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An analytical investigation of airplane spin-recovery motion by use of rotary-balance aerodynamic data

Description: From Introduction: "Many investigations have been made in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel in which the natures of airplane spins and recoveries have been determined experimentally with dynamically scaled-down models. The results of some of these investigations are presented in references 1 to 5."
Date: June 1954
Creator: Scher, Stanley H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of a spin and recovery from time histories of attitudes and velocities as determined for a dynamic model of a contemporary fighter airplane in the free-spinning tunnel

Description: From Introduction: "In this paper are presented descriptions of the camera setups and associated equipment, the equations and methods used in determining the model attitudes and motions from the film, and time-history curves of the variables of the spin and recovery investigated. Discussions of the nature of the spin and recovery obtained and of factors ostensibly affecting these motions are included."
Date: April 1, 1956
Creator: Scher, Stanley H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Stability of the Jettisonable Nose Section of the X-3 Airplane

Description: Because previous work has indicated that jettisonable nose sections of airplanes may be inherently unstable, and thus may cause dangerous centripetal accelerations on a pilot after jettisoning during high-speed flight, an investigation has been conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel to determine the behavior in descent of a model of the jettisonable nose section of the Douglas X-3 airplane. The effects of varying the center-of-gravity position, of attaching fins of various sizes, and of installing a stabilizing parachute were investigated. In the investigation the model descended with its front and trimmed 36 deg above the horizontal and rotated about a vertical wind axis while rolling about its longitudinal body axis. The nose section was made to descend in a stable front-down attitude when stabilizing fins were installed in conjunction with movement of the center of gravity forward or when a stable parachute was attached to the model.
Date: December 8, 1946
Creator: Scher, Stanley H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-tunnel investigation of the effects of various asymmetric canopy modifications on the behavior of descending parachutes

Description: Report presenting an investigation in the free-spinning tunnel to study the behavior in descent of hemispherical and quasi-conical parachutes, some with symmetrical canopy modifications and all with a right circular cylinder suspended by one end below the parachute. Results indicated that a lateral flight component during descent could be obtained by using a circular cutout in the side of the canopy of a hemispherical parachute and a large slit between two panels of a quasi-conical parachute.
Date: February 15, 1952
Creator: Scher, Stanley H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-tunnel investigation of the stability of jettisoned nose sections of the D-558 airplane: phases I and II

Description: Report presenting an investigation of the stability of models of the jettisonable nose sections of D-558 airplanes in two phases. The effects of center-of-gravity location and stabilizing fins of various sizes were also determined. The noses were found to tumble end over end at an approximately horizontal axis, which may be dangerous to the pilot if the nose is jettisoned while the airplane is traveling at a high rate of speed.
Date: January 14, 1948
Creator: Scher, Stanley H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pilot escape from spinning airplanes as determined from free-spinning-tunnel tests

Description: Procedure for pilot escape from spinning airplanes has been determined by means of tests in which pilot escape was simulated from 21 airplane models spinning in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel. The results in general indicated that the pilot should bail out of the outboard side. Calculated centripetal accelerations acting on the pilot during a spin are presented.
Date: October 1, 1951
Creator: Scher, Stanley H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Evaluation of the Spin and Recovery Characteristics of the Douglas XF3D-1 Airplane

Description: A preliminary evaluation of the spin and recovery characteristics of the XF3D-1 airplane has been made, based primarily on the results of the free-spinning tunnel tests of a model which closely simulated the XF3D-1 in tail design, tail length, and mass loading. Estimates have been made of the rudder-pedal force that may be encountered in effecting recovery from a spin and of the spin recovery parachute requirements of the airplane for demonstration spins. The method of bail-out which should be used if it becomes necessary for the crew to abandon the airplane during a spin is indicated. It was indicated that the recovery characteristics of the XF3D-1 airplane in the clean condition for erect and inverted spins would be satisfactory for all loadings specified by the contractor as possible on the airplane. However, if a spin is inadvertently entered while the landing flaps are down, recovery may be slow. The slow-down brakes and the landing flaps should be retracted immediately upon the inception of a spinning condition, after which recovery from the spin should be attempted. The pedal force necessary to reverse the rudder during a spin will be within the physical capabilities of the pilot. Opening a 10-foot diameter parachute attached to the tail (laid-out-flat diameter, drag coefficient 0.7) or a 4.5-foot diameter parachute attached to the outboard wing tip will insure satisfactory spin recovery from demonstration spins. If it becomes necessary for the crew to abandon the airplane during a spin, they should leave from the outboard side of the cockpit.
Date: July 3, 1947
Creator: Scher, Stanley H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free-Spinning-Tunnel Tests of a 1/27-Scale Model of the Douglas XF3D-1 Airplane, TED No. NACA DE 312

Description: Free-spinning-tunnel tests have been made on a 1/27-scale model of the Douglas XF3D-1 airplane to confirm a preliminary evaluation made of the airplane spin and recovery characteristics and previously reported. Recovery characteristics were satisfactory for erect and inverted spins when the model was in the clean condition. When the slow-down brakes were open, recoveries were slow. The pedal force necessary to reverse the airplane rudder during a spin will be within the physical capabilities of the pilot. A 10-foot-diameter parachute attached to the tail of the airplane (laid-out-flat diameter, drag coefficient 0.7) or a 4.5-foot-diameter parachute attached to the outboard wing tip will be satisfactory for emergency spin recovery from demonstration spins. If it becomes necessary for the crew to abandon the airplane during a spin, they should leave from the outboard side of the cockpit. The test results indicated spin and recovery characteristics generally similar to those indicated in the preliminary evaluation.
Date: 1947
Creator: Scher, Stanley H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free-spinning-tunnel investigation of a 1/20-scale model of the Douglas A4D-1 airplane: TED No. NACA DE 389

Description: Report presenting an investigation of the spin and recovery characteristics of a 1/20-scale dynamic model of the Douglas A4D-1 attack airplane in the 20-foot free-spinning tunnel. Erect spins and recoveries were investigated with the model in the clean condition and the loading condition, which includes a center external store with and without two external wing fuel tanks installed. Results regarding several conditions, including erect spins, no external stores, horizontal-tail incidence, 4 degrees leading edge up; erect spins, stores installed; landing conditions, inverted spins, spin-recovery parachute tests, and recommended recovery technique and control forces are provided.
Date: January 19, 1955
Creator: Klinar, Walter J.; Scher, Stanley H. & Healy, Frederick M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department