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A Flight Investigation of the Effect of Mass Distribution and Control Setting on the Spinning of the XN2Y-1 Airplane

Description: The investigation of the effect of mass distribution on the spinning of airplanes initiated with tests on the NY-1 airplane has been continued by tests on another airplane in order to increase the scope of the information and to observe particularly the behavior of an airplane that shows considerable change in sideslip angle for its various conditions of spinning. The XN2Y-1 naval training biplane was used for the present tests in which changes of ballast along the longitudinal and lateral axes and changes of aileron, stabilizer, and elevator settings were made. The effects of these changes on the steady spin were measured in flight.
Date: January 1, 1935
Creator: Scudder, N. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Forces and Moments Acting on Parts of the XN2Y-1 Airplane During Spins

Description: The magnitudes of the yawing moments produced by various parts of an airplane during spins have previously been found to be of major importance in determining the nature of the spin. Discrepancies in resultant yawing moments determined from model and full-scale tests, however, have indicated the probable importance of scale effect on the model. In order to obtain data for a more detailed comparison between full-scale and model results, flight tests were made to determine the yawing moments contributed by various parts of an airplane in spins. The inertia moment was determined by the usual measurement of the spinning motion, and the aerodynamic yawing moments on the fuselage, fin, and rudder were determined by pressure-distribution measurements over these parts of the airplane. The wing yawing moment was determined by taking the difference between the gyroscopic moment and the fuselage, fin, and rudder moments. The numerical values of the wing yawing moments were found to be of the same order of magnitude as those measured in wind tunnels.
Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Scudder, N. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Further measurements of normal accelerations on racing airplanes

Description: This report details the acceleration data collected from racing airplanes during actual races. The data was collected in order to make recommendations regarding the structural safety of racing airplanes and the methods of operating racing airplanes that reduces the probability of subjecting them to extreme air loads. The records do not lead to any conclusions regarding maximum air loads.
Date: February 1936
Creator: Kirschbaum, H. W. & Scudder, N. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A preliminary determination of normal accelerations on racing airplanes

Description: "Rules and methods for insuring safe structural strength of racing airplanes used in the major air meets in this country have recently been considered. Acceleration records made in racing airplanes during actual air races were therefore considered desirable, and the NACA undertook the measurement of acceleration of loads on airplanes during all conditions of flight. Accelerations were measured on four airplanes at the Miami All-American Races in January 1934 and January 1935" (p. 1).
Date: August 1935
Creator: Scudder, N. F. & Kirschbaum, H. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Flight Investigation of the Spinning of the F4B-2 Biplane with Various Loads and Tail Surfaces

Description: A flight investigation of the spinning of the F4B-2 single-seat fighter airplane was made for the purpose of finding modifications that would eliminate dangerous spin tendencies exhibited by this type of airplane in service. The effects on steady spins and on recoveries of changing the loading, enlarging the fin areas, changing the elevator plan form, and raising the horizontal surfaces, were determined.
Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Scudder, N. F. & Seidman, Oscar
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Nature of Air Flow About the Tail of an Airplane in a Spin

Description: "Air flow about the fuselage and empennage during a high-angle-of-attack spin was made visible in flight by means of titanium-tetrachloride smoke and was photographed with a motion-picture camera. The angular relation of the direction of the smoke streamer to the airplane axes was computed and compared with the angular direction of the motion in space derived from instrument measurement of the spin of the airplane for a nearly identical mass distribution. The results showed that the fin and upper part of the rudder were almost completely surrounded by dead air, which would render them inoperative; that the flow around the lower portion of the rudder and the fuselage was nonturbulent; and that air flowing past the cockpit in a high-angle-of-attack spin could not subsequently flow around control surfaces" (p. 1).
Date: May 1932
Creator: Scudder, N. F. & Miller, M. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department