 1, 1988
Creator: Smith, T.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Labeling of blood cells with /sup 99m/Tc

Description: Erythrocytes, leukocytes, and tumor cells were labeled with /sup 99m/Tc to take advantage of the ideal physical properties of /sup 99m/Tc. Clinical studies indicate that labeled erythrocytes can be used to obtain improved vascular and splenic imaging as well as reliable red cell volumes. The erythrocytes have been labeled with and without the use of an added reducing agent. Two methods of adding the reducing agent stannous chloride have been proposed which differ in the order of addition of the stannous ion and the pertechnetate. The preliminary reports of labeling of leukocytes and tumor cells offer hope that further development will result in truly specific radiopharmaceuticals. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1974
Creator: Eckelman, W.C.; Smith, T.D. & Richards, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feasibility of using hydrothermal resources in Malaysian prawn aquaculture. Final report

Description: The potential application of geothermal resources in South Carolina for freshwater prawn aquaculture was examined. In coastal S.C. 23 existing geothermal well sites were identified which encompassed an area which ranged from Georgetown to Beaufort. Depth averaged approx. 615 m while temperature averaged approx. 37/sup 0/C. Artesian flow rates varied from 190 to 2650 1/min. Detailed water quality analyses were conducted at 12 sites. In general, major differences from surface waters were in chlorides, fluorides, dissolved solids, ph, alkalinity, and ammonia levels. A detailed replicated laboratory study was conducted to examine the effect of geothermal water on growth and survival of prawns. After 42 days very poor survival was recorded from the various 100% geothermal water treatments. However, 50:50 mixture of shallow well water and geothermal water resulted in a survival rate of 83%, which was similar to the control treatments. Growth was also similar to that observed among the control animals.
Date: August 1, 1982
Creator: Smith, T.I.J.; Rhodes, R.J. & Wannamaker, A.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multiple control for feedback tuning of the Advanced Photon Source storage ring/booster rf cavities

Description: A method for tuning rf cavities that has fewer rf reflected power conditions and is easier for accelerator operators to use is presented. This method will also prepare the rf cavity tuning for future higher beam currents. The results and installation methods are discussed.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Smith, T.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Advanced Photon Source linac modulators PSpice simulation and upgrade.

Description: The APS linac modulators provide DC pulses to Thales 35/45-MW klystrons. The modulators are pulse forming network (PFN)-type pulsers with EMI 40-kV switch-mode charging supplies. The PFN consists of two 8-cell lines connected in parallel. EEV CX1836A thyratrons are used as discharge switches. The PSpice simulation of the modulators using OrCAD release 9.1 made it possible to find appropriate parameters of RC circuits that reduce high-frequency ringing of the pulse transformer primary voltage. In order to improve pulse top flatness (originally {+-}3%), new coils were built and installed. The coils allow discrete tuning of pulse waveforms by changing the amount of used turns. The advantage of two parallel-line PFN configurations was also used. An equivalent method using a low-voltage generator was used for PFN fine tuning.
Date: June 28, 2002
Creator: Cours, A. & Smith, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Progress Report - Grant No.DE-FG02-98ER62558

Description: This final progress report contains a comparison of actual accomplishments with the goals and objectives proposed for the period. It was proposed in the original aims of the proposal that an integrated set of gene sequence/function/structure analysis tools be assembled to support maximal extraction functional information from among the available complete genome Open Reading Frames (ORFs) and their probable regulatory regions. This report lists the progress that was made on these three major components of the proposal: (1) The construction of diagnostic functional patterns/profiles for all probable protein functional domains. (2) The development of methodologies needed to construct full hash tables and associated ORF distributions of all possible regulatory words. The development of sequence comparative tools to search for and identify regulatory circuits among sets of coordinately regulated genes. (3) The construction of prototype data structures, assembled (and updated) from existing databases and other data resources, to support the above developments and their validation.
Date: May 1, 2003
Creator: Smith, T.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Working with the states to transport TMI-2 core debris

Description: Close communications with state officials has been a key factor in success of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 core debris shipments. The US Department of Energy made extensive efforts to provide state officials with schedule information, answer technical questions, and satisfy concerns. Communications started before the campaign and continued during shipments and at intervals between shipments. Those efforts led to good working relationships with the states, kept governors and other state officials informed so they could respond to public concerns, provided the opportunity to recognize and respond to specific state concerns, facilitated state inspections, and provided avenues to avoid conflict and potential litigation. Good communications and working relationships with state officials also greatly benefited the community relations effort for the campaign. 6 refs.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Smith, T.A. & Anselmo, A.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theoretical analysis of ARC constriction

Description: The physics of the thermionic converter is governed by strong electrode-plasma interactions (emissions surface scattering, charge exchange) and weak interactions (diffusion, radiation) at the maximum interelectrode plasma radius. The physical processes are thus mostly convective in thin sheaths in front of the electrodes and mostly diffusive and radiative in the plasma bulk. The physical boundaries are open boundaries to particle transfer (electrons emitted or absorbed by the electrodes, all particles diffusing through some maximum plasma radius) and to convective, conductive and radiative heat transfer. In a first approximation the thermionic converter may be described by a one-dimensional classical transport theory. The two-dimensional effects may be significant as a result of the sheath sensitivity to radial plasma variations and of the strong sheath-plasma coupling. The current-voltage characteristic of the converter is thus the result of an integrated current density over the collector area for which the boundary conditions at each r determine the regime (ignited/unignited) of the local current density. A current redistribution strongly weighted at small radii (arc constriction) limits the converter performance and opens questions on constriction reduction possibilities. The questions addressed are the followng: (1) what are the main contributors to the loss of current at high voltage in the thermionic converter; and (2) is arc constriction observable theoretically and what are the conditions of its occurrence. The resulting theoretical problem is formulated and results are given. The converter electrical current is estimated directly from the electron and ion particle fluxes based on the spatial distribution of the electron/ion density n, temperatures T/sub e/, T/sub i/, electrical voltage V and on the knowledge of the transport coefficients. (WHK)
Date: December 1, 1980
Creator: Stoenescu, M.L.; Brooks, A.W. & Smith, T.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a surveillance robot for dimensional and visual inspection of fuel and reflector elements from the Fort St. Vrain HTGR

Description: A robotic device has been developed for dimensional and visual inspection of irradiated HTGR core components. The robot consists of a rotary table and a two-finger probe, driven by stepping motors, and four remotely controlled television cameras. Automated operation is accomplished via minicomputer control. A total of 51 irradiated fuel and reflector elements were inspected at a fraction of the time and cost required for conventional methods.
Date: November 1, 1979
Creator: Wallroth, C.F.; Marsh, N.I.; Miller, C.M.; Saurwein, J.J. & Smith, T.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department