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Field tests of automatic water-level monitor systems: Technology Development Program: Site Investigation Technology Project

Description: Groundwater in the aquifer beneath the Hanford Site contains radioactive and other contaminants from deposits in the overlying vadose zone. These contaminants flow with the groundwater into the Columbia River. The rate of contaminant movement toward the river depends on hydraulic gradients resulting from aquifer recharge by process water and other liquid waste. Historically, hydraulic gradients were deduced from water-level measurements made manually using steel tapes. However, frequent or simultaneous measurements essential to proper site characterization and remediation under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act; and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been either too costly or impossible. This investigation was authorized to identify technologies capable of meeting site characterization and remediation requirements with precision suitable to EPA. Therefore, we identified and tested available automatic monitoring systems for cost-effective and timely measurements of aquifer water levels. 5 refs., 9 figs.
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Campbell, M.D. & Schalla, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solubility of water in hydrocarbons

Description: Report presenting a study of the literature data on the solubility of water in hydrocarbons, which includes information about the log of solubility, critical solution temperature, and ratios that may affect solubility are provided. An equation is presented and applied to a few petroleum fractions ranging from gasoline to lubricating oil, and a comparison of calculated and experimental solubilities is provided.
Date: July 10, 1952
Creator: Hibbard, R. R. & Schalla, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Purge water minimization at LEHR

Description: The field demonstration described in this report is being conducted as part of the Environmental Restoration Program at the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR). The Environmental Restoration Program is one of several U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste cleanup projects designed to support by the actual use of emerging environmental management and restoration technologies. As part of an ongoing technical support mission to achieve excellence and efficiency in environmental restoration activities at LEHR, DOE requested Pacific Northwest National Laboratory`s (PNNL`s) guidance to identify the most efficient way of reducing purge water extracted by sampling pumps while still obtaining representative samples from LEHR monitoring wells.
Date: November 1, 1996
Creator: Schalla, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Accuracy and cost effectiveness of manual and automated water-level monitoring technology

Description: Relative water-surface elevations are used to characterize the unconfined aquifer beneath the Hanford Site. Simultaneous and frequent, measurements in areas of rapid change have been avoided because of cost, even though both are important, and in some cases essential, for aquifer characterization. The objective of this study was to evaluate, demonstrate, and report on the most cost-effective methods of obtaining water-level data for characterizing aquifers at hazardous waste sites. Aquifer characterization is needed to define hydraulic flow gradients, which determine rate and direction of contaminant transport. Such characterization requires accurate measurements of groundwater elevation. Automated datalogging equipment offers substantial benefits over manual measurements, including a lower cost per measurement. Staff at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory identified potentially suitable equipment and requested it from vendors for evaluation. Instrument performance was compared with manufacturer's specifications and laboratory requirements. Precision, accuracy, hysteresis, and short-term drift were tested. Test results are summarized in this report, and several suitable pieces of equipment were found. 3 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.
Date: March 1, 1991
Creator: Campbell, M.D.; Schalla, R. & Newcomer, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental settings for selected US Department of Energy installations - support information for the programmatic environmental impact statement and the baseline environmental management report

Description: This report contains the environmental setting information developed for 25 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) installations in support of the DOE`s Programmatic Environmental Impact Study (PEIS) and the Baseline Environmental Management Report (BEMR). The common objective of the PEIS and the BEMR is to provide the public with information about the environmental contamination problems associated with major DOE facilities across the country, and to assess the relative risks that radiological and hazardous contaminants pose to the public, onsite workers, and the environment. Environmental setting information consists of the site-specific data required to model (using the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System) the atmospheric, groundwater, and surface water transport of contaminants within and near the boundaries of the installations. The environmental settings data describes the climate, atmospheric dispersion, hydrogeology, and surface water characteristics of the installations. The number of discrete environmental settings established for each installation was governed by two competing requirements: (1) the risks posed by contaminants released from numerous waste sites were to be modeled as accurately as possible, and (2) the modeling required for numerous release sites and a large number of contaminants had to be completed within the limits imposed by the PEIS and BEMR schedule. The final product is the result of attempts to balance these competing concerns in a way that minimizes the number of settings per installation in order to meet the project schedule while at the same, time providing adequate, if sometimes highly simplified, representations of the different areas within an installation. Environmental settings were developed in conjunction with installation experts in the fields of meteorology, geology, hydrology, and geochemistry.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Holdren, G.R.; Glantz, C.S.; Berg, L.K.; Delinger, K.; Fosmire, C.J.; Goodwin, S.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interim characterization report for the 300 Area process trenches

Description: This document contains information on the results of the Hazardous Waste Ground-Water Monitoring Compliance Program characterization studies of wastes disposed of in the 300 Area process trenches. The characterization of the 300 Area process trenches has been conducted as part of an effort initiated in June 1985, when a facility-specific monitoring program was implemented. The characterization effort is part of a regulatory ground-water monitoring compliance program for hazardous chemicals on the Hanford Site. The characterization work described in this document represents an expanded ground-water monitoring compliance effort, and incorporates or refers to previous studies useful in characterizing the 300 Area. This document is primarily a compendium of technical information on the 300 Area; therefore, data interpretations are limited to the most obvious conclusions. Final conclusions will not be presented until the analysis of data is completed in September 1989. 48 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.
Date: September 1, 1988
Creator: Schalla, R.; Wallace, R.W.; Aaberg, R.L.; Airhart, S.P.; Bates, D.J.; Carlile, J.V.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department