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Review of legal and institutional issues in the use of decentralized solar energy systems

Description: The legal and institutional issues involved in the use of decentralized solar energy systems are examined for the purpose of advising government planners and policymakers, the solar industry, solar researchers, and prospective solar users of present and potential impediments and incentives to solar commercialization. This information was gathered primarily through a comprehensive literature review, with supplementary data provided through interviews with representatives of organizations active in the solar field. Five major issue areas were identified in the course of this study: (1) prohibitions on the use of solar equipment, (2) regulation of the production and placement of solar systems, (3) access to sunlight, (4) financial incentives and impediments to the use of solar technologies, and (5) the public utility-solar user interface. Each can be important in its impacts on the incidence of solar usage. The major actors involved with the issues identified above represent both the private and public sectors. Important private sector participants include solar manufacturers and installers, labor unions, lending institutions, utility companies, solar users themselves, and other community property owners. In the public sector, local, state, and federal governments are all capable of acting in ways that can influence the solar commercialization effort. Implementation options are available for all levels of government seeking to take an active role in addressing the previously mentioned legal and institutional issues. The appropriate actions will vary from federal to state to local governments, but each level can be important in removing existing barriers and creating new incentives for solar use.
Date: April 1, 1980
Creator: Schweitzer, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Implementation of a hidden line and surface algorithm

Description: The implementation of a 3-dimensional hidden line and surface algorithm discussed by Hamlin and Gear (NASA Langley Research Report 77-1) is described, and its advantages and disadvantages are examined. This algorithm is organized so that data can be preprocessed to speed display computations and so that the display is generated in a form suitable for a raster scan, refresh display. The version of the program described here is a hidden-line program, but the underlying algorithm is the same for both. 11 figures, 3 tables.
Date: August 1, 1980
Creator: Schweitzer, M.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Protective actions as a factor in power reactor siting

Description: This report examines the relationship between a power reactor site and the ease of implementing protective actions (emergency measures a serious accident). Limiting populating density around a reactor lowers the number of people at risk but cannot assure that all protective actions are possible for those who reside near the reactor. While some protective measures can always be taken (i.e., expedient respiratory protection, sheltering) the ability to evacuate the area or find adequate shelter may depend on the characteristics of the area near the reactor site. Generic siting restrictions designed to identify and eliminate these site-specific constraints would be difficult to formulate. The authors suggest identifying possible impediments to protective actions at a proposed reactor site and addressing these problems in the emergency plans. 66 references, 6 figures, 8 tables.
Date: June 1, 1984
Creator: Gant, K.S. & Schweitzer, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Evaluation of State Energy Program Accomplishments: 2002 Program Year

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) State Energy Program (SEP) was established in 1996 by merging the State Energy Conservation Program (SECP) and the Institutional Conservation Program (ICP), both of which had been in existence since 1976 (U.S. DOE 2001a). The SEP provides financial and technical assistance for a wide variety of energy efficiency and renewable energy activities undertaken by the states and territories. SEP provides money to each state and territory according to a formula that accounts for population and energy use. In addition to these ''Formula Grants'', SEP ''Special Project'' funds are made available on a competitive basis to carry out specific types of energy efficiency and renewable energy activities (U.S. DOE 2003c). The resources provided by DOE typically are augmented by money and in-kind assistance from a number of sources, including other federal agencies, state and local governments, and the private sector. The states SEP efforts include several mandatory activities, such as establishing lighting efficiency standards for public buildings, promoting car and vanpools and public transportation, and establishing policies for energy-efficient government procurement practices. The states and territories also engage in a broad range of optional activities, including holding workshops and training sessions on a variety of topics related to energy efficiency and renewable energy, providing energy audits and building retrofit services, offering technical assistance, supporting loan and grant programs, and encouraging the adoption of alternative energy technologies. The scope and variety of activities undertaken by the various states and territories is extremely broad, and this reflects the diversity of conditions and needs found across the country and the efforts of participating states and territories to respond to them. The purpose of this report is to present estimates of the energy and cost savings and emissions reductions associated with SEP activities performed by the states during the ...
Date: July 13, 2005
Creator: Schweitzer, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improving the Methods Used to Evaluate Voluntary Energy-Efficiency Programs

Description: Despite progress that has been made in recent years, further improvements are needed in the methodologies commonly used to evaluate the energy savings arising from voluntary energy-efficiency programs. These voluntary programs are characterized by the fact that they do not involve mandatory codes or standards but instead use information and incentives to further the adoption of energy-efficient technologies and practices. Voluntary programs frequently are aimed at long-term transformation of markets that make lasting changes in consumer patterns of energy use. To date, many of the evaluations of such programs have focused on the direct effects to program participants and have not addressed the associated market transformation to the extent possible. Using information gathered through an extensive methodological review, the authors describe useful approaches taken in previous evaluations and draw conclusions concerning the best methods available for forecasting and measuring the impacts of voluntary programs.
Date: June 28, 2001
Creator: Schweitzer, M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of the Washington State Weatherization Assistance Program

Description: Since 1976, the national Weatherization Assistance Program has been working to improve the energy efficiency of dwelling units occupied by low-income residents. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and implemented by state and local agencies, the program is active in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. This report focuses on the recent outcomes of Washington State's weatherization efforts. The performance of the Washington Weatherization Program is of interest because few evaluations have been performed in this part of the country and because Washington contains a high proportion of electrically-heated houses, which have received relatively little examination in the past. This study, which calculates the magnitude of energy savings for both electrically-heated and gas-heated houses and compares program benefits and costs, was initiated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the summer of 1998. In conclusion, we find that the Washington State Weatherization Assistance Program has achieved substantial energy savings in both electrically-heated and gas-heated houses. A comparison of the findings from this study with those from many other evaluations of state weatherization efforts conducted over the past 10 years indicates that Washington is in the top one-third nationwide in terms of program-induced energy savings. In addition, the relationships between energy savings and both pre-weatherization consumption and weatherization expenditures reported in this document are consistent with the findings from earlier studies. These findings suggest that households with high energy consumption make effective targets for state weatherization efforts and that increasing the amount spent per household yields tangible returns in terms of energy savings.
Date: February 23, 2001
Creator: Schweitzer, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Examination of Rebuild America Partnership Accomplishments and the Factors Influencing Them

Description: The Rebuild America program was established in 1994 to accelerate the adoption of energy efficiency measures and practices in existing public facilities, commercial buildings, and multifamily housing units. More recently, the program has expanded to include new construction as well. The program encourages the formation of partnerships involving state and local governments, private businesses, and other organizations to help identify and solve problems related to energy use in buildings. Rebuild America does not directly fund actual building improvements. Instead, it provides the Rebuild Partners with the technical tools and assistance they need to plan and implement building projects and stimulates other entities to make substantial investments in energy efficiency. At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory studied the Rebuild America program for the purpose of identifying key factors associated with successful operations. Substantial amounts of data were collected directly from Rebuild America partnerships concerning the results achieved by each of their individual projects, both committed and completed. In addition, data were collected from secondary sources on a limited number of factors describing partnership setting and characteristics. By combining these two data sets, we were able to perform statistical analyses testing the potential relationship between each partnership characteristic and each of four key results measures. The influences on successful partnership performance also were determined in another way, which allowed a broader examination of potentially important factors. Telephone interviews were conducted with representatives from 61 high-performing Rebuild America partnerships throughout the United States. The respondents were asked to identify the most important factors influencing good performance and the types of Rebuild America products, services, and support that were most useful to their partnership. In addition to having substantial geographic variation, the sample of partnerships also engaged in ...
Date: October 16, 2003
Creator: Schweitzer, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Meeting the Challenge: The Prospect of Achieving 30 Percent Savings Through the Weatherization Assistance Program

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Weatherization Assistance Program has been installing energy-efficiency measures in low-income houses for over 25 years, achieving savings exceeding 30 percent of natural gas used for space heating. Recently, as part of its Weatherization Plus initiative, the Weatherization Assistance Program adopted the goal of achieving 30 percent energy savings for all household energy usage. The expansion of the Weatherization Assistance Program to include electric baseload components such as lighting and refrigerators provides additional opportunities for saving energy and meeting this ambitious goal. This report documents an Oak Ridge National Laboratory study that examined the potential savings that could be achieved by installing various weatherization measures in different types of dwellings throughout the country. Three different definitions of savings are used: (1) reductions in pre-weatherization expenditures; (2) savings in the amount of energy consumed at the house site, regardless of fuel type (''site Btus''); and (3) savings in the total amount of energy consumed at the source (''source Btus''), which reflects the fact that each Btu* of electricity consumed at the household level requires approximately three Btus to produce at the generation source. In addition, the effects of weatherization efforts on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions are examined.
Date: May 31, 2002
Creator: Schweitzer, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nonenergy Benefits from the Weatherization Assistance Program: A Summary of Findings from the Recent Literature

Description: The purpose of this project is to summarize findings reported in the recent literature on nonenergy benefits attributable to the weatherizing of low income homes. This study is a follow-up to the seminal research conducted on the nonenergy benefits attributable to the Department of Energy's national Weatherization Assistance Program by Brown et al. (1993). For this review, nonenergy benefits were broken into three major categories: (1) ratepayer benefits; (2) household benefits; and (3) societal benefits. The ratepayer benefits can be divided into two main subcategories: payment-related benefits and service provision benefits. Similarly, there are two key types of household benefits: those associated with affordable housing and those related to safety, health, and comfort. Societal benefits can be classified as either environmental, social, or economic. Fig. E.S. 1 presents point estimates of the average lifetime monetary value per weatherized home resulting from low income weatherization programs for the key benefit types listed above. These benefits represent net present value estimates (i.e., estimates of the current worth of all benefits expected over the lifetime of the weatherization measures), assuming a 20-year lifetime for installed energy efficiency measures and a 3.2% discount rate. Overall, societal benefits are estimated to be substantially larger than ratepayer and household benefits. Ranges for the societal benefits are also much greater than for the other two categories of nonenergy benefits. The total monetized value for all nonenergy benefit categories associated with weatherizing a home is estimated to be $3346, in 2001 dollars. This represents a national average which, like any point estimate, has considerable uncertainty associated with it. This figure is substantially higher than the total value of nonenergy benefits presented a decade ago in the national weatherization evaluation (Brown et al. 1993) because the current study quantified a much broader array of benefits than did the earlier ...
Date: April 25, 2002
Creator: Schweitzer, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimating Energy and Cost Savings and Emissions Reductions for the State Energy Program Based on Enumeration Indicators Data

Description: As part of an effort to produce metrics for quantifying the effects of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) State Energy Program (SEP), staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed a classification scheme for describing the various state activities supported by SEP funds. This involved identifying a number of distinct program areas into which all of the various state SEP activities could be placed. Then, a set of ''enumeration indicators'' was developed to describe key activities within each of those areas. Although originally developed to count program activities, the enumeration indicators are used here as a basis for estimating the savings and emissions reductions achieved by the SEP. While there are additional benefits associated with the SEP, such as increased energy security and economic well-being, they are not addressed in this study.
Date: February 6, 2003
Creator: Schweitzer, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demand-Side Management and Integrated Resource Planning: Findings from a Survey of 24 Electric Utilities

Description: Integrated resource planning differs from traditional utility planning practices primarily in its increased attention to demand-side management (DSM) programs and its integration of supply- and demand-side resources into a combined resource portfolio. This report details the findings from an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) survey of 24 electric utilities that have well-developed integrated planning processes. These utilities account for roughly one-third of total capacity, electricity generation, and DSM-program expenditures nationwide. The ORNL survey was designed to obtain descriptive data on a national sample of utilities and to test a number of hypothesized relationships between selected utility characteristics and the mix of resources selected for the integrated plan, with an emphasis on the use of DSM resources and the processes by which they are chosen. The survey solicited information on each utility's current and projected resource mix, operating environment, procedures used to screen potential DSM resources, techniques used to obtain public input and to integrate supply- and demand-side options into a unified plan, and procedures used in the final selection of resources for the plan.
Date: January 1991
Creator: Schweitzer, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Public policy responsibilities in a restructured electric industry: An analysis of values, objectives, and approaches

Description: Discussions and decisions in states as diverse as California, Wisconsin, and Rhode Island are focusing on moving the United States electric industry from one dominated by vertically-integrated and highly regulated utility-based electricity monopolies to one characterized by largely divested and independent generation, transmission, and distribution sectors and by vigorous wholesale and retail competition. Numerous issues must be solved for this transition to be successful. Three of the most important are how to deal with stranded investments, how to provide open access to transmission systems, and how to deal with potentially stranded benefits, which is the current term being used to describe environmental and social programs such as demand-side management, low income programs, and renewable energy. This report explores how to meet public policy responsibilities, which are growing more acute, in a proactive fashion in a restructured United States electric industry. The specific goals of this report are to (1) assess trade-offs in the short-term in meeting public policy responsibilities associated with stranded benefits and (2) introduce a series of new ideas that, if enacted, could substantially satisfy important public policy considerations.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Tonn, B.E. & Schweitzer, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Metaevaluation of National Weatherization Assistance Program Based on State Studies, 1996-1998

Description: The national Weatherization Assistance Program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and implemented by state and local agencies throughout the US, weatherizes homes for low-income residents in order to increase their energy efficiency and lower utility bills. Staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) performed a metaevaluation of this program, which involved synthesizing the results from ten individuals studies of state weatherization efforts completed between April 1996 and September 1998. The states whose studies were used in this metaevaluation, the dates of program operations covered by these studies, and the fuels that were examined are shown in Table ES-1. This effort represents a follow-up to an earlier ORNL metaevaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program that looked at 19 state studies completed between 1990 and early 1996 (Berry 1997). That study, in turn, was done as an update to a national evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program that examined a representative sample of several thousand structures weatherized in 1989 (Brown, Berry, Balzer, and Faby 1993).
Date: May 1, 1999
Creator: Schweitzer, M. & Berry, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Decision-making in demand-side management collaboratives: The influence of non-utility parties on electric-utility policies and programs

Description: Since the late 1980s, a number of electric utilities and interested non-utility parties (NUPs)-such as environmental groups, large industrial customers, and state government agencies-have tried a new approach to reaching agreement on program design and policy issues related to utility use of Demand-Side Management (DSM) resources. Through this new arrangement, known as the DSM collaborative process, parties who have often been adversaries attempt to resolve their differences through compromise and consensus rather than by using traditional litigation. This paper-which is based on studies of over a dozen collaboratives nationwide-discusses the organizational structure of collaboratives, the ways in which NUPs have been involved in the decision-making process, and how the amount of influence exerted by the NUPs is related to collaborative accomplishments. Most of the collaboratives studied had two organizational levels: a {open_quotes}working group{close_quotes} that provided policy direction and guidance for the collaborative and {open_quotes}subgroups{close_quotes} that performed the detailed tasks necessary to flesh out individual DSM programs. Most collaboratives also had a coordinator who was charged with scheduling meetings, exchanging information, and performing other important organizational functions, and it was common for the utility to fund consultants to provide expert assistance for the NUPs. In general, the utilities reserved the final decision-making prerogative for themselves, in line with their ultimate responsibility to shareholders, customers, and regulators. Still, there was substantial variation among the collaboratives in terms of how actively consensus was sought and how seriously the inputs of the NUPs were taken. In general, the collaboratives that resulted in the largest effects on utility DSM usage were those in which the utilities were most willing to allow their decisions to be shaped by the NUPs.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Schweitzer, M.; English, M. & Schexnayder, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Public involvement in integrated resource planning: A study of demand-side management collaboratives

Description: Many utilities and nonutility parties (NUPs) across the country have tried a new approach to reaching agreement on Demand-Side Management (DSM) program design and policy issues. Through this, which is called the DSM collaborative process, parties who have often been adversaries in the past attempt to reach consensus rather than using traditional litigation to resolve differences. We examined nine cases of DSM collaboration involving 24 utilities and approximately 50 NUPs in 10 states. This is the first comprehensive, in-depth review and assessment of collaboratives and it allows conclusions to be drawn about the collaborative process and the factors that contribute to successful efforts of this type. Collaboratives are described in terms of four major contextual and organizational characteristics: regulatory and legal history, parties involved and parties excluded, collaborative scope, and the collaborative process itself.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Raab, J. & Schweitzer, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Decentralized Solar Energy Technology Assessment Program: review of activities (April 1978-December 1979)

Description: The Decentralized Solar Energy Technology Assessment Program (TAP), sponsored by the Office of Solar Energy, Department of Energy, is a technology assessment and planning activity directed at local communities. Specifically, the objectives of the TAP are: (1) to assess the socioeconomic and institutional impacts of the widespread use of renewable energy technologies; (2) to involve communities in planning for their energy futures; and (3) to plan for local energy development. This report discusses two major efforts of the TAP during the period April 1978 to December 1979: the community TA's and several support studies. Four communities have been contracted to undertake an assessment-planning exercise to examine the role of solar renewable energy technologies in their future. The communities selected are the Southern Tier Central Region of New York State, (STC); Richmond, Kentucky, Kent, Ohio; and Franklin County, Massachusetts. Descriptions and progress to date of the community TA's are presented in detail. Two major support study efforts are also presented. A review of existing literature on the legal and institutional issues relative to the adoption of decentralized solar technologies is summarized. A preliminary analysis of potential socioeconomic impacts and other social considerations relative to decentralized solar technologies is also described.
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Bronfman, B.H.; Carnes, S.A.; Schweitzer, M.; Peelle, E. & Enk, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Factors favorable to public participation success

Description: Categories of factors linked to successful public participation (PP) program outcomes include PP process, organizational context, sociopolitical context, strategic considerations and unique (special circumstances) factors. We re-order the long list factors according to how essential, important, and unique they are and discuss their significance and interrelationships. It is argued that bureacratic structure and operational modes are basically in conflict with features of successful PP programs (openness, two-way education, communication with nonexpert outsiders). If this is so, then it is not surprising that the factors essential for PP success in bureacracies involve extraordinary management efforts by agencies to bypass, compensate for, or overcome structural constraints. We conclude by speculating about the long-term viability of PP practices in the agency setting as well as the consequences for agencies that attempt the problematic task of introducing PP into their complex, mission-oriented organizations.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Peelle, E.; Schweitzer, M.; Munro, J.; Carnes, S. & Wolfe, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Predicting social impacts associated with roadway development in a scenic area

Description: The issue of predicting social impacts that could result from the construction and use of new roadways is one that faces, or will face, many communities in the U.S. and throughout the world. Where road development takes place in a scenic area, especially one that is dependent on tourist trade, the nature of the secondary land conversion that often accompanies road construction is especially important. We have assessed the social impacts likely to accompany construction of a scenic parkway in a rural area abutting the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. In this paper, we share the substantive findings of that study as well as our methodological observations on the challenges of projecting impacts in an area that has no planning or zoning, a situation that is common to many rural areas. We also discuss how we dealt with the fact that the major effects of the project would not begin until nearly 15 years in the future, when construction is completed and the roadway is opened to traffic. In order to predict land use patterns at the completion of roadway construction, we studied plat maps, which accurately reflect changing ownership patterns before such changes become apparent on the ground. We also conducted interviews with local realtors and developers who, in the absence of a local government planning department, tend to be the best sources of information concerning local land use trends. Uncertainty of future events was accounted for by projecting impacts for different scenarios, reflecting varying rates of growth and types of development. We believe that the description of our methodological approach should prove helpful to other analysts faced with the need to predict long-term transformations without the benefit of existing land use plans. In our assessment, we examined potential effects to local population, housing, land use, public services, taxes, ...
Date: June 12, 1994
Creator: Schweitzer, M. & Schexnayder, S. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interactive efforts to address DSM and IRP issues: Findings from the first year of a two-year study

Description: This report presents findings from the first year of a two-year study of interactive efforts involving utilities and non-utility parties (NUPS) working together to prepare plans, develop Demand-Side Management (DSM) programs, or otherwise promote integrated planning and the use of cost-effective DSM measures. Of the ten cases covered in the current study, seven involved the collaborative approach to NUP involvement, which generally is marked by intensive utility-NUP interactions designed to reach consensus on a broad range of important issues; in collaboratives, outside consultants often are provided to enhance the technical capabilities of the NUPS. Another of the cases in this study involved a ``cooperative arrangement,`` whereby a utility and a NLT worked together in a focused short-term effort to develop a single DSM program. The intense interaction involved in this approach makes it very similar to a collaborative, except that both the scope and the duration of the effort were much more limited than in a normal collaborative. The ninth case concerned a task force run by state regulatory staff that was charged with the limited job of studying various cost-effectiveness tests available for assessing prospective DSM measures. All of these approaches (collaborative, cooperative arrangement, and task force) are types of interactive effort, as that term is used in this report. The final case concerned NUPs` attempts to encourage greater utility use of DSM in Florida but, to date, no interactive effort has been initiated there. Three main features of interactive efforts are described in this report: (1) the participants involved; (2) the context in which the efforts took place; and (3) key characteristics of the interactive process. This report also examines the outcomes achieved by the interactive efforts. These outcomes can be divided into two general categories: Product-related and participant-related.
Date: April 1, 1993
Creator: Schweitzer, M.; English, M.; Altman, J. & Yourstone, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Making a difference: Ten case studies of DSM/IRP interactive efforts and related advocacy group activities

Description: This report discusses the activities of organizations that seek to promote integrated resource planning and aggressive, cost-effective demand-side management by utilities. The activities of such groups -- here called energy efficiency advocacy groups (EEAGs) -- are examined in ten detailed am studies. Nine of the cases involve some form of interactive effort between investor-owned electric utilities and non-utility to develop policies, plans, or programs cooperatively. Many but not all of the interactive efforts examined are formal collaboratives. In addition, all ten cases include discussion of other EEAG activities, such as coalition-building, research, participation in statewide energy planning, and intervention in regulatory proceedings.
Date: March 1, 1994
Creator: English, M.; Schexnayder, S.; Altman, J. & Schweitzer, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy efficiency advocacy groups: A study of selected interactive efforts and independent initiatives

Description: Non-utility groups participate in a myriad of activities--initiated by themselves and others--aimed at influencing the policies and actions of utilities and their regulators related to Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) and Demand-Side Management (DSM). Some of these activities are not directed toward a particular regulatory body or utility but are designed to influence public knowledge and acceptance of IRP and DSM. Other activities involve interaction with a particular utility or regulatory body. The traditional forum for this interaction is an adversarial debate (i.e., litigation or regulatory intervention) over the merits of a utility`s plan or proposed action. However, an increasingly common forum is one in which non-utility groups and utilities cooperatively develop plans, policies, and/or programs. Arrangements of this type are referred to in this report as ``interactive efforts``. This report presents the findings derived from ten case studies of energy efficiency advocacy groups (EEAG) activities to influence the use of cost-effective DSM and to promote IRP; nine of these ten cases involve some form of interactive effort and all of them also include other EEAG activities. The goal of this research is not to measure the success of individual activities of the various groups, but to glean from a collective examination of their activities an understanding of the efficacy of various types of interactive efforts and other EEAG activities and of the contextual and procedural factors that influence their outcomes.
Date: March 1, 1994
Creator: Schweitzer, M.; English, M.; Schexnayder, S. & Altman, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance measures for evaluating public participation activities in DOE`s Office of Environmental Management

Description: Public participation in decision-making in the United States has become a dominant theme throughout the public sector and is increasingly used in the private sector. Recent reports by the National Research Council and the Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management, set up jointly by the White House and Congress, conclude that risk decisions must increasingly be structured in such a manner as to involve stakeholders meaningfully in the processes and activities leading to decisions and, perhaps, through decision implementation. Both of these reports indicate that decisions may take longer but be better if officials: (1) bring all interested and affected parties to the table at the beginning of the risk-discussion process; (2) identify relevant concerns, losses, exposures and other information the parties have; (3) address significant concerns through appropriate research; and (4) present findings in an understandable, accessible way. This report is intended to facilitate subsequent evaluations of public participation activities and programs.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Carnes, S.A.; Schweitzer, M.; Peelle, E.B.; Wolfe, A.K. & Munro, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department