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Description: Tests of Cambridge absolute filters, Model Sl-071, specified for use in the GCR-ORR Loop No. 2 as full-flow, primary coolant fiiters were completed. kD.O.P/ (dioctylphthalate) efficiency tests were performed on three filters in the as-received condition, on two filters following canning and thermal cycling, and on one of the canned fiIters following bsking out. None of the three units met the design criteria of 99.97% efficiency for removal of 0.3 micron particles in the as-received condition. The postthermal cycle efficiencies of the canned fiIters were slightly higher than their respective as-received efficiencies. At the corapletion of testing, the two fiiters canned for installation in the reactor facility had measured efficiencies of 99.855% and 99.93%. These values were judged acceptable for the intended application/su The thermal cycling of the two canned filters and the subsequent baking out of one of these units demonstrated that a limited amount of off-gas products would be given off/su Pressure drop tests were performed on the canned fiiters with instrument air (ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure) over a flow rate range of 150 to 530 lb/hr. Curves of pressure drop across each fiIter versus Reynolds number were plotted for air and He. (auth)
Date: February 19, 1962
Creator: Flint, F.A. & Smith, A.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The four experimental through-tubes provided in the Experimental Gas Cooled Reactor will extend directly through the core of the reactor and penetrate both the upper and lower pressure vessel heads. Each tube is anchored in an upper head nozzle and the bottom end is allowed to slide in a lower head nozzle. This lower nozzle is basically a T'' section that provides bottom access to the through-tube and a side access for the piping which connects the throughtube to the experimenter's cell. Due to differential thermal expansion of the through- tubes relative to the reactor pressure vessel, vertical movement of the through- tube within the T'' section will be experienced. At the same time a horizontal thrust applied to each tube by thermal expansion of the piping to the experimental cell will result in metalto-metal contact between each tube and the lower T'' section. Tests were conducted on three types of bearing material proposed for use on the through-tubes and T'' sections to minimize galling which can be expected to occur. Stellite No. 12 has been demonstrated to be an adequate bearing material for the intended application. (auth)
Date: July 16, 1962
Creator: MacPherson, R.E. & Smith, A.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Remote technologies for buried waste retrieval

Description: The DOE is evaluating what should be done with this buried waste. Although the radioactive waste is not particularly mobile unless airborne, some of it was buried with volatile organics and/or other substances that tend to spread easily to surrounding soil or water tables. Volatile organics are hazardous materials (such as trichloroethylene) and require clean-up at certain levels in drinking water. There is concern that the buried volatile organics will spread into the water table and contaminate drinking water. Because of this, the DOE is considering options for handling this buried waste and reducing the risks of spreading or exposure. There are two primary options: containment and stabilization, or retrieval. Containment and stabilization systems would include systems that would leave the waste where it is, but contain and stabilize it so that the radioactive and hazardous materials would not spread to the surrounding soil, water, or air. For example, an in situ vitrification system could be used to melt the waste into a composite glass-like material that would not leach into the surrounding soil, water, or air. Retrieval systems are those that would remove the waste from its burial location for treatment and/or repackaging for long term storage. The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate remote technologies that would minimize dust generation and the spread of airborne contaminants during buried waste retrieval. Remote technologies are essential for the retrieval of buried waste because they remove workers from the hazardous environment and provide greater automation, reducing the chances of human error. Minimizing dust generation is also essential to increased safety for the workers and the environment during buried waste retrieval. The main contaminants within the waste are micron-sized particles of plutonium and americium oxides, chlorides, and hydroxides, which are easily suspended in air and spread if disturbed.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Smith, A.M. & Rice, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ORNL experiments to characterize fuel release from the reactor primary containment in severe LMFBR accidents

Description: This paper presents results from aerosol source term experiments performed in the ORNL Aerosol Release and Transport (ART) Program sponsored by the US NRC. The tests described were performed to provide information on fuel release from an LMFBR primary containment as a result of a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). The release path investigated in these tests assumes that a fuel/sodium bubble is formed after disassembly that transports fuel and fission products through the sodium coolant and cover gas to be relased into the reactor secondary containment. Due to the excellent heat transfer characteristics of the sodium, there is potential for large attenuation of the maximum release.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Wright, A.L.; Kress, T.S. & Smith, A.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An integrated systems approach to remote retrieval of buried transuranic waste using a telerobotic transport vehicle, innovative end effector, and remote excavator

Description: Between 1952 and 1970, over two million cubic feet of transuranic mixed waste was buried in shallow pits and trenches in the Subsurface Disposal Area at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Commingled with this two million cubic feet of waste is up to 10 million cubic feet of fill soil. The pits and trenches were constructed similarly to municipal landfills with both stacked and random dump waste forms such as barrels and boxes. The main contaminants are micron-sized particles of plutonium and americium oxides, chlorides, and hydroxides. Retrieval, treatment, and disposal is one of the options being considered for the waste. This report describes the results of a field demonstration conducted to evaluate technologies for excavating, and transporting buried transuranic wastes at the INEL, and other hazardous or radioactive waste sites throughout the US Department of Energy complex. The full-scale demonstration, conduced at RAHCO Internationals facilities in Spokane, Washington, in the summer of 1994, evaluated equipment performance and techniques for digging, dumping, and transporting buried waste. Three technologies were evaluated in the demonstration: an Innovative End Effector for dust free dumping, a Telerobotic Transport Vehicle to convey retrieved waste from the digface, and a Remote Operated Excavator to deploy the Innovative End Effector and perform waste retrieval operations. Data were gathered and analyzed to evaluate retrieval performance parameters such as retrieval rates, transportation rates, human factors, and the equipment`s capability to control contamination spread.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Smith, A.M.; Rice, P.; Hyde, R. & Peterson, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interim Status of the Accelerated Site Technology Deployment Integrated Decontamination and Decommissioning Project

Description: The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), and Argonne National Laboratory - East (ANL-E) teamed to establish the Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) Integrated Decontamination and Decommissioning (ID&D) project to increase the use of improved technologies in D&D operations. The project is making the technologies more readily available, providing training, putting the technologies to use, and spreading information about improved performance. The improved technologies are expected to reduce cost, schedule, radiation exposure, or waste volume over currently used baseline methods. They include some of the most successful technologies proven in the large-scale demonstrations and in private industry. The selected technologies are the Pipe Explorer, the GammaCam, the Decontamination Decommissioning and Remediation Optimal Planning System (DDROPS), the BROKK Demolition Robot, the Personal Ice Cooling System (PICS), the Oxy-Gasoline Torch, the Track-Mounted Shear, and the Hand-Held Shear.
Date: November 1, 1998
Creator: Smith, A. M; Matthern, G. E. & Meservey, R. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Keys to successful D and D technology Deployments at the INEEL

Description: Seven improved decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) technologies were successfully deployed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) during the Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) Integrated Decontamination and Decommissioning (ID&D) project. The use of these improved technologies saved the INEEL $462K in fiscal year 1999, and is projected to save about $14M over the next ten years. Since deploying new technologies on D&D projects shows great potential for cost-savings, factors that led to successful deployment have been documented. These factors are described here as they apply to the seven deployments at the INEEL to assist with deployments at other DOE sites.
Date: April 2, 2000
Creator: Smith, A. M.; Meservey, R. H. & Shoemaker, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test plan for the remote conveyance and innovative end effector demonstration

Description: This test plan describes the demonstration of innovative equipment and processes specifically designed to be superior to currently employed technology for buried waste retrieval. The dumping of dry soil into a funnel/dumpster arrangement has been found to be the primary mechanism for dust generation during the retrieval of buried transuranic waste. The primary goal of the innovative end effector is to reduce dust generation and the potential spread of airborne contaminants during the dumping operation. In addition, regardless of the excavation technique, exhumed waste will have to be conveyed away from the retrieval area to a packaging area or directly to a treatment facility. The remote conveyance system is aimed at developing a remotely controlled vehicle to convey retrieved waste that will operate on variable terrain and remove workers from the hazardous zone. To demonstrate the remote conveyance system and the innovative end effector, the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Program has subcontracted with RAHCO International to provide equipment and services to perform a demonstration of the technologies. The demonstration will be performed in two phases. In Phase I, the subcontractor will perform a full scale demonstration to assess the ability of the innovative end effector to control dust generation and the potential spread of contamination during dumping operations. Phase II includes performing a retrieval/conveyance demonstration. This demonstration will excavate, dump, and convey simulated waste to demonstrate the functionality of the system (e.g., maneuverability, retrieval rates, and system integration). Phase II of the demonstration will include all elements of the remote conveyance and end effector system. This test plan will describe the demonstration objectives, data quality objectives, equipment operation, and methods for collecting data during the demonstration.
Date: August 1, 1994
Creator: Rice, P.; Smith, A. M. & Peterson, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A technique for human error analysis (ATHEANA)

Description: Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has become an important tool in the nuclear power industry, both for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the operating utilities. Human reliability analysis (HRA) is a critical element of PRA; however, limitations in the analysis of human actions in PRAs have long been recognized as a constraint when using PRA. A multidisciplinary HRA framework has been developed with the objective of providing a structured approach for analyzing operating experience and understanding nuclear plant safety, human error, and the underlying factors that affect them. The concepts of the framework have matured into a rudimentary working HRA method. A trial application of the method has demonstrated that it is possible to identify potentially significant human failure events from actual operating experience which are not generally included in current PRAs, as well as to identify associated performance shaping factors and plant conditions that have an observable impact on the frequency of core damage. A general process was developed, albeit in preliminary form, that addresses the iterative steps of defining human failure events and estimating their probabilities using search schemes. Additionally, a knowledge- base was developed which describes the links between performance shaping factors and resulting unsafe actions.
Date: May 1996
Creator: Cooper, S. E.; Ramey-Smith, A. M.; Wreathall, J. & Parry, G. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Protocol for development of authorized release limits for concrete at U.S. Department of Energy sites

Description: The purpose of this protocol is to assist US Department of Energy (DOE) sites in releasing concrete for reuse. Current regulations allow the sites to release surface-contaminated materials if their radioactivity falls below certain levels and to possibly release materials with volumetric contamination or higher levels of surface contamination on a case-by-case basis. In all cases, an ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) analysis that evaluates the risks of releasing volumetrically contaminated concrete or concrete with higher levels of surface contamination is required as a basis for proposing and setting new release limits that allow for reuse of the concrete material. To evaluate the dose impacts of reusing radioactively contaminated material, the measured radiation levels (pCi/g or disintegrations per minute [dpm]/100 cm{sup 2}) must be converted to the estimated dose (mrem/yr) that would be received by affected individuals. The dose depends on the amounts and types of isotopes present and the time, distance, and method of exposure (e.g., inhalation or external exposure). For each disposition alternative, the protocol provides a systematic method to evaluate the impact of the dose on the affected individuals. The cost impacts of reusing concrete also need to be evaluated. They too depend on the disposition alternative and the extent and type of contamination. The protocol provides a method to perform a detailed analysis of these factors and evaluate the dose and cost impacts for various disposition alternatives. Once the dose and cost impacts of the various alternatives have been estimated, the protocol outlines the steps required to propose new release standards that allow release and reuse of the concrete material.
Date: August 22, 2000
Creator: Arnish, J.; Kamboj, S.; Chen, S.-Y.; Parker, F. L.; Smith, A. M.; Meservey, R. H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department