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Estimating environmental benefits of energy programs

Description: Three national reporting programs that either collect or report information on energy savings and the associated emissions reductions from DSM programs are the Conservation Verification Protocols (CVP), the Greenhouse Gas Voluntary Reporting Program (VRP), and the Green Lights Program. The CVP were enacted to report the atmospheric emissions reductions of S0{sub 2} and N0{sub 2}. The VRP was mandated in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) Section 1605(b) to report CO{sub 2}, emissions reductions. Green Lights is a program designed to reduce emissions by encouraging energy-efficient lighting. In this paper we concentrate on how the verification methods, default emission factors and reporting mechanisms affect the accuracy of the reported energy and emissions savings. Additionally, we focus on the dynamic nature of predicted emissions reductions to gauge the accuracy of predictions over time. If conservation programs are designed to affect existing powerplants, if no load growth is anticipated, and if existing plants will not require replacement, a simple static analysis based on an existing resource mix may be acceptable. This approach is enhanced by defining base case, intermediate, and peak resources. However, if today`s decisions will affect tomorrow`s resource decisions, or if the estimates will be used to establish important milestones (such as emission credits), it is prudent to conduct an analysis that captures most incumbent uncertainties. These uncertainties include future resource decisions and the regional character of energy resources, which may not be captured by national estimates and simple extrapolation techniques. While some estimation methods, such as use of default emission factors, produce reasonable national average numbers, the estimates may not be applicable to specific regions. The environmental and economic value of programs may be misstated.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Baechler, M.C. & Schrock, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Federal manufactured home construction and safety standards -- implications for foam panel construction

Description: This report reviews the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development construction code for (HUD-code) manufactured homes, Part 3280: Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards (the HUD Code), to identify sections that might be relevant in determining if insulated foam core panels (or structural insulated panels, SIPs) meet the requirements of Part 3280 for use in manufactured home construction. The U.S. Department of Energy and other parties are interested in the use of SIPs in residential construction, including HUD-Code manufactured homes, because the foam panels can have a higher effective insulation value than standard stud-framed construction and use less dimensional lumber. Although SIPs have not been used in manufactured housing, they may be well suited to the factory production process used to manufacture HUD-Code homes and the fact that they require less virgin timber may reduce the effect of volatile and increasing timber prices. Part 3280 requirements for fire resistance, wind resistance, structural load strength, ventilation, transportation shock, and thermal protection are reviewed. A brief comparison is made between the HUD Code requirements and data collected from foam panel manufacturers. 8 refs.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Lee, A.D.; Schrock, D.W. & Flintoft, S.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Developing energy and environmental reporting protocols

Description: In this paper, we concentrate on the reporting and verification of energy and emissions reductions rather than absolute levels. Absolute emissions levels are collected by the US Department of Energy`s (US DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA) and other agencies, using reporting and verification procedures that are straightforward and build upon previous data collection activities. In contrast, energy savings or reductions cannot be measured directly; instead they must be estimated by subtracting the final energy use from initial energy use. In the meantime, conditions may change, such as economic activity or weather, so that a simple subtraction may yield misleading results. Therefore, estimation, verification, and reporting of energy and emissions savings require considerably more information to ensure that the reductions are due to efficiency improvements rather changes in other conditions. The treatment of this additional information is a major challenge in efforts to report and tabulate energy savings in a consistent manner. This paper identifies several problem areas in reporting programs and some of the mechanisms for dealing with them.
Date: August 1, 1994
Creator: Schrock, D.W.; Stoops, J.L.; Meier, A.K.; Vine, E.L. & Solomon, B.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact evaluation for the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program: Technical appendix

Description: This document supplements the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program (MAP) impact evaluation report, Lee et al. (1995). MAP is a voluntary energy-efficiency program for HUD-code manufactured homes conducted in the Pacific Northwest beginning in April 1992. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this and the impact evaluation reports for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville). Lee et al. (1995) presents the objectives, methodology, and findings of the program evaluation. This report presents more details about specific aspects of the analysis. The authors used a three-tier approach to analyze the energy consumption of MAP and baseline homes. Chapter 2 discusses Tier 1, the billing data and simplified regression analysis. Chapter 3 presents the details of the Tier 2 analysis, the PRInceton Scorekeeping Method (PRISM). Chapter 4 presents details of the primary analysis technique that they used, a comprehensive regression analysis. Chapter 5 and 6 review two other studies of energy savings associated with MAP. Chapter 5 discusses the simulation model analysis conducted by Ecotope, Inc. Chapter 6 reviews the analysis by Regional Economic Research conducted for three Pacific Northwest investor-owned utilities. The final chapter, Chapter 7, presents details of the Bonneville levelized cost methodology used to estimate the cost of energy savings associated with MAP. Results are presented and discussed in many cases for the three different climate zones found in the Pacific Northwest. 18 refs., 29 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Lee, A.D.; Taylor, Z.T.; Schrock, D.W.; Kavanaugh, D.C. & Chin, R.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IMPACT EVALUATION FOR THE MANUFACTURED HOUSING ACQUISITION PROGRAM (MAP)

Description: This report presents the results of an impact evaluation of the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program. This evaluation was conducted for Bonneville by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to determine MAP's energy impacts and cost-effectiveness. We conducted a three-tiered analysis of the utility billing data to estimate program electriccty savings. The first (a raw billing data comparison and simple regression analysis) and second (PRISM) tier analyses provided useful findings for the third-tier analysis by which program savings were estimated. The third-tier approach used a conditional demand type regression analysis to analyze monthly energy consumption, taking into account significant factors likely to influence electricrty usage. We used the regression results to estimate energy savings under "normal" weather conditions for each climate zone. We determined cost-effectiveness by calculating levelized costs using a methodology published by Bonneville. We analyzed potential market transformation effects from a conceptual viewpoint. Our results suggested that MAP's market transformation benefits probably reduced the levelized cost to utilities by 40% or more.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Lee,, A. D.; Taylor,, Z. T.; Schrock,, D. W.; Sandahl,, L. J.; Chin,, R. I. & Kavanauagh,, D. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings for Quick-Service Restaurants

Description: Document describing PNNL's project to develop a package of energy efficiency measures that demonstrate the feasibility of achieving a 50% energy savings for quick-service restaurants with a simple payback of 5 years or less.
Date: September 30, 2010
Creator: Zhang, Jian; Schrock, D. W.; Fisher, D. R.; Livchak, A.; Zabrowski, D. A.; Athalye, Rahul A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department