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Predictive Validation of a Computer Programmer Selection Test

Description: Subjects were 32 computer programmers employed in a large computerized tax-processing company in the Southwest. Ratings of each programmer's job performance by his/her immediate supervisor and scores on the Aptitude Test for Programmer Personnel (ATPP) were obtained. Relationships between test scores and criteria were examined to identify significant (p < .05) correlations. Statistical treatment of data included zero-order Pearson product-moment correlation, multiple linear regression, and first-order semi-partial correlation analyses. Results indicated that the ATPP did not successfully predict (2 >.05) the rated performance of the programmers.
Date: August 1981
Creator: Duvall, Sherman K.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Career and Occupational Implementation Among Women College Graduates

Description: This follow-up study involved college women seven years after graduation. The purpose was to investigate the predictability of women's career behavior from career aspirations at senior year of college. Some data were derived from The Role Outlook Study senior year questionnaire. In addition, a second questionnaire, The Role Outlook Follow-Up, was utilized which focused upon various events occurring in women's lives following college graduation, namely marriage, graduate school attendance, receipt of advanced degrees, and work experience. No significant association was found between women's career aspirations senior year and actual career behavior. Instead, marriage and the absence or presence of children differentiated working and non-working women. However, a significant association was found between women' s occupational preferences at senior year and their current occupations.
Date: August 1976
Creator: Shinn, Linda S.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Personality Correlates of Burnout in Teachers

Description: Career burnout has been recognized as a syndrome marked by mental, physical and emotional exhaustion which is especially prevalent among teachers. Teacher burnout is currently a widely researched phenomenon and controversy over its definition, causes and interventions has been great. Meanwhile, the burnout construct has gained little clarity. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether identifiable personality characteristics, as measured by the Personality Research Form, were consistently associated with burnout in teachers, as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Cognitive Burnout Scale. Moderately strong relationships were found between specific personality characeristics and reported levels of burnout. However, individual factors were not concluded to be as critical as the interaction between such factors and the environment. Future directions are discussed.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Nash, Leslie Tennant
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Cognitive Development and Premarital Sexual Permissiveness on Adolescent Pregnancy

Description: A literature review revealed 15 variables as commonly studied as associated with adolescent pregnancy. The research showed conflicting results in many of these areas. Twenty-one pregnant and 20 non-pregnant adolescents were tested using the Arlin Test of Formal Reasoning (ATFR) and the Reiss's Premarital Sexual Permissiveness Scale. Pregnant participants were expected to score lower than non-pregnant participants on the ATFR; and, the low permissives (based on responses to the Reiss's Premarital Sexual Permissiveness Scale) were expected to score higher than high permissives on the ATFR. However, the results did not support the hypotheses. Several areas were examined for exploratory purposes. There was a significant difference between high permissives and low permissives for parent/peer orientation for sexual behavior attitudes. Additional exploratory demographic information was collected using a General Information Questionnaire.
Date: December 1988
Creator: Powers, Pamela Kay
Partner: UNT Libraries

Helping Among Children

Description: This study investigated the effect of cost-of-escape on helping among children. Forty-four children between the approximate ages of six and twelve served as subjects. The experiment was performed in a natural setting using an ice cream truck. The driver (experimenter) manipulated the cost-of-escape and then had an "accident." The easy-to-escape group received their ice cream before the driver spilled 300 spoons on the ground. The difficult-to-escape group had paid for their ice cream but had not received it before the "accident" occurred. The number of spoons picked up by each condition and the lapse time before a member of each group began to help was recorded. No differences were found between the groups (all ps > .05). Implications for cost-of-escape were discussed.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Russell, Sue Ann
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Male and Female Speech Styles on the Perceptions of Clinical Psychologists

Description: Previous research suggests that gender-appropriate and gender-inappropriate use of sex-linked linguistic markers alters subjects' perceptions of the speaker. The present study examined the effects of male and female speech styles on clients' perceptions,. Undergraduates (N = 160) listened to audiotapes of clinical psychologists introducing the same client to psychotherapy. Clinician gender and sex-linked linguistic markers were manipulated. The results suggested that sex-stereotypes of males, females, and occupations played an important role in altering clients' perceptions of clinical psychologists. Sex-stereotypes did not, however, determine the desirability of the speaker as a therapist. The use of female speech styles increased the clinician's perceived femininity and desirability as a therapist.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Sager, Beatrice W. (Beatrice Wynne)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Changing People's Reaction to Terrorism

Description: Two hundred and fifty-three subjects were used in an experiment to try to determine how differences in news media presentations affect the reader's view of terrorism. Two stories about a terrorist attack were used, one describing a bombing, the other a hijacking. Both stories had two versions using no one injured or eight innocent people injured. One group of subjects was given no additional information about terrorism. The second group was given information after the description that emphasized the salience of terrorism. The third group received information that de-emphasized the seriousness of terrorism. Subjects were also given a questionnaire designed to measure authoritarianism and one to measure conservatism. It was found that subjects scoring high on authoritarianism or conservativism favored more severe punishment for terrorists than did those scoring lower on the two scales. Findings did not support the hypothesis that providing people with information about terrorism could lessen the impact of terrorist events.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Nagley, Andrew Guy
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparative Analysis of Three Forms of Evaluating Management Training Programs

Description: The practice of training evaluation has not kept pace with prescription, and evaluations being being done are frequently negligent of appropriate controls needed to draw valid conclusions. A comparison was made of training outcomes contrasting results obtained using carefully controlled scientific approaches with those from a more popular less scientific approach. The research design involved the collection and analysis of data from a single organizations managerial training program. , Three different methods of training evaluation were studied: an "immediate reaction" rating sheet, a self-report participant survey, and a similar survey completed by t he participants' subordinates. Bo th surv ey r e sul t s showed no signif icant c hang es in on-the-job behavior six weeks after training. In contrast the "immediate reaction" ratings were positive, implying the training program was a "success." Conclusions w ere drawn concerning the validity of methods compared.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Hale, John P.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Type A and Type B Personality and Leadership Style on Absenteeism

Description: This study explored the relationship of Type A/B personality and leadership style to absenteeism. Absenteeism data were gathered for 243 male fire fighters and fire engineers. Each subject was administered the Jenkins Activity Scale to measure his Type A characteristics and the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire to measure his perception of his supervisor's leadership style. The results, though non-significant, revealed that: a) Type A's had less absenteeism than type B's; b) Subjects who perceived their supervisors as being low on consideration had less absenteeism than those who perceived their supervisors as being high on this dimension; c) Type A's absenteeism was low and Type B's was high when working under a leader perceived as low on structure. Finally, a weak but significant three-way interaction effect revealed that the highest amount of absenteeism occurred when Type B' s worked under supervisors who were high in consideration and low in structure. The least amount of absenteeism occurred when Type A's worked under supervisors who were high in structure and low in consideration.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Nichols, Judith Ann, 1957-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Self-Esteem, Sex Roles, and Fundamentalist Religious Belief

Description: Recent sex role research suggested that androgynous subjects demonstrated better adjustment than sex-typed subjects. Fundamentalist religious belief, however, has strongly supported sex role differentiation. This study hypothesized that the effect of appropriate sex role typing or androgyny on self-esteem would depend on religious belief. Although this hypothesis was not supported, a main effect on sex roles for females was obtained; androgynous females had a higher self-esteem level than feminine females. In addition, males in this study had a higher self-esteem level than females.
Date: May 1980
Creator: Zervopoulos, John Anthony
Partner: UNT Libraries

Psychopathology and Love

Description: This study considered the relationship between psychopathology and love. Agape love was defined as spontaneous and selfless love. The hypothesis tested was that people demonstrating psychopathology would make fewer positive responses to statements reflecting love than people free of psychopathology. The MMPI was utilized to measure the presence of psychopathology. The Atkinson A Scale (developed for this study) measured agape responses. Both these instruments were administered to 102 subjects in three groups: hospital patients, seminary students, and psychology students. Mean agape scores were subjected to a one-way analysis of variance, Significant difference among the group means was detected at the p <.05 level. A Scheffe test showed hospital patients' agape scores significantly lower than scores of seminary and psychology students. The initial hypothesis was confirmed,
Date: August 1979
Creator: Atkinson, Stephen E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Skills Acquisition and Cognitive Restructuring Operations in Training Assertive Behaviors

Description: Behavioral and cognitive skills training for increasing assertive behavior in college students were compared to an equally credible expectancy-control. One significant multivariate function successfully discriminated between the behavioral and control groups, and between the cognitive and control groups. This function was interpreted as showing enhanced behavioral/cognitive construction competencies in the behavioral and cognitive groups. A second function, though not significant, suggested that the cognitive training resulted in more aggressive behavior.
Date: May 1979
Creator: Lefebvre, R. Craig
Partner: UNT Libraries

Validity Scale Elevation in Factor Analysis of the MMPI-168

Description: In a statistical comparison of orthogonal normalized varimax factor analytic solutions for the MMPI-168 including and excluding invalid protocols of psychiatric inpatients, at least one factor reflection was observed. Factors identified were Psychotic Distortion (Absence of Distress), Somaticism, Depression, Extroversion, Masculinity-Femininity, and Low Morale. Factors obtained, and representative clinical scales, were consistent with those obtained by others in investigations of both abbreviated and standard MMPI forms. Statistical comparison of factors identified by the two analyses indicated congruence. Possible sources of factor distortion were discussed.
Date: May 1981
Creator: McGraw, Richard Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries

Analysis and Comparison of a Developmental Task Scale on Differing Adolescent Populations

Description: The following research questions were investigated: (a) Can the age-mates scales from the Dales developmental task scales be used with southwestern-urban adolescent populations? (b) Are there any systematic differences between northeastern-nonurban and southwestern-urban subject populations on the response to these scales? The subjects consisted of 884 adolescents, 11 through 15 years, evenly divided by sex. Subject responses were analyzed by sex and age groups using Guttman scalogram analysis. Goodman's test of significance revealed that the results could have occurred by chance (p > .05). The instrument in its present form was not found useful'-for an urban population. Lack of reproducibility made comparison of the performance of urban and nonurban adolescents unjustified.
Date: August 1976
Creator: Barton, John W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Personality Characteristics of Pediatric Leukemia Patients: Their Mothers' Perceptions

Description: The improving prognosis for pediatric leukemia patients requires that involved professionals increase attention to the emotional adjustment of these children. This study was designed to determine (a) how mothers of leukemia patients perceived their children's personalities in order to identify any specific emotional difficulties which these children may experience and (b) if their perceptions differed from either mothers of cystic fibrosis and diabetes patients or mothers of healthy children. Subjects included 24 mothers in each of three groups: leukemia, other illness, and healthy. Children in both illness groups received higher scores than healthy children on Adjustment, Achievement, Somatic Concern, Depression, Psychosis, and Social Skills scales as measured by the Personality Inventory for Children; however, only the leukemic children were rated higher in areas of Anxiety and Withdrawal. Implications for treatment and future research are discussed.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Hughes, Sandra A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Educable Mentally Retarded: Classification of Students and Texas State Guidelines

Description: In Texas, placement of educable mentally retarded (EMR) students has required three factors-- intellectual assessment, educational appraisal, and adaptive behavior. This study examined 28 reclassified EMR students to determine which assessment factor is least stable in defining EMR and to determine significance of change in assessment scores. Data were secured from school records. Type of intellectual assessment test used varied greatly and was found to be the most inconsistent placement factor. However, educational appraisal scores contributed to over half the reclassifications. Adaptive behavior did not contribute to any reclassification. Due to limited sampling and variety of assessment tests, significance of change in scores was not determined. Generally, on retest,performance IQ scores were elevated while verbal IQ scores remained the same.
Date: December 1979
Creator: Bonner, Angela Denise
Partner: UNT Libraries

Rational Behavior Therapy in a Retirement Community

Description: The objectives of this investigation were to develop, implement, and determine the effects of rational behavior therapy for residents in a retirement community. The question addressed was, "Will rational behavior therapy, relative to a discussion group and control group, exhibit significant changes in level of rational thinking and depression?" Drawing upon a cognitive theory of depression relevant to the aged population and upon rational behavior therapy literature, it was hypothesized that short-term rational behavior therapy intervention would be significantly related to a modification of belief systems and a decrease in depression. The participants were residents of two retirement communities. There were 25 subjects who completed the study through posttest assessment. These subjects were randomly assigned to three groups and assessed at pretest, posttest, and follow-up. The experimental group did not experience the hypothesized significant increase in level of rational thinking and decrease in level of depression. Possible explanations are given for lack of expected effects. Overall, the discussion group had more significant increases in rational thinking than the experimental and control groups.
Date: May 1982
Creator: Caraway, Marsha Lynn
Partner: UNT Libraries

Factor Analysis of an Employee Attitude Survey

Description: A 75-item, Likert-type employee attitude survey was completed by a sample of 670 hourly and salaried employees of a Southwestern company engaged in computerized tax-form processing. The survey contained items relating to attitude dimensions roughly analogous to those subsumed under the two-factor theory of job satisfaction as defined in the relevant literature. Factor analysis, using the principle axes solution, followed by both orthogonal (varimax) and oblique (direct oblimin) rotations was performed. The oblique rotation derived 11 factors which accounted for 87.3% of the common variance. These lent statistical support to 10 of 16 a priori, hypothesized attitudinal dimensions. The six remaining hypothesized dimensions were not empirically supported.
Date: August 1981
Creator: Scivetti, Frank A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Concurrent Validation of the Computer Programmer Aptitude Battery

Description: Subjects were 34 computer programmers employed in a major computerized tax processing company. Scores in the Computer Programmer Aptitude Battery (CPAB) and ratings of each programmer's job performance by his immediate supervisor were obtained. The purpose of the study was to validate a selection test. The relationship between the aptitude battery and performance evaluations was examined to evaluate the test's ability in predicting programming performance. Statistical treatment of data included Pearson product-moment correlations and a multiple linear regression analysis. The total test scores and several of the subtests were found to be significantly correlated with performance.
Date: August 1981
Creator: Edwards, Dorsey W. (Dorsey Williams)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effortless Control Processing: A Heuristic Strategy for Reducing Cognitive Bias in Judgments of Control

Description: The present investigation tested the prediction that effortless control processing, the deliberate activation of innate automatic encoding mechanisms, will enable nondepressed persons to accurately judge degree of control. Subjective judgment of control in nondepressed students was examined by a modification of the method developed by Jenkins and Ward (1965). The modification was based on Hasher and Zacks' (1979) version of the method. Several measures were used to assess students' representations of control. Students were asked to judge the degree of control their responses had over outcomes rather than the degree of contingency between responses and outcomes. To facilitate comparison of prior studies on the judgment of contingency with the present study, Jenkins and Ward's (1965) index of the actual degree of control was used. Their index used the magnitude of the difference between the conditional probability of an outcome given the occurrence of one response versus the conditional probability of the outcome given the occurrence of another response as representing degree of control or contingency. In this experiment, students instructed in effortful control processing and effortless control processing were presented with a series of problems in which there was no contingency between their responses and outcomes. The problems differed in the degree of favorable outcome frequency. Students' abilities to detect noncontingency between responses and outcomes under different conditions of outcome frequency was examined.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Evans, Harry Monroe
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Study of Relationships Among Selected Personality Variables, Perceived Locus of Control and Student Preferred Learning Styles

Description: The problem of this study was to search for relationships between selected learning styles as measured by the Grasha-Riechmann Learning Style Scales and personality variables as measured by the Eysenck Personality Inventory and Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale. An additional problem was to test for differences along the male-female dimension among the personality and attitude variables.
Date: August 1980
Creator: Mershon, Helen Elizabeth
Partner: UNT Libraries

History of Guidance in the United States

Description: Among the social sciences, guidance is relatively young, having evolved out of the American social experience with its concern for the welfare of the individual. As an independent discipline, guidance is about seventy years old. However, the foundations for guidance are imbedded in the nation's historical past. Beginning with seventeenth-century New Englanders, who stressed religious and economic reasoning, a systematic approach to occupational selection began. By the close of the colonial period, the precedent of freedom of choice of vocation and educational opportunity was well established.
Date: August 1980
Creator: Picchioni, Anthony Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of a Partially Structured Christian Marriage Enrichment Program Upon Marital Communication, General Marital Adjustment, and Purpose in Life

Description: The problem of this study was the negative or positive effects of a partially structured Christian marriage enrichment weekend upon marital communication, marital adjustment, and purpose in life. The results indicated that on all four tests both groups improved significantly over a two-month period but not over a one-week period. The general conclusions to be drawn are two-fold. First, a partially structured Christian marriage enrichment weekend, namely Enjoying Marriage, will probably help a couple improve in communication, adjustment, and purpose in life. Second, only on adjustment and purpose in life can one say that such improvement is based specifically upon the content of the weekend. The reason for this is that a weekend retreat group who received no treatment on marriage also improved in communication and on one specific type of marital adjustment as measured by the Polyfactor Sentence Completion Survey.
Date: May 1980
Creator: Wilson, Douglas A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Instruments Bias in Assessment Centers

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of behavioral checklist critical item content on subsequent global, Likert-type ratings. It was hypothesized that assessment center participants rated with positive critical items would receive higher scores on subsequent global ratings than would participants rated with negative critical items. Additionally, it was hypothesized that volunteers would receive better ratings than nonvolunteers. Finally, it was hypothesized that behavioral ratings would show less susceptibility to halo effect than global ratings.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Cunningham, Howard Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries