21 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Russian surety research projects in the Sandia National Laboratories Cooperative Measures Program

Description: Over forty safety and security related research and development projects have been initiated between Sandia National Laboratories and the Russian nuclear weapons laboratories VNIIEF and VNIITF. About half of these projects have been completed. All relate to either safety or security methodology development, processes, accident environment analysis and testing, accident databases, assessments or product design of devices. All projects have a potential benefit to various safety or security programs and some may directly have commercial applications. In general, these projects could benefit risk assessments associated with systems that could result in accidents or incidents having high public consequences. These systems typically have already been engineered to have very low assessed probabilities of occurrence of such accidents or incidents. This paper gives an overview of the Sandia surety program with a focus on the potential for future collaboration between Sandia, three Russian Institutes; VNIIEF, VNIITF and VNIIA, and other industry and government organizations. The intent is to serve as an introduction to a roundtable session on Russian Safety Collaboration at the 14th International System Safety Conference. The current Sandia collaboration program scope and rationale is presented along with the evolved program focus. An overview of the projects is given and a few specific projects are briefly highlighted with tangible results to date.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Smith, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stereolithography models. Final report

Description: This report describes the first stereolithographic models made, which proved in a new release of ProEngineer software (Parametric Technologies, or PTC) and 3D Systems (Valencia, California) software for the SLA 250 machine. They are a model of benzene and the {alpha}-carbon backbone of the variable region of an antibody.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Smith, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Models of the solvent-accessible surface of biopolymers

Description: Many biopolymers such as proteins, DNA, and RNA have been studied because they have important biomedical roles and may be good targets for therapeutic action in treating diseases. This report describes how plastic models of the solvent-accessible surface of biopolymers were made. Computer files containing sets of triangles were calculated, then used on a stereolithography machine to make the models. Small (2 in.) models were made to test whether the computer calculations were done correctly. Also, files of the type (.stl) required by any ISO 9001 rapid prototyping machine were written onto a CD-ROM for distribution to American companies.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Smith, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CASPER: A GENERALIZED PROGRAM FOR PLOTTING AND SCALING DATA

Description: A Fortran subroutine was written to scale floating-point data and generate a magnetic tape to plot it on the Calcomp 570 digital plotter. The routine permits a great deal of flexibility, and may be used with any type of FORTRAN or FAP calling program. A simple calling program was also written to permit the user to read in data from cards and plot it without any additional programming. Both the Fortran and binary decks are available. (auth)
Date: January 30, 1963
Creator: Lietzke, M.P. & Smith, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A fuzzy control system for a three-phase oil field centrifuge

Description: The three-phase centrifuge discussed here is an excellent device for cleaning up oil field and refinery wastes. These wastes are typically composed of hydrocarbons, water, and solids. This technology converts waste, which is often classified as hazardous, into salable oil, reusable water, and solids that can be placed in landfills. No secondary waste is produced. A major problem is that only one person can set up and run the equipment well enough to provide an optimal cleanup. Demand for this technology has far exceeded a one-man operation. The solution to this problem is an intelligent control system that can replace a highly skilled operator so that several centrifuges can be operated at different locations at the same time.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Parkinson, W.J.; Smith, R.E.; Wantuck, P.J. & Miller, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A fuzzy controlled three-phase centrifuge for waste separation

Description: The three-phase centrifuge technology discussed in this paper was developed by Neal Miller, president of Centech, Inc. The three-phase centrifuge is an excellent device for cleaning up oil field and refinery wastes which are typically composed of hydrocarbons, water, and solids. The technology is unique. It turns the waste into salable oil, reusable water, and landfill-able solids. No secondary waste is produced. The problem is that only the inventor can set up and run the equipment well enough to provide an optimal cleanup. Demand for this device has far exceeded a one man operation. There is now a need for several centrifuges to be operated at different locations at the same time. This has produced a demand for an intelligent control system, one that could replace a highly skilled operator, or at least supplement the skills of a less experienced operator. The control problem is ideally suited to fuzzy logic, since the centrifuge is a highly complicated machine operated entirely by the skill and experience of the operator. A fuzzy control system was designed for and used with the centrifuge.
Date: February 1, 1998
Creator: Parkinson, W.J.; Smith, R.E. & Miller, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Russian risk assessment methods and approaches

Description: One of the benefits resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union is the increased dialogue currently taking place between American and Russian nuclear weapons scientists in various technical arenas. One of these arenas currently being investigated involves collaborative studies which illustrate how risk assessment is perceived and utilized in the Former Soviet Union (FSU). The collaborative studies indicate that, while similarities exist with respect to some methodologies, the assumptions and approaches in performing risk assessments were, and still are, somewhat different in the FSU as opposed to that in the US. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the present knowledge of risk assessment methodologies and philosophies within the two largest nuclear weapons laboratories of the Former Soviet Union, Arzamas-16 and Chelyabinsk-70. Furthermore, This paper will address the relative progress of new risk assessment methodologies, such as Fuzzy Logic, within the framework of current risk assessment methods at these two institutes.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Dvorack, M.A.; Carlson, D.D. & Smith, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NIR high-efficiency subwavelength diffractive structures in semiconductors

Description: We have fabricated sub-wavelength diffractive optical elements with binary phase profiles for operation at 975 nm. Blazed transmission gratings with minimum features 63 nm wide were designed by using rigorous coupled-wave analysis and fabricated by direct-write e-beam lithography and reactive ion beam etching in gallium arsenide. Transmission measurements show 85% diffraction efficiency into the first order. Anti-reflection surfaces, with features 42 nm wide were also designed and fabricated.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Smith, R.E.; Warren, M.E.; Wendt, J.R. & Vawter, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of the joint US/Russia surety program in the Sandia National Laboratories Cooperative Measures Program

Description: Sandia National Laboratories has initiated many joint research and development projects with the two premier Russian nuclear laboratories, VNIIEF and VNIITF, (historically known as Arzamas-16 and Chelyabinsk-70) in a wide spectrum of areas. One of the areas in which critical dialogue and technical exchange is continuing to take place is in the realm of system surety. Activities primarily include either safety or security methodology development, processes, accident environment analyses and testing, accident data-bases, assessments, and product design. Furthermore, a continuing dialog has been established between the organizations with regard to developing a better understanding of how risk is perceived and analyzed in Russia versus that in the US. The result of such efforts could reduce the risk of systems to incur accidents or incidents resulting in high consequences to the public. The purpose of this paper is to provide a current overview of the Sandia surety program and its various initiatives with the Russian institutes, with an emphasis on the program scope and rationale. The historical scope of projects will be indicated. A few specific projects will be discussed, along with results to date. The extension of the joint surety initiatives to other government and industry organizations will be described. This will include the current status of a joint Sandia/VNIIEF initiative to establish an International Surety Center for Energy Intensive and High Consequence Systems and Infrastructures.
Date: February 1, 1998
Creator: Smith, R.E.; Vorontsova, O.S. & Blinov, I.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Subwavelength diffractive elements fabricated in semiconductor for 975 nm

Description: This paper presents a high-efficiency, dielectric, subwavelength surface relief ``blazed grating`` and reports recent results on a subwavelength ``anti-reflection`` surface. These structures were designed for use at 975 nm, probably the shortest wavelength for which semiconductor structures of these types have been successfully demonstrated. They were fabricated in GaAs substrates.
Date: January 1, 1996
Creator: Smith, R.E.; Warren, M.E.; Wendt, J.R. & Vawter, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Collaborative development of a US/Russia safety information center database

Description: One of the major outgrowths resulting from the collapse of the former Soviet Union (FSU) has been an increase in technical information exchange and dialogue between the Russian and American nuclear weapons laboratories. One area of such discussions is concerned with the safety of low probability, high consequence systems and operations. In order to further the understanding between the respective institutes in this important area, a collaborative effort has been established between Sandia National Laboratories and the two premier Russian nuclear weapons laboratories, Arzamas-16 and Chelyabinsk-70, in which a common database has been developed which contains safety information provided by all three laboratories. More than 1,200 documents have been placed by the three institutes into this database. This paper describes the details of this data base, including the types of safety information being stored.
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Dvorack, M.A.; Smith, R.E.; Ananiychuk, V.N. & Volkova, N.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Neural network for quality control of submunitions produced by injection loading

Description: Injection loading of submunitions for smart weapons is a novel automated processing technique that can benefit from adaptive process control. This paper describes how the quality of submunitions could be controlled by using a neural network code in real time. Future work is planned to demonstrate fewer rejects and pollution reduction during submunition manufacturing.
Date: December 1, 1998
Creator: Smith, R.E.; Parkinson, W.J.; Hinde, R.F. Jr.; Wantuck, P.J. & Newman, K.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An approximate-reasoning-based method for screening flammable gas tanks

Description: High-level waste (HLW) produces flammable gases as a result of radiolysis and thermal decomposition of organics. Under certain conditions, these gases can accumulate within the waste for extended periods and then be released quickly into the dome space of the storage tank. As part of the effort to reduce the safety concerns associated with flammable gas in HLW tanks at Hanford, a flammable gas watch list (FGWL) has been established. Inclusion on the FGWL is based on criteria intended to measure the risk associated with the presence of flammable gas. It is important that all high-risk tanks be identified with high confidence so that they may be controlled. Conversely, to minimize operational complexity, the number of tanks on the watchlist should be reduced as near to the true number of flammable risk tanks as the current state of knowledge will support. This report presents an alternative to existing approaches for FGWL screening based on the theory of approximate reasoning (AR) (Zadeh 1976). The AR-based model emulates the inference process used by an expert when asked to make an evaluation. The FGWL model described here was exercised by performing two evaluations. (1) A complete tank evaluation where the entire algorithm is used. This was done for two tanks, U-106 and AW-104. U-106 is a single shell tank with large sludge and saltcake layers. AW-104 is a double shell tank with over one million gallons of supernate. Both of these tanks had failed the screening performed by Hodgson et al. (2) Partial evaluations using a submodule for the predictor likelihood for all of the tanks on the FGWL that had been flagged previously by Whitney (1995).
Date: March 1, 1998
Creator: Eisenhawer, S.W.; Bott, T.F. & Smith, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An approximate-reasoning-based method for screening high-level waste tanks for flammable gas

Description: The in situ retention of flammable gas produced by radiolysis and thermal decomposition in high-level waste can pose a safety problem if the gases are released episodically into the dome space of a storage tank. Screening efforts at Hanford have been directed at identifying tanks in which this situation could exist. Problems encountered in screening motivated an effort to develop an improved screening methodology. Approximate reasoning (AR) is a formalism designed to emulate the kinds of complex judgments made by subject matter experts. It uses inductive logic structures to build a sequence of forward-chaining inferences about a subject. AR models incorporate natural language expressions known as linguistic variables to represent evidence. The use of fuzzy sets to represent these variables mathematically makes it practical to evaluate quantitative and qualitative information consistently. The authors performed a pilot study to investigate the utility of AR for flammable gas screening. They found that the effort to implement such a model was acceptable and that computational requirements were reasonable. The preliminary results showed that important judgments about the validity of observational data and the predictive power of models could be made. These results give new insights into the problems observed in previous screening efforts.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Eisenhawer, S.W.; Bott, T.F. & Smith, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mode-expanded semiconductor laser with tapered-rib adiabatic-following fiber coupler

Description: Expanded-mode semiconductor lasers are of great interest due to the benefits of reduced far-field divergence and improved coupling efficiency to optical fiber. The authors present a new diode laser using a Tapered-Rib Adiabatic-Following Fiber Coupler (TRAFFiC) to achieve 2D mode expansion without epitaxial regrowth or sharply-defined tips on tapered waveguides. The expanded mode size would allow 0.25 to 1 dB coupling loss to standard telecommunications fiber making smaller-core specialty fibers unnecessary, increasing misalignment tolerance, and eliminating the need for coupling optics.
Date: December 1, 1996
Creator: Vawter, G.A.; Smith, R.E.; Hou, H. & Wendt, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Expanded-mode semiconductor laser with tapered-rib adiabatic-following fiber coupler

Description: A new diode laser using a Tapered-Rib Adiabatic-Following Fiber Coupler to achieve 2D mode expansion and narrow, symmetric far-field emission without epitaxial regrowth or sharply-defined tips on tapered waveguides is presented.
Date: February 1, 1997
Creator: Vawter, G.A.; Smith, R.E.; Hou, H. & Wendt, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessing processes in uncertain, complex physical phenomena and manufacturing

Description: PREDICT (Performance and Reliability Evaluation with Diverse Information Combination and Tracking) is a set of structured quantitative approaches for the evaluation of system performance based on multiple information sources. The methodology integrates diverse types and sources of information, and their associated uncertainties, to develop full distributions for performance metrics, such as reliability. The successful application of PREDICT has involved system performance assessment in automotive product development, aging nuclear weapons, and fatigued turbine jet engines. In each of these applications, complex physical, mechanical and materials processes affect performance, safety and reliability assessments. Processes also include the physical actions taken during manufacturing, quality control, inspections, assembly, etc. and the steps involved in product design, development and certification. In this paper, we will examine the various types of processes involved in the decision making leading to production in an automotive system reliability example. Analysis of these processes includes not only understanding their impact on performance and reliability, but also the uncertainties associated with them. The automotive example demonstrates some of the tools used in tackling the complex problem of understanding processes. While some tools and methods exist for understanding processes (man made and natural) and the uncertainties associated with them, many of the complex issues discussed are open for continued research efforts.
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Booker, J. M. (Jane M.); Kerscher, W. J. III (William J.) & Smith, R. E. (Ronald E.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The use of fuzzy control system methods for characterizing expert judgment uncertainty distributions

Description: Fuzzy logic methods permit experts to assess parameters affecting performance of components/systems in natural language terms more familiar to them (e.g., high, good, etc.). Recognizing that there is a cost associated with obtaining more precise information, the authors particular interest is in cases where the relationship between the condition of the system and its performance is not well understood, especially for some sets of possible operating conditions, and where developing a better understanding is very difficult and/or expensive. The methods allow the experts to make use of the level of precision with which they understand the underlying process. The authors consider and compare various methods of formulating the process just described, with an application in reliability analysis where expert information forms a significant (if not sole) source of data for reliability analysis. The flow of information through the fuzzy-control-systems based analysis is studied using a simple, hypothetical problem which mimics the structure used to elicit expert information in Parse. They also characterize the effect of using progressively more refined information and examine the use of fuzzy-based methods as data pooling/fusion mechanisms.
Date: December 1998
Creator: Smith, R. E.; Booker, J. M.; Bement, T. R.; Parkinson, W. J.; Meyer, M. A. & Jamshidi, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DEVELOPMENT OF A BATCH PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF A ZrO$sub 2$-UO$sub 2$ SOLID SOLUTION

Description: A batch process on the 2 kg scale was developed for the production of ZrO/sub 2/--UO/sub 2/ solid solution in the weight proportion of about 4 to 1. The product is tetragonal ZrO/sub 2/-- UO/sub 2/ solution, with no UO/sub 2/ lines showing on the x-ray powder diffraction patterns. The solid solution is prepared from a precipitate of Zr(OH)/sub 4/-- (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/U /sub 2O/sub 7/ which is filtered, dried, milled, screened to minus 325 mesh, and heated at 9OO deg C in H/sub 2/ for 4 hours. The success of the preparation depends strongly on the conditions of the precipitation, with precipitation from dilute salt solution being necessary to avoid undissolved UO/sub 2/ in the final product. (auth)
Date: June 1, 1957
Creator: Hayter, S.W.; Bard, R.J.; Smith, R.E.; Dumrose, A.C.; Baxman, H.R.; Bertino, J.P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department