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MATERIAL BALANCE FLOWSHEETS

Description: Material balance flowsheets are presented for the dissolution of UO/sub 2/, UO/sub 2/-ThO/sub 2/, and U-Mo fuels clad in stainless steel or zirconium by the Sulfex, Darex, and Zinflex process. The mechanics of the three processes are discussed. Basic assumptions upon which the flowsheets are based are contained. (auth)
Date: February 1, 1960
Creator: Shappert, L.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cask drop testing and analysis

Description: Packages designed to carry spent fuel within the United States must be approved and certified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This is done by submitting an application to the NRC that describes the package design and provides a detailed technical evaluation of its performance under a variety of normal and accident conditions. These technical evaluations are often based on a combination of theoretical analysis and experimental testing that can be particularly important if it is necessary to corroborate specific analytical assumptions or confirm the methodology used. Tests can be applied to full-scale prototypes or scale model packages, either of which can frequently provide the necessary evidence to substantiate the conclusions. This report discusses two types of packages that were tested at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory -- a scale model spent fuel cask and a full-scale canister designed to be carried inside a spent fuel cask. They were designed by two private companies. Both companies applied to the NRC for a Certificate of Compliance for their casks. In both cases, the combination of testing and analysis, and the way it was applied, formed a critical part of their application. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Shappert, L.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drop testing at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [TRUPACT-I and a TMI-2 defueling canister]

Description: Two different types of packages, the TRUPACT-I shipping system and a TMI-2 defueling canister, were recently subjected to a series of drop tests at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The testing programs for the two packages are described.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Shappert, L. B. & Box, W. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Packaging Handbook -- A guide to package design

Description: The Packaging Handbook is a compilation of 14 technical chapters and five appendices that address the life cycle of a packaging which is intended to transport radioactive material by any transport mode in normal commerce. Although many topics are discussed in depth, this document focuses on the design aspects of a packaging. The Handbook, which is being prepared under the direction of the US Department of Energy, is intended to provide a wealth of technical guidance that will give designers a better understanding of the regulatory approval process, preferences of regulators in specific aspects of packaging design, and the types of analyses that should be seriously considered when developing the packaging design. Even though the Handbook is concerned with all packagings, most of the emphasis is placed on large packagings that are capable of transporting large radioactive sources that are also fissile (e.g., spent fuel). These are the types of packagings that must address the widest range of technical topics in order to meet domestic and international regulations. Most of the chapters in the Handbook have been drafted and submitted to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for editing; the majority of these have been edited. This report summarizes the contents.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Shappert, L.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DESIGN EVALUATION OF A LARGE CONCRETE CASK TO MEET IP-2 REQUIREMENTS

Description: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a large quantity of low-level waste, in the form of concrete monoliths, that are stored in large concrete vaults in ORNL's Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST). During FY 2000, a number of the monoliths were transferred from the concrete vaults to a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-certified lead-shielded cask and shipped to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal. This activity has resulted in (1) increased radiation exposure both when the monoliths were transferred to the lead-shielded cask and when they were unloaded and buried at the NTS and (2) high cask rental and shipping costs for the program, and (3) the accumulation of empty vaults at ORNL which will also have to be disposed of at NTS, adding a significant additional transportation cost. As a result, Department of Energy (DOE)--Oak Ridge has been exploring ways to ship the MVST cask with its monolith to the NTS for disposal as a unit. To do this, the MVST cask would have to be self-certified as meeting IP-2 package requirements.
Date: August 30, 2001
Creator: Shappert, L. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RADIOCHEMICAL PROCESSING-OFF-SITE TRANSPORTATION AND ULTIMATE STORAGE PROBLEMS

Description: Safe and economic methods of handling radioactive materials off-site are required for the successful operation of nuclear chemical plants. These occasions arise in the shipment of spent fuel, radioactive, isotopes, and liquid wastes. An unsolved problem exists in the development of techniques and sites for the final disposal of waste products. (auth)
Date: March 14, 1962
Creator: Blomeke, J.O. & Shappert, L.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transportation operations functions of the federal waste management system

Description: This paper documents the functions that are necessary to operate the OCRWM transportation system. OCRWM's mission is to accept and transport spent fuel and high-level waste from waste generators to FWMS facilities. The emphasis is on transportation operations and assumes that all necessary facilities are in place and equipment designs and specifications are available to permit the system to operate properly. The information reported in this paper was developed for TOPO and is compatible with the draft revision of the Waste Management System Requirements and Description (SRD). 5 refs.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Shappert, L.B. & Klimas, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drop test facility available to private industry

Description: In 1978, a virtually unyielding drop test impact pad was constructed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Tower Shielding Facility (TSF) for the testing of heavy shipping containers designed for transporting radioactive materials. Because of the facility's unique capability for drop-testing large, massive shipping packages, it has been identified as a facility which can be made available for non-DOE users.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Shappert, L.B. & Box, W.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of AFR storage location on spent fuel transportation

Description: In order to assess the impact of Away-From-Reactor (AFR) siting on the spent fuel transportation system, five different sites were studied: Argonne, Oak Ridge, Savannah River, Idaho Falls, and Richland. Transportation costs, cask fleet sizes, and radiation exposures received by transportation workers and the general public were calculated for each site. Results show that the eastern three sites are best. 5 figures, 5 tables. (DLC)
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Joy, D.S. & Shappert, L.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PATRAM symposia

Description: The series of Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials (PATRAM) symposia is nearing the completion of a second decade. There has been a marked growth in interest from its inception in 1965 to the present as shown by the increasing number of participants, the countries represented, and the variety of the subjects addressed. This paper presents highlights of the six symposia held during the period from January 1965 to November 1980.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Shappert, L.B. & Pryor, W.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The development of a packaging handbook

Description: The Packaging Handbook, dealing with the development of packagings designed to carry radioactive material, is being written for DOE`s Transportation and Packaging Safety Division. The primary goal of the Handbook is to provide sufficient technical information and guidance to improve the quality of Safety Analysis Reports on Type B Packagings (SARPs) that are submitted to DOE for certification. This paper provides an update on the status of the Handbook.
Date: April 1, 1994
Creator: Shappert, L. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improvements in release probability by using an overpack. [Obsolete munitions]

Description: An analysis was performed to determine the probability of an unconfined release of hazardous material as a consequence of being involved in a severe transportation accident. Two packaging scenarios were considered: (1) material was palletized and placed in a standard aluminum sided trailer, and (2) the same material was placed in an overpackage. In addition to truck, both rail and air transport were also considered. Several release categories were defined ranging from minor to very large, and the effectiveness of the overpackage to reduce the probability of unconfined release was evaluated for each type of release category. The results are applicable to the transport of radioactive materials in similar overpackages. The potential accident scenarios for a pallet of obsolete munitions were identified using a fault-free methodology.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Rhyne, W.R.; Ashwood, T.L. & Shappert, L.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioactive waste transportation systems analysis and program plan

Description: The objective of the Transportation/Logistics Study is to ensure the availability of a viable system for transporting the wastes to a federal repository in 1985. In order to accomplish this objective, a systems analysis of waste transportation has been directed by ORNL to determine the problems that must be solved and to develop a program plan that identifies which problems must first be pursued. To facilitate this overall approach and to provide for short- and long-range waste management, logistics models have been developed to determine the transportation fleet requirements and costs. Results of the study are described in this report.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Shappert, L.B.; Joy, D.S. & Heiskell, M.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact of transporting defense high-level waste to a geologic repository

Description: This transportation study assumes that defense high-level waste is stored in three locations (the Savannah River, Hanford, and Idaho Falls plants) and may be disposed of in (1) a commercial repository or (2) a defense-only repository, either of which could be located at one of the five candidate sites; also documented is a preliminary analysis of the costs and risks of transporting defense high-level waste from the three storage sites to the five potential candidate repository sites. 17 references, 4 figures, 27 tables.
Date: August 1, 1984
Creator: Joy, D.S.; Shappert, L.B. & Boyle, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent experience in planning, packaging and preparing non-commercial spent fuel for shipment within the United States

Description: US DOE orders dictate that the aluminium clad fuels now stored at ORNL will be shipped to the Savannah River Site. A number of activities had to be carried out in order to ready the fuel for shipping, including choosing a cask capable of transporting the fuel, repackaging the fuel, developing a transportation plan, identifying the appropriate routes, and carrying out a readiness self assessment. These tasks have been successfully completed and are discussed herein.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Johnson, P.E.; Shappert, L.B. & Turner, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Completion of the Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook

Description: The Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook: Design, Operation and Maintenance, which will serve as a replacement for the Cask Designers Guide (Shappert, 1970), has now been completed and submitted to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) electronics publishing group for layout and printing; it is scheduled to be printed in late spring 1998. The Handbook, written by experts in their particular fields, is a compilation of technical chapters that address the design aspects of a package intended for transporting radioactive material in normal commerce; it was prepared under the direction of M. E. Wangler of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and is intended to provide a wealth of technical guidance that will give designers a better understanding of the regulatory approval process, preferences of regulators on specific aspects of package design, and the types of analyses that should be considered when designing a package to carry radioactive materials.
Date: February 1, 1998
Creator: Shappert, L.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computer calculations of wire-rope tiedown designs for radioactive materials packages

Description: This Regulatory Compliance Guide (RCG) provides guidance on the use and selection of appropriate wire rope type package tiedowns. It provides an effective way to encourage and to ensure uniform implementation of regulatory requirements applicable to tiedowns. It provides general guidelines for securing packages weighing 5,000 pounds or greater that contain radioactive materials onto legal weight trucks (exclusive of packagings having their own trailer with trunnion type tiedown). This RCG includes a computerized Tiedown Stress Calculation Program (TSCP) which calculates the stresses in the wire-rope tiedowns and specifies appropriate sizes of wire rope and associated hardware parameters (such as turnback length, number of cable clips, etc.).
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Shappert, L.B.; Ratledge, J.E.; Moore, R.S. & Dorsey, E.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Probability and consequences of accidents in the nuclear fuel cycle

Description: >From winter meeting of American Society of Mechanical Engineers; Detroit, Michigan, USA (11 Nov 1973). The probability of accidents occurring in the nuclear fuel cycle is examined by considering: projected number of shipments of nuclear materials for power reactors (excluding breeder and gascooled reactors); transport by truck, rail, aircraft, and barge; and statistics on the frequency and severity of accidents in each of these modes of transport. The consequences of accidents involving nuclear fuel cycle materials are discussed in terms of package integrity; estimates of radioactivity releases; radiation doses to humans from estimated releases of radioactive materials; and environmental contamination from accidental radioactivity releases. (LCL)
Date: January 1, 1973
Creator: Shappert, L.B.; Brobst, W.A.; Sisler, J.A. & Langhaar, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Garden Carrier No. 2

Description: An analytical evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Garden Carrier No. 2 was made to demonstrate its compliance with the regulations governing off-site radioactive material shipping packages. The evaluation encompassed five primary categories: structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding, nuclear criticality safety, and quality assurance. The results of the evaluation show that the cask complies with the applicable regulations. The package is designed to ship large quantities of fissile and radioactive materials as solids.
Date: April 1, 1978
Creator: Klima, B.B.; Shappert, L.B.; Seagren, R.D. & Box, W.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Shipping Cask D-38

Description: An analytical evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Shipping Cask D-38 (solids shipments) was made to demonstrate its compliance with the regulations governing off-site radioactive material shipping packages. The evaluation encompassed five primary categories: structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding, nuclear criticality safety, and quality assurance. The results of the evaluation show that the cask complies with the applicable regulations.
Date: April 1, 1978
Creator: Klima, B.B.; Shappert, L.B.; Seagren, R.D. & Box, W.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department