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General Motors Corporation and Pacific Northwest Laboratory Staff Exchange: Instrumentation for rapid measurement of automotive exhaust emissions

Description: Information in this report on the staff exchange of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff with the AIGER Consortium (General Motors, Ford, Chrysler, Navistar, the environmental protection Agency, and the California Air Resources Board) includes the purpose and objectives, a summary of activities, significant accomplishments, significant problems, industry benefits realized, recommended follow-on work and potential benefits from that work, and two appendices. Appendix A is a brief description of the fast gas chromatography and infrared spectroscopy chemometric technologies and their application to the rapid characterization of automobile exhaust emissions. Appendix B is a list of key contacts and the schedule of activities pertaining to the staff exchange.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Griffin, J.W.; Sharpe, S.W. & Sloane, T.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pacific Northwest Laboratory CALIOPE overview

Description: This overview covers progress in the following areas in which Pacific Northwest Laboratory contributes to the CALIOPE Program: (1) Fabrication of electro-optic modulators to generate FM-coding on IR lasers in the 8-12 and 3-5 {mu}m regions. (2) IR spectroscopy of signature species, abnormal isotopic distributions, hydrolysis and kinetics of effluents interacting with the atmosphere, and reflectance measurements of natural surfaces. (3) Systems analysis of FM-DIAL concepts, including lateral phase coherence and MTF measurements, and laboratory tests of detector technology and demodulation methods. (4) Field tests of FM-DIAL, covering field validation of portable diode laser concepts, FM-CO{sub 2} interrogation of Hanford sites, and signal returns from natural specular surfaces. (5) Ancillary matters: ground-truthing at Hanford (and RSTR?), countermeasures, and new laser design concepts.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: McDowell, R.S.; Kelly, J.F. & Sharpe, S.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Infrared signatures for remote sensing

Description: PNL`s capabilities for infrared and near-infrared spectroscopy include tunable-diode-laser (TDL) systems covering 300--3,000 cm{sup {minus}1} at <10-MHz bandwidth; a Bruker Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer for the near- to far-infrared at 50-MHz resolution; and a stable line-tunable, 12-w cw CO{sub 2} laser. PNL also has a beam expansion source with a 12-cm slit, which provides a 3-m effective path for gases at {approximately}10 K, giving a Doppler width of typically 10 MHz; and long-path static gas cells (to 100 m). In applying this equipment to signatures work, the authors emphasize the importance of high spectral resolution for detecting and identifying atmospheric interferences; for identifying the optimum analytical frequencies; for deriving, by spectroscopic analysis, the molecular parameters needed for modeling; and for obtaining data on species and/or bands that are not in existing databases. As an example of such spectroscopy, the authors have assigned and analyzed the C-Cl stretching region of CCl{sub 4} at 770--800 cm{sup {minus}1}. This is an important potential signature species whose IR absorption has remained puzzling because of the natural isotopic mix, extensive hot-band structure, and a Fermi resonance involving a nearby combination band. Instrument development projects include the IR sniffer, a small high-sensitivity, high-discrimination (Doppler-limited) device for fence-line or downwind monitoring that is effective even in regions of atmospheric absorption; preliminary work has achieved sensitivities at the low-ppb level. Other work covers trace species detection with TDLs, and FM-modulated CO{sub 2} laser LIDAR. The authors are planning a field experiment to interrogate the Hanford tank farm for signature species from Rattlesnake Mountain, a standoff of ca. 15 km, to be accompanied by simultaneous ground-truthing at the tanks.
Date: April 1, 1994
Creator: McDowell, R. S.; Sharpe, S. W. & Kelly, J. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department