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A feasibility study of space-charge neutralized ion induction linacs: Final report

Description: Applications for high current (> 1 kA) ion beams are increasing. They include hardening of material surfaces, transmutation of radioactive waste, cancer treatment, and possibly driving fusion reactions to create energy. The space-charge of ions limits the current that can be accelerated in a conventional ion linear accelerator (linac). Furthermore, the accelerating electric field must be kept low enough to avoid the generation and acceleration of counter-streaming electrons. These limitations have resulted in ion accelerator designs that employ long beam lines and would be expensive to build. Space-charge neutralization and magnetic insulation of the acceleration gaps could substantially reduce these two limitations, but at the expense of increasing the complexity of the beam physics. We present theory and experiments to determine the degree of charge-neutralization that can be achieved in various environments found in ion accelerators. Our results suggest that, for high current applications, space-charge neutralization could be used to improve on the conventional ion accelerator technology. There are two basic magnetic field geometries that can be used to insulate the accelerating gaps, a radial field or a cusp field. We will present studies related to both of these geometries. We shall also present numerical simulations of {open_quotes}multicusp{close_quotes} accelerator that would deliver potassium ions at 400 MeV with a total beam power of approximately 40 TW. Such an accelerator could be used to drive fusion.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Slutz, S.A.; Primm, P.; Renk, T. & Johnson, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Z-Pinch Driven Isentropic Compression for Inertial Fusion

Description: The achievement of high gain with inertial fusion requires the compression of hydrogen isotopes to high density and temperatures. High densities can be achieved most efficiently by isentropic compression. This requires relatively slow pressure pulses on the order of 10-20 nanoseconds; however, the pressure profile must have the appropriate time. We present 1-D numerical simulations that indicate such a pressure profile can be generated by using pulsed power driven z pinches. Although high compression is calculated, the initial temperature is too low for ignition. Ignition could be achieved by heating a small portion of this compressed fuel with a short (-10 ps) high power laser pulse as previously described. Our 1-D calculations indicate that the existing Z-accelerator could provide the driving current (-20 MA) necessary to compress fuel to roughly 1500 times solid density. At this density the required laser energy is approximately 10 kJ. Multidimensional effects such as the Rayleigh-Taylor were not addressed in this brief numerical study. These effects will undoubtedly lower fuel compression for a given chive current. Therefore it is necessary to perform z-pinch driven compression experiments. Finally, we present preliminary experimental data from the Z-accelerator indicating that current can be efficiently delivered to appropriately small loads (- 5 mm radius) and that VISAR can be used measure high pressure during isentropic compression.
Date: February 1, 1999
Creator: Asay, J.R.; Hall, C.A.; Holland, K.G.; Slutz, S.A.; Spielman, R.B. & Stygar, W.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ion divergence in magnetically insulated diodes

Description: Magnetically insulated ion diodes are being developed to drive inertial confinement fusion. Ion beam microdivergence must be reduced to achieve the very high beam intensities required to achieve this goal. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations indicate that instability induced fluctuations can produce significant ion divergence during acceleration. These simulations exhibit a fast growing mode early in time, which has been identified as the diocotron instability. The divergence generated by this mode is modest due to the relatively high frequency (>1GHz). Later, a low-frequency low-phase-velocity instability develops. This instability couples effectively to the ions, since the frequency is approximately the reciprocal of the ion transit time, and can generate unacceptably large ion divergences (>30 mrad). Linear stability theory reveals that this mode requires perturbations parallel to the applied magnetic field and is related to the modified two stream instability. Measurements of ion density fluctuations and energy-momentum correlations have confirmed that instabilities develop in ion diodes and contribute to the ion divergence. In addition, spectroscopic measurements indicate that the ions have a significant transverse temperature very close to the emission surface. Passive lithium fluoride (LiF) anodes have larger transverse beam temperatures than laser irradiated active sources. Calculations of source divergence expected from the roughness of LiF surfaces and the possible removal of this layer is presented.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Slutz, S.A.; Lemke, R.W.; Pointon, T.D.; Desjarlais, M.P.; Johnson, D.J.; Mehlhorn, T.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Uniform current density and divergence control in high power extraction ion diodes

Description: A theory of radial beam uniformity in extraction ion diodes is presented. The theory is based on a locally one dimensional analysis of the diamagnetic compression of magnetic streamlines and the self consistent determination of the virtual cathode location. The radial dependence of the applied magnetic field is used to determine the critical parameters of this locally one dimensional treatment. The theory has been incorporated into the ATHETA magnetic field code to allow the rapid evaluation of realistic magnetic field configurations. Comparisons between the theoretical results, simulations with the QUICKSILVER code, and experiments on the PBFA-X accelerator establish the usefulness of this tool for tuning magnetic fields to improve ion beam uniformity. The consequences of poor beam uniformity on the evolution of ion diode instabilities are discussed with supporting evidence from simulations, theory, and experiments.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Desjarlais, M.P.; Coats, R.S.; Lockner, T.R.; Pointon, T.D.; Johnson, D.J.; Slutz, S.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of Z-Pinch Techniques for Equation of State Applications

Description: A principal goal of the shock physics program at Sandia is to establish a capability to make accurate equation of state (EOS) measurements on the Z pulsed radiation source. The Z accelerator is a source of intense x-ray radiation, which can be used to drive ablative shocks for EOS studies. With this source, ablative multi shocks can be produced to study materials over the range of interest to both weapons and ICF physics programs. In developing the capability to diagnose these types of studies on Z, techniques commonly used in conventional impact generated experimental were implemented. The primary diagnostic presently being used for this work is velocity interferometry, VISAR, which not only provides Hugoniot particle velocity measurements, but also measurements of non-shock EOS measurements, such as isentropic compression. In addition to VISAR capability, methods for measuring shock velocity have also been developed for shock studies on Z. When used in conjunction with the Rankine- Hugoniot jump conditions, material response at high temperatures and pressures can be inferred. Radiation in the Z accelerator is produced when approximately 18 MA are passed through a cylindrical wire array typically 20 to 50 mm in diameter and 10 to 20 mm in height. 200-300 wires with initial diameters on the order of 8 to 20 micron form, upon application of the current, a plasma shell, which is magnetically imploded until it collapses and stagnates on axis, forming a dense plasma emitter in the shape of a column, referred to as a" z pinch". The initial wire array and subsequent plasma pinch are confined within a metallic can, referred to as a primary hohlraum, which serves as both a current return path and a reflective surface to contain the radiation. Attached to openings in the primary hohlraum wall are smaller tubes referred to as secondaries. ...
Date: November 11, 1998
Creator: Asay, J.R.; Bernard, M.A.; Clark, B.; Fleming, K.J.; Hall, C.A.; Hauer, A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Generating High-Brightness Light Ion Beams for Inertial Fusion Energy

Description: Light ion beams may be the best option for an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) driver from the standpoint of ei%ciency, standoff, rep-rate operation and cost. This approach uses high-energy-density pulsed power to efficiently accelerate ions in one or two stages at fields of 0.5 to 1.0 GV/m to produce a medium energy (30 MeV), high-current (1 MA) beam of light ions, such as lithium. Ion beams provide the ability for medium distance transport (4 m) of the ions to the target, and standofl of the driver from high- yield implosions. Rep-rate operation of' high current ion sources has ako been demonstrated for industrial applications and couId be applied to IFE. Although (hese factors make light ions the best Iong-teml pulsed- power approach to IFE, light-ion research is being suspended this year in favor of a Z-pinch-driven approach which has the best opport lnity to most-rapidly achieve the U.S. Department of Energy sponsor's goal of high-yield fusion. This paper will summarize the status and most recent results of the light-ion beam program at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and document the prospects of light ions for future IFE driver development.
Date: October 22, 1998
Creator: Adams, R.G.; Bailey, J.E.; Cuneno, M.E.; Desjarlais, M.P.; Filuk, A.B.; Hanson, D.L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ion beam generation and focusing on PBFA (Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator) II

Description: During the past year we have succeeded in obtaining a 5 TW/cm{sup 2} proton focus on Sandia National Laboratories' Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator (PBFA) II. This has allowed us to shift our experimental emphasis to the implementation of an improved ion diode geometry for higher voltage operation, full azimuthal beam characterization, and especially lithium ion source experiments. We have made significant progress in each of these areas during the past year, demonstrating 10 MV diode operation, {plus minus}10% azimuthal beam symmetry, and promising initial results from lithium ion source experiments. 8 refs., 6 figs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Stinnett, R.W.; Bailey, J.E.; Bieg, K.W.; Coats, R.S.; Chandler, G.; Derzon, M.S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Light ion sources and target results on PBFA II (Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II)

Description: Advances in ion beam theory, diagnostics, and experiments in the past two years have enabled efficient generation of intense proton beams on PBFA II, and focusing of the beam power to 5.4 TW/cm{sup 2} on a 6-mm-diameter target. Target experiments have been started with the intense proton beams, since the range of protons at 4--5 MeV is equivalent to that of lithium at 30 MeV. Three series of experiments have been conducted using planar, conical, and cylindrical targets. These tests have provided information on ion beam power density, uniformity, and energy deposition. In order to increase the power density substantially for target implosion experiments, we are now concentrating on development of high voltage lithium ion beams. 10 refs., 13 figs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Cook, D.L.; Bailey, J.E.; Bieg, K.W.; Bloomquist, D.D.; Coats, R.S.; Chandler, G.C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department