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Hearing History: Musical Borrowing in the Percussion Ensemble Works, Duo Chopinesque and Chameleon Music

Description: Duo Chopinesque by Michael Hennagin and Chameleon Music by Dan Welcher represent two of the most significant percussion ensemble compositions written in the last twenty years. Both works are written for the mostly mallet type of percussion ensemble wherein the keyboard instruments predominate. However, the most unique aspect of these two pieces is their use of musical quotation. Duo Chopinesque borrows Chopin's Prelude in E minor in its entirety, while Chameleon Music borrows portions from four Mozart Sonatas. This paper places each work within the history of the percussion ensemble, and in the larger history of musical quotation in the twentieth century. In addition, the compositional characteristics of both works are examined with particular emphasis on each composer's use of borrowed material from the music of Mozart and Chopin. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between quoted material and newly composed rhythmic motives.
Date: December 1999
Creator: Fulton, Stephen L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Examination of Selected Ragtime Solos by Zez Confrey, George Hamilton Green, Charles Johnson and Red Norvo as Transcribed for Xylophone Solo with Marimba Ensemble Accompaniment

Description: This lecture-recital paper deals with some of the music of the early 1900's, examining both original xylophone solos and piano rags arranged for the xylophone. An attempt is made to identify the role of the xylophone in ragtime music and its implications for the present day xylophonist. In this investigation a brief history of ragtime music is presented along with the history of the xylophone. The history of ragtime is traced from its beginnings around 1890 to its decline during the 1930's, developing from cakewalks and folk rags into its various styles of Classic rags, Popular rags, Advanced rags, and Novelty rags. The history of the xylophone is traced from the middle ages to its emergence as an orchestral instrument, popularized by a Polish Jew named Michael Josef Gusikov during the early 1800"s. The popularity of the xylophone in the United States increased along with that of ragtime music; from approximately 1890 to 1935 the xylophone experienced what most refer to as its "golden age." Many solos for the instrument, both original and transcribed, were published toward the end of this era. As the popularity of the xylophone declined, these solos went out of print.
Date: May 1984
Creator: McCutchen, Thomas W. (Thomas Wendell)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Percussion scoring and orchestration in the wind and percussion ensemble literature of Jared Spears and David Gillingham

Description: While many composers of wind ensemble literature have utilized percussion extensively in their compositions, Jared Spears and David Gillingham are renowned wind ensemble composers who have also written specifically for the percussion ensemble. Within their writing, both have exploited percussion through innovative scorings and their interest in rhythm, timbre, and density. The purpose of this study is to explore the scoring practices (functions of the instruments and combinations) and orchestration techniques (rhythmic and density relationships) of both composers, focusing on the manner and extent to which percussion is employed in their wind and percussion ensemble literature. The criteria for examining each piece and genre were developed to compare and contrast each composer's scoring and orchestration characteristics. To this end, each piece and genre was examined through several scoring categories designed to analyze overall ensemble relationships as well as individual functions of the percussion instruments. These categories were also applied to sections of music, focusing specifically on combinations of instruments and the relationship of ensemble choirs in separate and combined roles. Finally, percussion orchestration was examined with respect to motives, rhythmic underpinnings, metric usage, density relationships, and the significance of these elements to structural unity and form. These comparisons showed that, while sharing certain characteristics, each composer treats percussion scoring and orchestration in different manners, displaying "signature" aspects that make his writing unique. The application of these shared and individual traits, and the extent to which they are employed, define each composer's distinctive style.
Date: August 2001
Creator: White, Marc M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Parallels in the Development of Electronic and Percussion Music and an Examination of Performance Problems in Lejaren Hiller's Machine Music for Piano, Percussion and Two-Channel Tape Recorder with Three Recitals of Selected Works of Rolnick, Kessner, Xenakis, Winsor, Niimi, and Others

Description: This study traces the significant developments in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries which led to the development of electronic music and increased writing for percussion. Whether by coincidence or premeditation, the field of percussion in Western culture and electronic music share many parallel aspects in their history. Carlos Chavez, Edgard Varese and John Cage foresaw a time when electronic music would allow composers to realize compositions with ease, provide new sounds to the spectrum of possible material for pieces and aid in the conception of works. Significantly, these same composers were important figures in the development of percussion composition. In many ways, Lejaren Hiller's Machine Music can be seen as a culmination of the developments which had been taking place in the history of electronic music and percussion music. A product of the innovations in both fields, it poses some formidable problems for the performers. This study will give some background into its composition, examine its structure and deal with its performance problems.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Smith, Jeffrey B., 1957-
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Multi-percussion Writing of William Kraft in his Encounters Series With Three Recitals of Selected Works of Erb, Ptaszynska, Redel, Serry, and Others

Description: The paper is divided into six chapters. The first two provide a brief summary of the evolution of multiple percussion and biographical information about Kraft. The remaining chapters are an examination of the origin, sound sources, compositional style, and performance problems of the ten Encounters pieces. The paper concludes with several appendices, including a chronological listing of Kraft's compositions which use percussion, a list of percussion equipment and notational symbols used in the Encounters pieces, and a discography of Kraft's music.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Bridwell, Barry D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

American Indian Music in Elementary School Music Programs of Oklahoma : Repertoire, Authenticity and Instruction

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the instructional methods of Oklahoma's elementary school music educators with respect to the inclusion of an authentic repertoire of American Indian music in the curriculum. The research was conducted through two methods. First, an analysis and review of adopted textbook series and pertinent supplemental resources on American Indian music was made. Second, a survey of K-6 grade elementary music specialists in Oklahoma during the 1997-1998 school year was conducted.
Date: December 1998
Creator: Damm, Robert J., 1964-
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Examination of the Percussion Writing in the Chamber Works of George Crumb, 1960-1980 with Three Recitals of Selected Works of Bergsma, Kurka, Miyoshi, Niimi, Takemitsu, and Others

Description: In this study, the unique style of percussion writing in the chamber works of George Crumb, written between 1960 and 1980, is examined. The principal aspects examined within this study include: the extended instrumental techniques, the use of percussion within the musical imagery, soloistic treatment, compositional and notational procedures, and specific performance problems pertaining to the chamber work Songs, Drones, and Refrains of Death.
Date: August 1993
Creator: LedBetter, Robert B.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Influence of Bela Bartok on Symmetry and Instrumentation in George Crumb's Music for a Summer Evening with Three Recitals of Selected Works of Abe, Berio, Dahl, Kessner, Miki, Miyoshi, and Others

Description: The purpose of this document is to investigate the influence of Bela Bartok's music, specifically the Sonata for Two Pianos and Percussion, on George Crumb's Music for a Summer Evening. It concentrates on two specific areas: 1) the role of symmetry and 2) instrumentation. These two items were stressed during an interview with Crumb by the author, which is appended to the paper.
Date: August 1993
Creator: Kingan, Michael Gregory
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Examination of Two Sextets of Carlos Chávez, Toccata for Percussion Instruments and Tambuco for Six Percussion Players

Description: This lecture-recital deals with the two percussion sextets of Carlos Chavez. Each of the compositions is analyzed by examining compositional characteristics and performance problems. The selection, substitution, and construction of the necessary instruments for performance are explored. Suggestions for stage set-up are also included. The percussion ensemble has become an integral part of most high school and university percussion programs. Much of the literature composed for this medium has not become part of the standard literature. Chlvez's Toccata has obtained its place in the literature—it is one of the most often performed percussion works in the world. Although Tambuco has not yet attained the same status as Toccata, it is, nevertheless, an important contribution to the literature. An attempt is also made to identify the significance of these works by examining some of the early influences on Chavez's compositional style both from his native Mexico, and from other composers writing for percussion ensembles.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Peterman, Timothy J. (Timothy James)
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparative Analysis of Selected Keyboard Compositions of Chopin, Brahms, and Franck as Transcribed for the Marimba by Clair Omar Musser, Earl Hatch, and Frank MacCallum Together with Three Recitals of Works by Bartok, Crumb, Miyoshi, Kraft and Others

Description: This study is an examination of Earl Hatch and Clair Musser's transcriptions for marimba of Chopin's Waltz, Opus 64 No. 1, Musser's arrangement of Chopin's Mazurka, Opus 17 No. 4, Hatch's setting of Brahms' Hungarian Dance No. 5, and Frank Mac Callum's treatment of Franck's "Chorale" from the Prelude, Chorale and Fugue. Additionally, the role of the transcription during the Romantic Period, the historical development of the marimba transcription, and performance considerations of the specific works presented are discussed.
Date: December 1980
Creator: Houston, Robert E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Examination of Two Significant Percussion Compositions: Karlheinz Stockhausen's Zyklus and Ingolf Dahl's Duettino Concertante, a Lecture Recital Together with Five Recitals of Selected Works of A. Ginastera, A. Wilder, W. Kraft, and Others

Description: Zvklus (1959) by Karlheinz Stockhausen and Duettino Concertante (1966) by Ingolf Dahl represent two of the most significant percussion compositions that present the percussionist as soloist. The performer of these works, either unaccompanied or accompanied by a non-percussion instrument, is featured as executant, interpreter, and improvisor. They are regarded as classics in the medium of multiple percussion because of their frequency of performance and their profound effect on notation, musical composition, and the technical expectations of the percussionist. This paper examines these compositions and their historical significance to both percussion literature and the percussionist. Each of these compositions is analzyed by examining instrumentation, compositional procedures, and performance problems. Finally, the notational procedures and role of the performer in these compositions are compared. A discussion of the development of the percussion batterie, percussion ensemble, and the important early solo multiple percussion compositions provides historical perspective for these compositions. This perspective is enhanced by consideration of biography, influences, and stylistic development of each composer.
Date: December 1987
Creator: Carney, Michael R. (Michael Reed), 1952-
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Keyboard Percussion Trios of Toru Takemitsu and Toshi Ichiyanagi, a Lecture Recital, together with Three Recitals of Selected Works of Cahn, Maslanka, Miki, Miyoshi, Ptaszynska, Schultz, Wesley-Smith, and Others

Description: The purpose of this study is to examine the various signatures of compositional style as manifested in the keyboard percussion trios Rain Tree by Toru Takemitsu and Wind Trace by Toshi Ichiyanagi. Significant personal interaction between the aforementioned Japanese composers and American composer John Cage justifies an investigation of his influence on their compositional styles. Toru Takemitsu is currently one of the most prolific Japanese composers. In 1981, Takemitsu composed the percussion trio Rain Tree. Three years later (1984) the Japanese concert pianist Toshi Ichiyanagi composed Wind Trace using Rain Tree's identical instrumentation of marimba, vibraphone, and crotales. Rain Tree and Wind Trace are very similar in compositional style. Formally, both works are single-movement compositions employing rhythmic tension, harmonic dissonance, and visual imagery created by the use of polyrhythms, aleatory, nonfunctional harmony, and extra-musical references. This study investigates the Japanese philosophy of ma and its influence in Rain Tree and Wind Trace. Ma is the natural pause or interval between two or more phenomena occurring continuously. According to Takemitsu, ma is living space, more than actual space. Both compositions utilize space as an essential compositional technique to either connect compartmentalized activity or to complement melodic material. With the utmost respect for nature, Toru Takemitsu and Toshi Ichiyanagi have synthesized elements of Oriental and Occidental music into compositional styles that are unique yet universal. Functioning within both composer's strong personal aesthetics, the affective use of aleatoric and polyrhythmic structures reflect John Cage's influence. Takemitsu's decision to reevaluate the qualities of Japanese traditional music, and to consciously attempt to express the qualities of nature within his music, are attributable to his associations with John Cage. Rain Tree and Wind Trace are virtuosic vehicles of musical expression for which an understanding of the subtle elements within the Eastern and Western art forms is ...
Date: August 1995
Creator: Finnie, Jimmy W. (Jimmy Wayne)
Partner: UNT Libraries