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Low conversion ratio fuel studies.

Description: Recent studies on TRU disposition in fast reactors indicated viable reactor performance for a sodium cooled low conversion ratio reactor design. Additional studies have been initiated to refine the earlier work and consider the feasibility of alternate fuel forms such as nitride and oxide fuel (rather than metal fuel). These alternate fuel forms may have significant impacts upon the burner design and the safety behavior. The work performed thus far has focused on compiling the necessary fuel form property information and refinement of the physics models. For this limited project, the burner design and performance using nitride fuel will be assessed.
Date: February 28, 2006
Creator: Smith, M. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potential for the production of power from geothermal resources

Description: The nature and magritude of the hot, dry rock geothermal energy resource are such that within the next 10 to 15 years it could begin to contribute significantly to the solution of some of our nation's most urgent energy, pollution, and balance-of-payments problems. A program to investigate and develop this resource was undertaken by the Atomic Energy Commission at Los Alamos Scientific Labonatory, and initial results from that program are described. It appears that the equipment and techniques required to make this vast energy reservoir useful already exist, and that a convincing demonstration of its usefulness is possible within less than five years. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1973
Creator: Smith, M.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal energy

Description: Dry hot rock in the Earth's crust represents the largest and most broadly distributed reservoir of usable energy accessible to man. The engineering equipment and methods required to extract and use this energy appear to exist and are now being investigated actively at LASL. At least for deep systems in relatively impermeable rock, not close to active faults, the extraction of energy frtom dry geothermal resertvoirs should involve no significant environmental hazards. The principal environmental effects of such energy systems will be those associated with the surface facilities that use the geothermal heat; these will be visual, in land use, and in the thermal-pollution potential of low-temperature power plants. The energy extraction system itself should be clean; safe, unobtrusive, and economical. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1973
Creator: Smith, M.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Progress of the LASL dry hot rock geothermal energy project

Description: Under sponsorship of the Division of Applied Technology of AEC, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is investigating the possibilities and problems of extracting energy from geothermal reservoirs which do not spontaneously yield useful amounts of steam or hot water. The system for accomplishing this which is being developed first is a pressurized-water circulation loop intended for use in relatively impermeable hot rock. It will consist of two holes connected through the hot rock by a very large hydraulic fracture and connected at the surface through the primary heat exchanger of an energy utilization system. Preliminary experiments in a hole 2576 ft (0.7852 km) deep, extending about 470 ft (143 m) into the Precambrian basement rock underlying the Jemez Plateau of north-central New Mexico, revealed no unexpected difficulties in drilling or hydraulically fracturing such rock at a temperature of approximately 100 C, and demonstrated a permeability low enough so that it appeared probable that pressurized water could be contained by the basement rock. Similar experiments are in progress in a second hole, now 6701 ft (2.043 km) deep, about 1.5 miles (2.4km ) south of the first one. Here the bottomhole temperature is about 146 C, and again no unexpected difficulty was encountered in drilling or hydraulically fracturing the granitic basement rock. At least below about 4250 ft (1.295 km) the permeability of the basement rock is also very low at this location, and again the rock appears competent to contain a pressurized-water circulation system.
Date: December 31, 1974
Creator: Smith, M.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Initial results from the first Los Alamos hot dry rock energy system

Description: The pressurized-water loop for extraction of natural heat from dry crustal rock is, as this is written, eight weeks into its initial long-term continuous circulation test. During most of this time, flow-impedance through the man-made fracture system has decreased continuously so that, with a nearly constant pressure difference between injection and recovery wells, flow rate has increased steadily to the maximum capacity of the surface piping--about 16 liters per second. Temperature of water entering the recovery well from the fracture system at first decreased rapidly; however, the rate of decrease has diminished steadily, and temperature is now nearly constant at about 94/sup 0/C. The increase in flow rate so far has overwhelmed the temperature decrease, so that rate of heat extraction has approximately doubled, to above 5 MW. Composition of the recirculated water apparently has not yet stabilized, but total dissolved solids (chiefly silica) is relatively low and rate of water loss from the loop has decreased to about 2% of the total flow rate. Both the effective volume and the effective surface area of the fracture system have recently increased significantly which, together with stabilization of the effluent temperature, suggests that thermal contraction is having its expected effect on the flow and heat-transfer characteristics of the underground loop. Aside from the rapid temperature decrease, which it is hoped will soon reverse spontaneously, performance of the system is so far considered to be very satisfactory.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Smith, M.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Future of hot dry rock geothermal energy systems

Description: Where natural groundwater circulation does not exist, the obvious method of extracting heat from the earth's crust is to imitate nature by creating it. A means of doing so by hydraulic fracturing has been demonstrated. Alternatively, explosives or mechanical or chemical methods might be used to open circulation paths. However, where permeabilities are sufficient so that fluid loss is excessive, other approaches are also possible. The magnitude and distribution of hot dry rock and the variety of possible heat-extraction techniques make it appear inevitable that this energy supply will eventually be used on a large scale.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Smith, M.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermotransport of hydrogen and deuterium in vanadium, niobium and tantalum alloys

Description: Heats of transport have been determined for thermotransport of hydrogen and deuterium in pure vanadium, niobium and tantalum; in vanadium alloyed with either niobium, titanium or chromium; and in niobium-tantalum alloys. In all cases, thermotransport was toward colder regions and was significantly greater for deuterium than for hydrogen. A mass spectrometric technique was used to simultaneously measure heats of transport for hydrogen and deuterium in a single specimen containing both isotopes. This technique greatly increased the precision with which isotope effects in the heat of transport could be measured. The predominant effect of alloying was to dramatically increase thermotransport; however, thermotransport decreased as niobium was added to tantalum.
Date: October 1, 1981
Creator: Smith, M.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-voltage test stand at Livermore

Description: This paper describes the present design and future capability of the high-voltage test stand for neutral-beam sources at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The stand's immediate use will be for testing the full-scale sources (120 kV, 65 A) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor. It will then be used to test parts of the sustaining source system (80 kV, 85 A) being designed for the Magnetic Fusion Test Facility. Following that will be an intensive effort to develop beams of up to 200 kV at 20 A by accelerating negative ions. The design of the test stand features a 5-MVA power supply feeding a vacuum tetrode that is used as a switch and regulator. The 500-kW arc supply and the 100-kW filament supply for the neutral-beam source are battery powered, thus eliminating one or two costly isolation transformers.
Date: October 9, 1977
Creator: Smith, M.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The hot dry rock geothermal energy program

Description: The paper presents a simplified description of the Department of Energy's Hot-Dry-Rock program conducted at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. What a hot-dry-rock resource is and what the magnitude of the resource is are also described.
Date: September 1, 1987
Creator: Smith, M.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Progress of the US Hot-Dry-Rock Program

Description: While other geologic environments and possible heat-extraction methods are recognized, the US Hot Dry Rock (HDR) Program has so far concentrated on the use of hydraulic fracturing to create flow passages and heat-transfer surface between two wells drilled into hot crystalline rock of low initial permeability. A recirculating pressurized-water loop has been used at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, to extract heat at rates up to 5MW(t) from a system of this type in granitic rock at a depth of 2600 m. The two wells for a larger, deeper, hotter system have now been drilled at the same location. They will be connected during 1982 by a set of hydraulic fractures, and the resulting heat-extraction loop is expected to yield the engineering experience and performance data required to demonstrate the commercial usefulness of such systems. Meanwhile, an evaluation of the HDR resource base of the United States is continuing, together with detailed investigation of local areas that appear especially promisng either for future heat-extraction experiments or for eventual commercial development.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Smith, M.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department