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V-shaped inversion domains in InN grown on c-plane sapphire

Description: Inversion domains with a V-shape were found to nucleate inside a Mg-doped InN heteroepitaxial layer. They resemble Al-polarity domains, observed recently, in N-polarity AlN films. However, the angle between the side-walls of the V-shaped domain and the c-axis differs in these two cases. In InN, this angle is almost two times bigger than that reported for AlN. The origin of V-shaped inversion domains in InN film is not yet clear.
Date: April 27, 2004
Creator: Jasinski, J.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Lu, H. & Schaff, W.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defect Doping of InN

Description: InN films grown by molecular beam epitaxy have been subjected to 2 MeV He{sup +} irradiation followed by thermal annealing. Theoretical analysis of the electron mobilities shows that thermal annealing removes triply charged donor defects, creating films with electron mobilities approaching those predicted for uncompensated, singly charged donors. Optimum thermal annealing of irradiated InN can be used to produce samples with electron mobilities higher than those of as grown films.
Date: July 22, 2007
Creator: Jones, R.E.; van Genuchten, H.C.M.; Yu, K.M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Li, S.X.; A ger III, J.W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Relation between structural and optical properties of InN andInxGa1-xN thin films

Description: Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and opticalmeasurements obtained from InN and In1-xGaxNfilms (0<x<0.54)grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy are presented. Energy gaps measuredbyabsorption, PR, and PL for InN films grown on c-plane Al2O3 were in therange of 0.7 eV. No In or otherinclusions were observed in these films,ruling out the possibility of a strong Mie scattering mechanism. IntheIn1-xGaxN films the relationship between the structural properties andthe optical properties, inparticular the presence or absence of a Stokesshift between absorption and PL, is discussed. TEM studiesshow that highquality layers do not have a Stokes shift. Some films had compositionalordering; thesefilms also showed a shift between absorption edge andluminescence peak.
Date: July 20, 2004
Creator: Liliental-Weber, Z.; Zakharov, D. N.; Jasinski, J.; Yu, K. M.; Wu, J. W.; Ager, J. W., III et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compositional Modulation in InxGa1-xN

Description: Transmission Electron Microscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to study compositional modulation in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x} N layers grown with compositions close to the miscibility gap. The samples (0.34 &lt; x &lt; 0.8) were deposited by molecular beam epitaxy using either a 200-nm-thick AlN or GaN buffer layer grown on a sapphire substrate. In the TEM imaging mode this modulation is seen as black/white fringes which can be considered as self-assembled thin quantum wells. Periodic compositional modulation leads to extra electron diffraction spots and satellite reflections in x-ray diffraction in the {theta}-2{theta} coupled geometry. The modulation period was determined using both methods. Larger modulation periods were observed for layers with higher In content and for those having larger mismatch with the underlying AlN buffer layer. Compositional modulation was not observed for a sample with x = 0.34 grown on a GaN buffer layer. Modulated films tend to have large 'Stokes shifts' between their absorption edge and photoluminescence peak.
Date: July 20, 2005
Creator: Liliental-Weber, Z.; Zakharov, D.N.; Yu, K.M.; Ager III, J.W.; Walukiewicz, W.; Haller, E.E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Exceptional Electron Transport Properties of In-rich InGaN

Description: Recent years have seen an explosion of interest in the narrow band gap end of the InGaN alloy system, particularly in InN. The existence of surface electron accumulation and a tendency for n-type conductivity have been well-established and are explained by an extremely large electron affinity and the location of the Fermi level stabilization energy (E{sub FS}) high in the conduction band [1]. These characteristics pose significant challenges to the integration of In-rich InGaN into devices and demonstrate the need for a better understanding of the relationship between native defects and electronic transport in the alloy system. It has been previously shown that high-energy particle irradiation can predictably control the electronic properties of In-rich InGaN [1]. With increasing irradiation dose, the electron concentration (n) increases and the electron mobility ({mu}) decreases until the Fermi level reaches E{sub FS}, which is the saturation point. The value of n at saturation decreases with decreasing In fraction, due to the raising of the conduction band edge with respect to E{sub FS}.
Date: October 22, 2006
Creator: Jones, R.E.; van Genuchten, H.C.M.; Yu, K.M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Li, S.X.; Liliental-Weber, Z. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hole transport and photoluminescence in Mg-doped InN

Description: Hole conductivity and photoluminescence were studied in Mg-doped InN films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Because surface electron accumulation interferes with carrier type determination by electrical measurements, the nature of the majority carriers in the bulk of the films was determined using thermopower measurements. Mg concentrations in a&quot;window&quot; from ca. 3 x 1017 to 1 x 1019 cm-3 produce hole-conducting, p-type films as evidenced by a positive Seebeck coecient. This conclusion is supported by electrolyte-based capacitance voltage measurements and by changes in the overall mobility observed by Hall effect, both of which are consistent with a change from surface accumulation on an n-type film to surface inversion on a p-type film. The observed Seebeck coefficients are understood in terms of a parallel conduction model with contributions from surface and bulk regions. In partially compensated films with Mg concentrations below the window region, two peaks are observed in photoluminescence at 672 meV and at 603 meV. They are attributed to band-to-band and band-to-acceptor transitions, respectively, and an acceptor binding energy of ~;;70 meV is deduced. In hole-conducting films with Mg concentrations in the window region, no photoluminescence is observed; this is attributed to electron trapping by deep states which are empty for Fermi levels close to the valence band edge.
Date: March 24, 2010
Creator: Miller, N.; Ager III, J. W.; Smith III, H. M.; Mayer, M. A.; Yu, K. M.; Haller, E. E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Universal bandgap bowing in group III nitride alloys

Description: The energy gaps of MBE-grown wurtzite-structure In{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N alloys with x {le} 0.25 have been measured by absorption and photoluminescence experiments. The results are consistent with the recent discovery of a narrow bandgap of {approx}0.8 eV for InN. A bowing parameter of 3 eV was determined from the composition dependence of these bandgaps. Combined with previously reported data of InGaN and AlGaN, these results show a universal relationship between the bandgap variations of group III nitride alloys and their compositions.
Date: August 6, 2002
Creator: Wu, J.; Walukiewicz, W.; Yu, K.M.; Ager III, J.W.; Li, S.X.; Haller, E.E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Indium nitride: A narrow gap semiconductor

Description: The optical properties of wurtzite InN grown on sapphire substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy have been characterized by optical absorption, photoluminescence, and photomodulated reflectance techniques. All these three characterization techniques show an energy gap for InN between 0.7 and 0.8 eV, much lower than the commonly accepted value of 1.9 eV. The photoluminescence peak energy is found to be sensitive to the free electron concentration of the sample. The peak energy exhibits a very weak hydrostatic pressure dependence and a small, anomalous blueshift with increasing temperature. The bandgap energies of In-rich InGaN alloys were found to be consistent with the narrow gap of InN. The bandgap bowing parameter was determined to be 1.43 eV in InGaN.
Date: August 14, 2002
Creator: Wu, J.; Walukiewicz, W.; Yu, K.M.; Ager III, J.W.; Haller, E.E.; Lu, H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dopants and Defects in InN and InGaN Alloys

Description: We have performed systematic studies of the effects of high-energy particle irradiation on the properties of InGaN alloys. In agreement with the amphoteric defect model, irradiation of InN produces donor-like defects. The electron concentration increases with increasing radiation dose and saturates at 4 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} at very high doses. We find that the increase of the electron concentration causes a large blue-shift of the absorption edge, which is well-explained by the Burstein-Moss effect. The maximum electron concentration decreases with increasing Ga fraction in irradiated In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N alloys as the conduction band edge approaches the Fermi level stabilization energy (E{sub FS}). For x &gt; 0.66 the conduction band edge moves above E{sub FS} and the irradiation of n-type films produces acceptor-like defects, resulting in a reduced free electron concentration. An analysis of the concentration dependence of the electron mobility in InN indicates that the dominant defects in irradiated InN are triply-charged donors. Finally, we show that InN films doped with Mg acceptors behave like undoped films above a threshold radiation dose.
Date: April 1, 2005
Creator: Walukiewicz, W.; Jones, R.E.; Li, S.X.; Yu, K.M.; Ager III, J.W.; Haller, E.E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multiphonon Resonance Raman Scattering in InGaN

Description: In In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N epitaxial films with 0.37 &lt; x &lt; 1 and free electron concentrations in the 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} range, strong resonant Raman scattering of A{sub 1}(LO) phonon is observed for laser excitation in Raman scattering when excited above the direct band gaps. Examination of films with direct band gaps between 0.7 and 1.9 eV using laser energies from 1.9 to 2.7 eV shows that the resonance is broad, extending to up to 2 eV above the direct gap. Multiphonon Raman scattering with up to 5 LO phonons is also observed for excitation close to resonance in alloy samples; this is the highest number of phonon overtones ever observed for multiphonon scattering in a III-V compound under ambient conditions. Coupling of the electron plasmon to the LO phonon to form a longitudinal plasmon coupled mode of the type which is observed in the Raman spectra of n-GaN, appears not to occur in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N for x &gt; 0.37.
Date: June 28, 2005
Creator: Ager, J. W., III; Walukiewicz, W.; Shan, W.; Yu, K. M.; Li, S. X.; Haller, E. E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Donor and acceptor concentrations in degenerate InN

Description: A formalism is presented to determine donor (N{sub D}) and acceptor (N{sub A}) concentrations in wurtzitic InN characterized by degenerate carrier concentration (n) and mobility ({mu}). The theory includes scattering not only by charged point defects and impurities, but also by charged threading dislocations, of concentration N{sub dis}. For an 0.45-{micro}m-thick InN layer grown on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} by molecular beam epitaxy, having N{sub dis} = 5 x 10{sup 10} cm{sup -2}, determined by transmission electron microscopy, n(20 K) = 3.5 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}, and {mu}(20 K) = 1055 cm{sup 2}/V-s, determined by Hall-effect measurements, the fitted values are N{sub D} = 4.7 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} and N{sub A} = 1.2 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}. The identities of the donors and acceptors are not known, although a comparison of N{sub D} with analytical data, and also with calculations of defect formation energies, suggests that a potential candidate for the dominant donor is H.
Date: January 28, 2002
Creator: Look, D.C.; Lu, H.; Schaff, W.J.; Jasinski, J. & Liliental-Weber, Z.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department