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ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY AT ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY. Report for the Year 1959

Description: The results of the environmental monitoring program at Argonne National Laboratory for 1959 are given. The radioactive content of the environment was measured by performing radiochemical analyses and total activity measurements on several types of materials collected on the ANL site and from locations approximately 10, 25, and 100 miles from the Laboratory. The sampling locations are given in Part II. The average total activities in samples of water, material from the beds of lakes and streams (bottom silt), soil, and plants during 1959 are tabulated. For purposes of comparison, the results obtnined from 1952 through 1959 are included. Air-filter results are also tabulated. Fallout activity was present in most samples at all locations. The amount of fall-out was relatively high during the first part of the year, but decreased markedly during the latter half. By the end of the year the shorter-lived fission products from fall-out were at the lowest level since 1955. Airborne beta activity from fall-out decreased from a maximum of about 5 mu mu c/m/sup 3/ in April to less than 0.1 mu mu c/m/sup 3/ in December. The average for the year, about 2.3 mu mu c/m/sup 3/, was 25% less than for 1958, but approximately twice as high as the average from 1953 to 1957. The long-lived airborne alpha activity has not changed appreciably since 1953. Air-filter samples were collected both on the site and at four locations from 6 to 20 miles from the Laboratory. The activities were essentially the same both on and off the site, and no indication of activity originating at Argonne was found in the samples. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1961
Creator: Sedlet, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY AT ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY. Report for the Year 1956

Description: Concentrations of radioactivity in several types of samples obtained from the ANL site and from locations approximately 10, 25, and 100 miles from the Laboratory are given. Since ANL waste water is discharged into Sawmill Creek, which in turn empties into the Des Plaines River, special emphasis was placed on sampling these streams. Most of the results were obtained by coumting the total alpha and beta activities after suitable preparation of the samples. Some of the samples were also analyzed for specific elements and nuclides. The average total activities in water, bottom silt, surface soil, and plants during 1956 are shown. The average activities in these types of samples from 1952 through 1956 are compared. (J.S.R.)
Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Sedlet, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY AT ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY. Report for the Year 1958

Description: Data are tabulated on the radioactive content of samples of surface water, lake and stream bottom silt, soil, plants, and air filters from the environs of the Argonne National Laboratory. Results are compared with those for similar samples collected from the area from 1952 through 1958. Fission prcduct activity from nuclear detocations was found in most samples from all locations. Fall-out activity was greatest during the spring and fall, and was particularly noticeable in air, precipitation, and plant samples. (For preceding period see ANL-5934.) (C.H.)
Date: August 1, 1959
Creator: Sedlet, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental surveillance for low-level waste disposal sites. [Shallow-land burial]

Description: All nuclear facilities, including waste disposal sites, are expected to evaluate their effect on the environment. This paper describes a multidisciplinary approach to the design of environmental surveillance programs for near-surface disposal sites. Surveillance is broadly considered to include burial trench and other on-site measurements as well as offsite monitoring, and to include both radiological and non-radiological measurements. The objectives of a surveillance program are: to determine the extent of any pollutant migration early enough for corrective action to be taken to minimize adverse impacts, to provide data to assess the impact of site operations on the environment and public, to predict long-term waste behavior, to satisfy regulatory agency requirements, and to obtain data on site and pollutant behavior for the design of future disposal sites and surveillance programs. It should be recognized that shallow-land burial techniques will not retain the waste completely in place over time. Some migration is expected, but it must be acceptable in amount and rate. Surveillance programs will provide the information to determine if this is the case. Proper application of monitoring techniques and principles will result in a program that will meet its objectives and supply the data needed by operators and regulators to maintain a properly operating site. 1 reference.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Sedlet, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analytical methods under emergency conditions

Description: This lecture discusses methods for the radiochemical determination of internal contamination of the body under emergency conditions, here defined as a situation in which results on internal radioactive contamination are needed quickly. The purpose of speed is to determine the necessity for medical treatment to increase the natural elimination rate. Analytical methods discussed include whole-body counting, organ counting, wound monitoring, and excreta analysis. 12 references. (ACR)
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Sedlet, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY AT ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY. Report for the Years 1960 and 1961

Description: The results of environmental monitoring for 1960 and 1961 at Argonne are given. The radioactive content of the environment was measured by radiochemical analysis, total activity measurements, and gamma spectrometry of several types of natural materials collected on the ANL site and from locations up to 100 miles from the Lab. Special attention was given to air and water. In 1960 and the first 3 quarters of 1961, fallout activity in the environment was at the lowest level since Jan. 1953. On Sept. 14, 1961, the beta activity in air increased sharply and remained at a relatively high level for the remainder of the year. Radioactivity originating at Argonne and leaving the site was found only in air during March 1961, and in most Sawmill Creek water samples collected during the reporting period. The average total activities in samples of water, material from the beds of lakes and streams, soil, and plants during 1960 and 1961 are tabulated. For comparison, the results obtained from 1952 through 1961 are also included. (P.C.H.)
Date: June 1, 1963
Creator: Sedlet, J. & Iwami, F.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Site surveillance and maintenance program for Palos Park, report for 1985. [Part of Manhattan Engineering District project]

Description: The results of the environmental monitoring program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Park area for CY 1985 are presented. The monitoring program is the ongoing remedial action that resulted from the radiological characterization of the site. The current program consists of sample collection and analysis of air, surface and subsurface water, and bottom sediment to determine the migration pathway of water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the wells, establish if other buried radionuclides have migrated, and otherwise characterize the radiological environment of the area. Earlier studies had determined that hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) migrated from the burial ground and was detected in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic well continued to show the same pattern of elevated levels in the winter and low concentrations in the summer, but the magnitude of the winter peak (2.5 nCi/L) was significantly less than in earlier years. Tritiated water continues to be monitored at a number of wells, boreholes, and surface streams where it has been detected in the past. For many years it was the only radionuclide found to have migrated until recent measurements indicated the presence of strontium-90 in borehole water next to Plot M. The presence of the strontium-90 is an indicator of migration of radionuclides other than tritiated water from the Plot. However, the results of the program indicates that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site or those living in the vicinity.
Date: April 1, 1986
Creator: Golchert, N.W. & Sedlet, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Migration of radionuclides following shallow land burial

Description: A study of radionuclide migration was conducted at a facility used from 1944 to 1949 for the shallow land burial of radwaste produced during operations with two reactors and related nuclear research. It is situated in glacial drift 45 m thick. Underlying the drift is a generally level Silurian dolomite bedrock 60 m thick. The thickness of the drift decreases as the surface slopes downhill (north) until the dolomite reaches the surface and forms the bed of a river, 700 m to the north. This study was begun after tritiated water was detected in two picnic wells north of the facility, between the burial plot and the river. Surface and subsurface measurements indicate that tritium is migrating out of the burial site, but no other radionuclides have left the plot. The tritium concentrations decrease with distance from the plot. Tritium was found in the subsoil at all depths sampled, so the ground beneath and immediately around the plot contains tritium down to the dolomite aquifer. Time of travel of water from the burial plot to the nearest well is estimated to be 54 months. This would imply the peak concentration would reach the dolomite in about 35 years. By this time, 86% of the tritium would have disappeared by radioactive decay. The cyclical nature of the tritium content in the two wells implies that tritiated water is carried from the burial site by the spring rains when they recharge the groundwater supply.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Sedlet, J. & Golchert, N.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mathematical model for evaluating the suitability of a low-level radioactive waste site

Description: A mathematical model intended to study the one-dimensional transport of radionuclides in a non-homogeneous soil system under saturated-unsaturated and isothermal conditions is presented. The model is composed of two modules: the first to calculate the pressure distribution enabling one to compute velocities and soil moisture; the second to calculate the migration of species by considering the major processes associated with the transport phenomena of a dissolved substance in porous media, i.e., advection, mechanical dispersion, molecular diffusion, radioactive decay, and sorption, assuming a linear equilibrium isotherm. The numerical method of solving both flow and solute equations used here is the finite-element method based on the weighted residual technique. The flow equation is solved by the Bubnov-Galerkin method. The solute equation is solved by a Petrov-Galerkin type method. The model allows for a variety of boundary conditions; e.g., infiltration, drainage and/or evaporation. A test case involving the movement of a non-reacting ionic species is used to validate the model. Use of the model is illustrated by the analysis of the movement Sr-90 and Cs-137 and H-3 (as water) from a low-level solid-waste disposal trench subject to a steady rate of rainfall.
Date: February 1, 1982
Creator: Gureghian, A.B. & Sedlet, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radionuclides in liquid effluents from Argonne National Laboratory: an example of monitoring for a multidisciplinary nuclear laboratory. [Pu, Np]

Description: The environmental monitoring program conducted by Argonne National Laboratory for radionuclides in effluent and surface water is described and the results for the past six years are summarized. Small amounts of several radionuclides have been present in Argonne waste water, and are consequently detectable in the stream that receives this water. The most abundant of these is hydrogen-3, whose average concentration in the stream during this period was about 3000 pCi/l, equivalent to 0.1% of the drinking water standard. The distribution of plutonium and neptunium between stream water and particulate matter was studied. Plutonium tends to be relatively insoluble and become associated with the sediment, while most of the neptunium is in solution. This difference in behavior should be taken into account in designing environmental sampling and analytical programs and in dosimetric evaluation of effluent releases.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Sedlet, J. & Golchert, N.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental monitoring at Argonne National Laboratory. Annual report, 1981

Description: The results of the environmental monitoring program at Argonne National Laboratory for 1981 are presented and discussed. To evaluate the effect of Argonne operations on the environment, measurements were made for a variety of radionuclides in air, surface water, soil, grass, bottom sediment, and milk; for a variety of chemical constituents in air, surface water, and Argonne effluent water; and of the environmental penetrating radiation dose. Sample collections and measurements were made at the site boundary and off the Argonne site for comparison purposes. Some on-site measurements were made to aid in the interpretation of the boundary and off-site data. The results of the program are interpreted in terms of the sources and origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (natural, fallout, Argonne, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. The potential radiation dose to off-site population groups is also estimated.
Date: March 1, 1982
Creator: Golchert, N.W.; Duffy, T.L. & Sedlet, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental monitoring at Argonne National Laboratory. Annual report for 1984

Description: The results of the environmental monitoring program at Argonne National Laboratory for 1984 are presented and discussed. To evaluate the effect of Argonne operations on the environment, measurements were made for a variety of radionuclides in air, surface water, ground water, soil, grass, bottom sediment, and milk; for a variety of chemical constituents in surface water, ground water, and Argonne effluent water; and of the environmental penetrating radiation dose. Sample collections and measurements were made on the site, at the site boundary, and off the Argonne site for comparison purposes. The potential radiation dose to off-site population groups is also estimated. The results of the program are interpreted in terms of the sources and origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (natural, fallout, Argonne, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. 20 refs., 8 figs., 46 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1985
Creator: Golchert, N.W.; Duffy, T.L. & Sedlet, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Long-term monitoring for closed sites

Description: A procedure is presented for planning and implementing a long-term environmental monitoring program for closed low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. The initial task in this procedure is to collect the available information on the legal/regulatory requirements, site and area characteristics, source term, pathway analysis, and prior monitoring results. This information is coupled with parameters such as half-life and retardation factors to develop a monitoring program. As examples, programs are presented for a site that has had little or no waste migration, and for sites where waste has been moved by suface water, by ground water, and by air. Sampling techniques and practices are discussed relative to how a current program would be structured and projections are made on techniques and practices expected to be available in the future. 8 refs., 2 figs.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Golchert, N.W.; Sedlet, J. & Veluri, V.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1985 annual site environmental report for Argonne National Laboratory

Description: This is one in a series of annual reports prepared to provide DOE, environmental agencies, and the public with information on the level of radioactive and chemical pollutants in the environment and on the amounts of such substances, if any, added to the environment as a result of Argonne operations. Included in this report are the results of measurements obtained in 1985 for a number of radionuclides in air, surface water, ground water, soil, grass, bottom sediment, and milk; for a variety of chemical constituents in surface and subsurface water; and for the external penetrating radiation dose.
Date: March 1, 1986
Creator: Golchert, N.W.; Duffy, T.L. & Sedlet, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental monitoring at Argonne National Laboratory. Annual report for 1983

Description: The results of the environmental monitoring program at Argonne National Laboratory for 1983 are presented and discussed. To evaluate the effect of Argonne operations on the environment, measurements were made for a variety of radionuclides in air, surface water, soil, grass, bottom sediment, and milk; for a variety of chemical constituents in air, surface water, ground water, and Argonne effluent water; and of the environmental penetrating radiation dose. Sample collections and measurements were made at the site boundary and off the Argonne site for comparison purposes. Some on-site measurements were made to aid in the interpretation of the boundary and off-site data. The potential radiation dose to off-site population groups is also estimated. The results of the program are interpreted in terms of the sources and origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (natural, fallout, Argonne, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. 19 references, 8 figures, 49 tables.
Date: March 1, 1984
Creator: Golchert, N.W.; Duffy, T.L. & Sedlet, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental surveillance of the Palos Park Forest Preserve

Description: This is the second report describing an ongoing environmental surveillance program conducted at the Palos Park Forest Preserve near Chicago, Illinois. The Preserve was a site of a nuclear research laboratory (Site A) from 1943 to 1956 and a radioactive waste burial site (Plot M) from 1944 to 1949. An extensive radiological characterization of the site was conducted from February 1976 to August 1977, and tritium in the form of water was found to be the only radionuclide that migrated from the nuclear facilities. The results were published in US Department of Energy Report DOE/EV-0005/7. The present report summarizes the earlier findings and gives the detailed results of the work from August 1977 through December 1981. The vertical and horizontal distribution of tritium within the glacial till was determined from measurements of tritium in soil moisture. Chemical and radiochemical analyses were performed on a number of wells in the area. Tritiated water continued to be the only species that was observed to have migrated from the Plot M area. Migration from the Site A area was not observed. The concentration of tritium at the Red Gate Woods well, 1200 ft downgradient from Plot M, continued to show the seasonal fluctuations of high concentrations in the winter and low concentrations in the summer. Monitoring of the Palos Park area is continuing.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Golchert, N.W.; Sedlet, J. & Hayes, K.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental monitoring at Argonne National Laboratory. Annual report for 1982

Description: The results of the environmental monitoring program at Argonne Ntaional Laboratory for 1982 are presented and discussed. To evaluate the effect of Argonne operations on the environment, measurements were made for a variety of radionuclides in air, surface water, soil, grass, bottom sediment, and milk; for a variety of chemical constituents in air, surface water, ground water, and Argonne effluent water; and of the environmental penetrating radiation dose. Sample collections and masurements were made at the site boundary and off the Argonne site for comparison purposes. Some on-site measurements were made to aid in the interpretation of the boundary and off-site data. The results of the program are interpreted in terms of the sources and origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (natural, fallout, Argonne, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. The potential radiation dose to off-site population groups is also estimated.
Date: March 1, 1983
Creator: Golchert, N.W.; Duffy, T.L. & Sedlet, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Excretion rate and retention of plutonium 10,000 days after acquisition

Description: Three persons who had been injected with known amounts of plutonium in 1945 to 1947, were hospitalized on a metabolic ward in 1973. All excreta were collected for at least eight days and the samples were analyzed for plutonium. For the two subjects who had been injected intravenously with tetravalent $sup 239$Pu as the citrate, the urinary excretion rates were 7.6 and 4.7 pCi/day at approximately 10$sup 4$ days after injection; these rates corresponded to 2.52 x 10$sup -3$ percent of the injected doses per day respectively. The fecal excretion rates were about 40 percent of the urinary rates. The third subject received an intramuscular injection of hexavalent $sup 238$Pu as the nitrate, in the left leg, which was amputated four days later. Almost 50 percent of the amount injected was found at the injection site and the urinary excretion rate about 9500 days later was 0.06 pCi/day, corresponding to not less than 1.2 x 10$sup -4$ percent of the initial systemic burden. The excretion rate and retention of $sup 239$Pu up to 10,000 days post-injection were calculated. (CH)
Date: January 1, 1975
Creator: Rundo, J.; Starzyk, P.M.; Sedlet, J.; Larsen, R.P.; Oldham, R.D. & Robinson, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department