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Amendments in the Senate: Types and Forms

Description: This report briefly describes the various types of amendments that take place in the Senate. It has sections describing distinctions among amendments, degrees of amendments, forms of amendments, and the scope of amendments.
Date: November 2, 2004
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Amendments in Disagreement

Description: This report briefly summarizes the process of amendments between the House of Representatives and the Senate, which occurs if the House and Senate approve differing versions of a measure. The House and Senate must approve an identical version of a measure before it may be presented for the President's approval or veto. If the House and Senate approve differing versions of a measure, the differences must first be resolved.
Date: November 3, 2004
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Origination Clause of the U.S. Constitution: Interpretation and Enforcement

Description: This report analyzes congressional and court precedents regarding bills under Article I, Section 7, clause 1 of the U.S. Constitution (known as the Origination Clause). It also describes the various ways in which the Origination Clause has been enforced and looks at the application of the Clause to other types of legislation.
Date: May 10, 2002
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Amendments Between the Houses

Description: This report briefly summarizes the process of amendments between the House of Representatives and the Senate, which occurs if the House and Senate approve differing versions of a measure. An exchange of amendments between the houses resolves these differences.
Date: December 9, 2004
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Amendments in the House: Types and Forms

Description: This report briefly discusses the amending process, which is central to the consideration of legislation by the House of Representatives, and the rules, practices, and precedents that underlie this process frequently depend on distinguishing among amendments based on their type and form. Simply put, not all amendments are equal in a procedural sense, and the form or type of amendment frequently determines what further amendments may be offered, and therefore what alternatives the House may choose among.
Date: November 18, 2004
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Privileged Business on the House Floor

Description: This report discusses privileged business, which relates to the order or priority of business before the House and is defined in House rules and precedents as business that has precedence over the regular order of business.
Date: January 23, 2017
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Points of Order in the Congressional Budget Process

Description: The Congressional Budget Act of 1974 created a process that Congress uses each year to establish and enforce the parameters for budgetary legislation. This report summarizes points of order under the Congressional Budget Act of 1974, as amended, as well as related points of order established in the budget resolutions adopted by Congress in 2007 and 2008, the Rules of the House for the 110th Congress, and the Budget Enforcement Act of 1990. In addition, it describes how points of order are applied and the processes used for their waiver in the House and Senate.
Date: June 23, 2008
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emergency Spending: Statutory and Congressional Rules

Description: Under the Budget Enforcement Act (BEA), there are statutory limits (caps) on the level of federal discretionary spending, enforced by across-the-board spending cuts, known as a sequester. If, however, spending is designated as emergency by both the President and Congress, it will not trigger a sequester, because the caps are adjusted automatically by an amount equal to the emergency spending. Since the BEA was first enacted in 1990, both the House and Senate have supplemented its provisions with additional limitations in their respective rules concerning the use of emergency designations.
Date: October 3, 2001
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Budget Enforcement Act: Its Operation Under a Budget Surplus

Description: The Budget Enforcement Act was enacted in 1990 in an effort to control future budgetary actions. It did this through two separate, but related, mechanisms: limits on discretionary spending, and the pay-as-you-go process to require that any legislative action on direct spending or revenues which would increase the deficit be offset. These procedures currently would apply through FY2002 (for legislation enacted before October 1, 2002, for measures affecting direct spending or revenues), regardless of whether the budget is in deficit or surplus.
Date: February 11, 1998
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department