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New magic angle bumps and magic translation bumps

Description: SLC beams of opposite charge can be transversely deflected in the same direction by RF fields in the accelerating cavities caused by girder tilts, coupler-asymmetries, or manufacturing errors. A symmetric deflection can be corrected by a magic angle bump if the deflection is located adjacent to one of the linac quadrupoles. However, if the deflection is located between quadrupoles, two magic angle bumps or a magic angle bump and a magic translation bump are needed for the correction. Several examples of translation bumps are included. A new magic angle bump is also presented which is longitudinally compressed and has significantly reduced particle excursions. Finally, if new correctors are added midway along the girders so that the number of correctors are doubled, then the longitudinal extent and the maximum particle excursion of these new magic bumps can be further reduced.
Date: October 28, 1983
Creator: Seeman, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy spread in SLC linac with Landau damping

Description: The possibility of using Landau damping to reduce the growth of the beam size due to transverse wake fields has been known for some time. Recently K. Bane has calculated the effects of Landau damping for the SLC. The energy spread is then slowly removed so that at the end of the linac it has returned to the SLC specification of less than +0.5%. The purpose of the energy spread is to reduce the resonant driving of the tail of the bunch by the head. In this note the expected energy spreads within the beam are tabulated at various positions along the linac for use by those people designing momentum dependent equipment and for those interested in Landau damping.
Date: August 22, 1984
Creator: Seeman, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Observations of the beam-beam interaction

Description: The observed complexity of the beam-beam interaction is the subject of this paper. The varied observations obtained from many storage rings happen to be sufficiently similar that a prescription can be formulated to describe the behavior of the luminosity as a function of beam current including the peak value. This prescription can be used to interpret various methods for improving the luminosity. Discussion of these improvement methods is accompanied with examples from actual practice. The consequences of reducing the vertical betatron function (one of the most used techniques) to near the value of the bunch length are reviewed. Finally, areas needing further experimental and calculational studies are pointed out as they are uncovered.
Date: November 1, 1985
Creator: Seeman, J.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beam-beam interaction: luminosity, tails, and noise

Description: Observations of the beam-beam interaction at SPEAR, CESR, PETRA and PEP are discussed. They are sufficiently similar that a simple prescription can be formulated to describe the behavior of the luminosity as a function of current including the peak values. With this prescription the interpretation of various methods of increasing the luminosity, such as the reduction of the vertical betatron function, the increase of the horizontal beam size, and mini- and micro- beta projects, is straight-forward. Predictions for future storage rings can also be made. Finally, some observations of the consequences of reducing the vertical betatron function to near the value of the bunch length are discussed.
Date: July 1, 1983
Creator: Seeman, J.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iris tilting and RF steering in the SLAC Linac

Description: For some time now, the sources of RF transverse beam steering in the SLAC Linac have been a mystery. The previously known sources, coupler asymmetries and survey misalignment, have predicted deflections which are frequently much smaller than the observed deflections. A new source of RF steering has been discovered: the tilting of accelerator irises. Measurements of iris tilting in a forty foot accelerator girder are compared with measurements of RF beam deflections and are found to be strongly correlated. 4 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: May 2, 1985
Creator: Seeman, J.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beam dynamics issues in linear colliders

Description: The primary goal of present and future linear colliders is to maximize the integrated luminosity for the experimental program. Beam dynamics plays a central role in the maximization of integrated luminosity. It is the major issue in the production of small beam sizes and low experimental backgrounds and is also an important factor in the production of particle numbers, in the acceleration process, and in the number of bunches. The beam dynamics effects on bunches which are extracted from the damping rings, accelerated in the linac, collimated, momentum analyzed, and finally delivered to the final focus are reviewed. The effects of bunch compression, transverse and longitudinal wakefields, BNS damping, energy definition, dispersion, emittance, bunch aspect ratio, feedback, and stability are all important. 11 refs., 1 tab.
Date: June 1, 1989
Creator: Seeman, J.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New limits on residual RTL eta from Linac wakefields

Description: Effects of Linac transverse wakefields are combined with residual eta and partially compressed bunches (presently the SLC design) to place much tighter, current dependent limits on residual eta and eta'. The limits are comparable to or exceed those needed at the SLC final focus. These limits will be difficult to maintain due to present experimental resolution.
Date: May 16, 1986
Creator: Seeman, J.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Limitation of Linear Colliders From Transverse RF Deflections

Description: Offaxis beam trajectories in a linear collider produce transverse wakefield and chromatic effects which cause emittance enlargement. One cause for non-centered trajectories in the accelerating structures is radial rf fields which produce transverse deflections. Static deflections can be compensated by static dipole magnetic fields. However, fluctuations of the rf fields cause variations in the deflections which must be managed or limited. Given the level of fluctuation of the phase and amplitude of an rf system, a limit on the allowable rf deflection can be calculated. Parameters, such as the beam emittance, lattice design, rf wavelength and the initial and final beam energies, influence the tolerances. Two tolerances are calculated: (1) one assumes that the wakefields are completely controlled, and that chromatic effects are the only enlarging mechanism (optimistic), and (2) the other assumes the limit is due to transverse wakefields without the aid of Landau damping (pessimistic).
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Seeman, J. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beam dynamics verification in linacs of linear colliders

Description: The SLAC two-mile linac has been upgraded to accelerate high current, low emittance electron and positron beams to be used in the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). After the upgrade was completed, extensive beam studies were made to verify that the design criteria have been met. These tests involved the measurement of emittance, beam phase space orientation, energy dispersion, trajectory oscillations, bunch length, energy spectrum and wakefields. The methods, the systems and the data cross checks are compared for the various measurements. Implications for the next linear collider are discussed. 12 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Seeman, J.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PEP-II And KEKB Operational Status

Description: The present two B-Factories, PEP-II at SLAC in California and KEKB at KEK in Tsukuba, Japan, operate at the Upsilon 4S and have reached parameter levels unprecedented for e+e- colliders. They have provided very large data samples for their respective particle detectors, BaBar and BELLE. Luminosity has exceeded 1.5 x 10{sup 34}/cm{sup 2}/s. Beam currents have reached 2.5 A with 1600 positron bunches spaced by 4 nsec. Continuous injection with the detectors taking data has added significantly to data collection rates by about 40%. Bunch-by-bunch feedback systems damp strong longitudinal and transverse coupled bunch instabilities. The beam-beam interaction has allowed high tune shift levels even in the presence of parasitic crossing and crossing angle effects. Both B-Factory colliders have significant near term luminosity improvement programs.
Date: February 6, 2006
Creator: Seeman, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Last Year of PEP-II B-Factory Operation

Description: The PEP-II B-Factory at SLAC (3.1 GeV e{sup +} x 9.0 GeV e{sup -}) operated from 1999 to 2008, delivering luminosity to the BaBar experiment. The design luminosity was reached after one and a half years of operation. In the end PEP-II surpassed by four times its design luminosity reaching 1.21 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. It also set stored beam current records of 2.1 A e{sup -} and 3.2 A e{sup +}. Continuous injection was implemented with BaBar taking data. The total delivered luminosity to the BaBar detector was 557.4 fb{sup -1} spanning five upsilon resonances. PEP-II was constructed by SLAC, LBNL, and LLNL with help from BINP, IHEP, the BaBar collaboration, and the US DOE OHEP.
Date: November 2, 2011
Creator: Seeman, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Linear Collider Accelerator Physics Issues Regarding Alignment

Description: The next generation of linear colliders will require more stringent alignment tolerances than those for the SLC with regard to the accelerating structures, quadrupoles, and beam position monitors. New techniques must be developed to achieve these tolerances. A combination of mechanical-electrical and beam-based methods will likely be needed.
Date: August 12, 2005
Creator: Seeman, J. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Special SLC linac developments

Description: The linac of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) is required to accelerate several intense electron and positron bunches to high energy while maintaining their small transverse dimensions and energy spectra. Many of the linac systems have been upgraded to the new stringent SLC design criteria. The remaining systems will be completed in the summer of 1986. Special instruments and controls have been developed to monitor and manipulate these small but potent beams. A brief review of the SLC requirements is given. A broad survey of the recent development is made encompassing longitudinal and transverse wakefield reductions, Landau damping, energy and position feedback systems, beam diagnostic and beam current fluctuations.
Date: April 1, 1986
Creator: Seeman, J.T. & Sheppard, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of the SLC

Description: The construction project for the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) was officially completed in April 1987, following a successful test in March of passing 46-GeV positron and electron beams through the collider hall on the same accelerator pulse. Since that time, commissioning of the SLC has concentrated on making the stability, intensity and transverse dimensions of both beams suitable to generate useful luminosity near the center of mass energy of 93 GeV. 11 refs.
Date: September 1, 1987
Creator: Seeman, J.T. & Sheppard, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Observation and cures of wakefield effects in the SLC Linac

Description: The acceleration and transport of beams with high currents and low emittances are very carefully controlled for the SLC Linac. Both longitudinal and transverse wakefields affect strongly the trajectory and emittance corrections used for operations during collisions. Longitudinal beam loading introduces an internal energy spread. This loading produces the expected doubled peaked energy spectra while reducing the overall available energy for acceleration. Transverse wakefields cause rapid oscillation amplitude growth with injection errors but can be ameliorated with transverse wakefield (BNS) damping. Transverse wakefields cause an apparent change in the lattice strength, affecting the interpretation of lattice diagnostics. Oscillations also produce non-gaussian transverse density distributions, which must be controlled for emittance and background reduction. Finally, the small misalignments of the accelerating structure enlarge the emittances of the beam. They can be controlled through off-axis trajectories and through systematic waveguide movements.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Seeman, J.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SLC beam dynamics issues

Description: The Stanford Linear Collider (SLC){sup 1,2} accelerates single bunches of electrons and positrons to 47 GeV per beam and collides them with small beam sizes and at high currents. The beam emittances and intensities required for present operation have significantly extended traditional beam quality limits. The electron source produces over 10{sup 11} e{sup {minus}} in each of two bunches. The damping rings provide coupled invariant emittances of 1.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} r-m at 4.5 {times} 10{sup 10} particles. The 50 GeV linac has successfully accelerated over 3 {times} 10{sup 10} particles with design invariant emittances of 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} r-m. The collider arcs are now sufficiently decoupled and matched in betatron space, so that the final focus can be chromatically corrected, routinely producing spot sizes ({sigma}{sub x}, {sigma}{sub y}) of 2.5 {mu}m at the interaction point. Spot sizes below 2 {mu}m have been made during tests. Instrumentation and feedback systems are well advanced, providing continuous beam monitoring and considerable pulse-by-pulse control. The luminosity reliability is about 60%. Overviews of the recent accelerator physics achievements used to obtain these parameters and the present limiting phenomena are described for each accelerator subsystem.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Seeman, J.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Observation and analysis of oscillations in linear accelerators

Description: This report discusses the following on oscillation in linear accelerators: Betatron Oscillations; Betatron Oscillations at High Currents; Transverse Profile Oscillations; Transverse Profile Oscillations at High Currents.; Oscillation and Profile Transient Jitter; and Feedback on Transverse Oscillations.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Seeman, J.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Observation of high current effects in high energy linear accelerators

Description: The acceleration and transport of electron beams with high currents and low emittances are subjects studied very carefully for many operating accelerators and most future accelerators. For a example, several Free Electron Lasers (FEL) and the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) presently operate with high energy intense beams. The next generation of synchrotron light sources and future linear colliders require a much higher degree of component precision and beam control. In this note the basic concepts governing the effects of high currents in accelerators are explored, including observations of high currents in present accelerators. The effects of longitudinal wakefields on acceleration and energy spreads are studied first. Then, the transverse equations of motion are developed including the technique of BNS damping to control wakefield growth. These wakefield effects are investigated to characterize their influence on the control and observation of beam oscillations. Finally, the reduction of transverse wakefield effects is important for maintaining the emittance of intense beams. 49 refs., 48 figs.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Seeman, J.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intense beams at the micron level for the Next Linear Collider

Description: High brightness beams with sub-micron dimensions are needed to produce a high luminosity for electron-positron collisions in the Next Linear Collider (NLC). To generate these small beam sizes, a large number of issues dealing with intense beams have to be resolved. Over the past few years many have been successfully addressed but most need experimental verification. Some of these issues are beam dynamics, emittance control, instrumentation, collimation, and beam-beam interactions. Recently, the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) has proven the viability of linear collider technology and is an excellent test facility for future linear collider studies.
Date: August 1, 1991
Creator: Seeman, J. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Injection issues of electron-positron storage rings

Description: The general issues of injection into e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} colliders are discussed using results from several storage rings. observations from these colliders indicate that the starting conditions and duration of each fill are often different Consequently, it is shown that the optimum storage time is expected to be about twice as long as that expected from simple-uniform filling cycles. Injection parameters for several proposed B-Factories are listed. Finally, the concept of continuous filling (injection transparent collisions) is explored which suggests that a factor of 4.5 to 6 increase in integrated luminosity may be achievable.
Date: September 1, 1992
Creator: Seeman, J. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Observation and cures of wakefield effects in the SLC Linac

Description: The acceleration and transport of beams with high currents and low emittances are very carefully controlled for the SLC Linac. Both longitudinal and transverse wakefields affect strongly the trajectory and emittance corrections used for operations during collisions. Longitudinal beam loading introduces an internal energy spread. This loading produces the expected doubled peaked energy spectra while reducing the overall available energy for acceleration. Transverse wakefields cause rapid oscillation amplitude growth with injection errors but can be ameliorated with transverse wakefield (BNS) damping. Transverse wakefields cause an apparent change in the lattice strength, affecting the interpretation of lattice diagnostics. Oscillations also produce non-gaussian transverse density distributions, which must be controlled for emittance and background reduction. Finally, the small misalignments of the accelerating structure enlarge the emittances of the beam. They can be controlled through off-axis trajectories and through systematic waveguide movements.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Seeman, J. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Observation of high current effects in high energy linear accelerators

Description: The acceleration and transport of electron beams with high currents and low emittances are subjects studied very carefully for many operating accelerators and most future accelerators. For a example, several Free Electron Lasers (FEL) and the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) presently operate with high energy intense beams. The next generation of synchrotron light sources and future linear colliders require a much higher degree of component precision and beam control. In this note the basic concepts governing the effects of high currents in accelerators are explored, including observations of high currents in present accelerators. The effects of longitudinal wakefields on acceleration and energy spreads are studied first. Then, the transverse equations of motion are developed including the technique of BNS damping to control wakefield growth. These wakefield effects are investigated to characterize their influence on the control and observation of beam oscillations. Finally, the reduction of transverse wakefield effects is important for maintaining the emittance of intense beams. 49 refs., 48 figs.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Seeman, J. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SLC beam dynamics issues

Description: The Stanford Linear Collider (SLC){sup 1,2} accelerates single bunches of electrons and positrons to 47 GeV per beam and collides them with small beam sizes and at high currents. The beam emittances and intensities required for present operation have significantly extended traditional beam quality limits. The electron source produces over 10{sup 11} e{sup {minus}} in each of two bunches. The damping rings provide coupled invariant emittances of 1.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} r-m at 4.5 {times} 10{sup 10} particles. The 50 GeV linac has successfully accelerated over 3 {times} 10{sup 10} particles with design invariant emittances of 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} r-m. The collider arcs are now sufficiently decoupled and matched in betatron space, so that the final focus can be chromatically corrected, routinely producing spot sizes ({sigma}{sub x}, {sigma}{sub y}) of 2.5 {mu}m at the interaction point. Spot sizes below 2 {mu}m have been made during tests. Instrumentation and feedback systems are well advanced, providing continuous beam monitoring and considerable pulse-by-pulse control. The luminosity reliability is about 60%. Overviews of the recent accelerator physics achievements used to obtain these parameters and the present limiting phenomena are described for each accelerator subsystem.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Seeman, J. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Observation and analysis of oscillations in linear accelerators

Description: This report discusses the following on oscillation in linear accelerators: Betatron Oscillations; Betatron Oscillations at High Currents; Transverse Profile Oscillations; Transverse Profile Oscillations at High Currents.; Oscillation and Profile Transient Jitter; and Feedback on Transverse Oscillations.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Seeman, J. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department