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Holographic optical elements for the extreme-ultravioletregime

Description: As the development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography progresses, interest grows in the extension of traditional optical components to the EUV regime. The strong absorption of EUV by most materials and its extremely short wavelength, however, makes it very difficult to implement many components that are commonplace in the longer wavelength regimes. One such component is the diffractive optical element used, for example, in illumination systems to efficiently generate modified pupil fills. Here we demonstrate the fabrication and characterization of EUV binary phase-only computer-generated holograms allowing arbitrary far-field diffraction patterns to be generated.
Date: August 14, 2006
Creator: Naulleau, Patrick P.; Salmassi, Farhad; Gullikson, Eric M. & Anderson, Erik H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spin-on-glass coatings for the generation of super-polishedsubstrates for extreme ultraviolet optics

Description: Substrates intended for use as extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optics have extremely stringent requirements in terms of finish. These requirements can dramatically increase the cost and fabrication time, especially when non-conventional shapes, such as toroids, are required. Here we present a spin-on-glass resist process capable of generating super-polished parts from inexpensive substrates. The method has been used to render diamond-turned substrates compatible for use as EUV optics. Toroidal diamond-turned optics with starting rms roughness in the 3.3 to 3.7 nm range have been smoothed to the 0.4 to 0.6 nm range. EUV reflectometry characterization of these optics has demonstrated reflectivities of approximately 63%.
Date: January 1, 2005
Creator: Salmassi, Farhad; Naulleau, Patrick P. & Gullikson, Eric M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tri-material multilayer coatings with high reflectivity and wide bandwidth for 25 to 50 nm extreme ultraviolet light

Description: Magnesium/silicon carbide (Mg/SiC) multilayers have been fabricated with normal incidence reflectivity in the vicinity of 40% to 50% for wavelengths in the 25 to 50 nm wavelength range. However many applications, for example solar telescopes and ultrafast studies using high harmonic generation sources, desire larger bandwidths than provided by high reflectivity Mg/SiC multilayers. We investigate introducing a third material, Scandium, to create a tri-material Mg/Sc/SiC multilayer allowing an increase the bandwidth while maintaining high reflectivity.
Date: September 9, 2009
Creator: Aquila, Andrew; Salmassi, Farhad; Liu, Yanwei & Gullikson, Eric M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Progress in Large Period Multilayer Coatings for High Harmonic and Solar Applications

Description: Multilayer coatings for normal incidence optics designed for the long wavelength region (25 nm < {lambda} < 50 nm) are particularly challenging due to the few number of layers that can be utilized in the reflection. Recently, Mg/SiC multilayers have been fabricated with normal incidence reflectivity in the vicinity of 40% for wavelengths near the He-II line at 30.4 nm. Motivated by this success we have investigated the use of a tri-band multilayer to increase the bandwidth while maintaining the reflectivity. The multilayers were deposited by conventional magnetron sputtering. Using Mg/SiC bilayers a reflectivity of 45% was achieved at 27 to 32 nm at an angle of 5 deg from normal. The Mg/Sc/SiC multilayer systems have also been investigated. It obtained a near normal incidence reflectivity of 35% while increasing the bandwidth by a factor of 2. These results are very encouraging for the possibility of more widespread applications of normal incidence optics in high harmonic applications.
Date: January 7, 2008
Creator: Jones, Juanita; Aquila, Andrew; Salmassi, Farhad & Gullikson, Eric
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ultra-high efficiency multilayer blazed gratings through deposition kinetic control

Description: Diffraction efficiency of multilayer coated blazed gratings (MBG) strongly depends on the perfection of the saw-toothshaped layers in the overall composite structure. Growth of multilayers on saw-tooth substrates should be carefully optimized in order to reduce groove profile distortion and at the same time to avoid significant roughening of multilayer interfaces. In this work we report on a new way to optimize growth of sputter-deposited Mo/Si multilayers on saw-tooth substrates through variation of the sputtering gas pressure. A new record for diffraction efficiency of 44% was achieved for a optimized MBG with groove density of 5250 lines/mm at the wavelength of 13.1 nm.
Date: January 23, 2012
Creator: Anderson, Erik; Gullikson, Eric; Salmassi, Farhad; Warwick, Tony; Yashchuk, Valeriy & Padmore, Howard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multilayer Phase-Only Diffraction Gratings: Fabrication andApplication to EUV Optics

Description: The use of phase-only diffractive devices has long played an important role in advanced optical systems in varying fields. Such devices include gratings, diffractive and holographic optical elements, diffractive lenses, and phase-shift masks for advanced lithography. Extending such devices to the increasingly important regime of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths, however, is not trivial. Here, we present an effective fabrication and etch process enabling high-resolution patterning of Mo/Si multilayers for use in EUV phase devices, providing another method for fabrication of high numerical aperture diffractive devices or high-resolution EUV phase shift masks.
Date: May 1, 2007
Creator: Salmassi, Farhad; Gullikson, Eric M.; Anderson, Erik H. & Naulleau, Patrick P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reflection Mode Imaging with High Resolution X-rayMicroscopy

Description: We report on the first demonstration of imaging microstructures with soft x-ray microscopy operating in reflection geometry. X-ray microscopy in reflection mode combines the high resolution available with x-ray optics, the ability to image thick samples, and to directly image surfaces and interfaces. Future experiments with this geometry will include tuning the incident angle to obtain depth resolution. In combination with XMCD as magnetic contrast mechanism this mode will allow studies of deep buried magnetic interfaces.
Date: April 2, 2005
Creator: Denbeaux, Greg; Fischer, Peter; Salmassi, Farhad; Dunn, Kathleen & Evertsen, James
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Extreme ultraviolet mask substrate surface roughness effects on lithography patterning

Description: In extreme ultraviolet lithography exposure systems, mask substrate roughness induced scatter contributes to LER at the image plane. In this paper, the impact of mask substrate roughness on image plane speckle is explicitly evaluated. A programmed roughness mask was used to study the correlation between mask roughness metrics and wafer plane aerial image inspection. We find that the roughness measurements by top surface topography profile do not provide complete information on the scatter related speckle that leads to LER at the image plane. We suggest at wavelength characterization by imaging and/or scatter measurements into different frequencies as an alternative for a more comprehensive metrology of the mask substrate/multilayer roughness effects.
Date: June 21, 2010
Creator: George, Simi; Naulleau, Patrick; Salmassi, Farhad; Mochi, Iacopo; Gullikson, Eric; Goldberg, Kenneth et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Metrologies for the Phase Characterization of Attosecond

Description: EUV optics play a key role in attosecond science since only with higher photon energies is it possible to achieve the wide spectral bandwidth required for ultrashort pulses. Multilayer EUV mirrors have been proposed and are being developed to temporally shape (compress) attosecond pulses. To fully characterize a multilayer optic for pulse applications requires not only knowledge of the reflectivity, as a function of photon energy, but also the reflected phase of the mirror. This work develops the metrologies to determine the reflected phase of an EUV multilayer mirror using the photoelectric effect. The proposed method allows one to determine the optic's impulse response and hence its pulse characteristics.
Date: January 17, 2008
Creator: CXRO
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fabrication and characterization of ultra-high resolution multilayer-coated blazed gratings

Description: Multilayer coated blazed gratings with high groove density are the most promising candidate for ultra-high resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy. They combine the ability of blazed gratings to concentrate almost all diffraction energy in a desired high diffraction order with high reflectance soft x-ray multilayers. However in order to realize this potential, the grating fabrication process should provide a near perfect groove profile with an extremely smooth surface of the blazed facets. Here we report on successful fabrication and testing of ultra-dense saw-tooth substrates with 5,000 and 10,000 lines/mm.
Date: July 26, 2011
Creator: Voronov,, Dmitriy; Anderson, Erik; Cambie, Rossana; Dhuey, Scott; Gullikson, Eric; Salmassi, Farhad et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Growth and Printability of Multilayer Phase Defects on EUV MaskBlanks

Description: The ability to fabricate defect-free mask blanks is a well-recognized challenge in enabling extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) for semiconductor manufacturing. Both the specification and reduction of defects necessitate the understanding of their printability and how they are generated and grow during Mo-Si multilayer (ML) deposition. A ML phase defect can be depicted by its topographical profile on the surface as either a bump or pit, which is then characterized by height or depth and width. The complexity of such seemingly simple phase defects lies in the many ways they can be generated and the difficulties of measuring their physical shape/size and optical effects on printability. An effective way to study phase defects is to use a programmed defect mask (PDM) as 'model' test sample where the defects are produced with controlled growth on a ML blank and accurate placement in varying proximity to absorber patterns on the mask. This paper describes our recent study of ML phase defect printability with resist data from exposures of a ML PDM on the EUV micro-exposure tool (MET, 5X reduction with 0.3NA).
Date: June 10, 2007
Creator: Liang, Ted; Ultanir, Erdem; Zhnag, Guojing; Park, Seh-Jin; Anderson, Erik; Gullikson, Eric et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Studies in Optimal Configuration of the LTP

Description: Brightness preservation requirements for ever brighter synchrotron radiation and free electron laser beamlines require surface slope tolerances of x-ray optics on the order of 0.2 mu rad, or better. Hence, the accuracy of dedicated surface slope metrology must be 0.1 mu rad, or even less. Achieving this level of measurement accuracy with the flagship instrument at synchrotron radiation metrology laboratories, the Long Trace Profiler (LTP), requires all significant sources of systematic, random, and instrumental drift errors to be identified, and reduced or eliminated. In this respect, the performance of certain components of the Advanced Light Source LTP-II design [Kirschman, et al., Proc. SPIE, 7077, 70770A-12 (2008)] is analyzed, considering the principal justification for inclusion of each component, possible systematic error due to the quality of its optical material, and drift effects due to generated heat, etc. We investigate the effects of replacement of the existing diode laser with a fiber-coupled laser light source, and demonstrate that reducing the number of components by using a single beam on the surface under test (SUT), rather than an original double beam maintains, or even improves the accuracy of measurement with our LTP. Based on the performance of the upgraded LTP, we trace the further steps for improving of the LTP optical system.
Date: August 10, 2010
Creator: McKinney, Wayne R.; Anders, Mark; Barber, Samuel K.; Domning, Edward E.; Lou, Yunian; Morrison, Gregory Y. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Replicated mask surface roughness effects on EUV lithographic pattering and line edge roughness

Description: To quantify the roughness contributions to speckle, a programmed roughness substrate was fabricated with a number of areas having different roughness magnitudes. The substrate was then multilayer coated. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) surface maps were collected before and after multilayer deposition. At-wavelength reflectance and total integrated scattering measurements were also completed. Angle resolved scattering based power spectral densities are directly compared to the AFM based power spectra. We show that AFM overpredicts the roughness in the picometer measurements range. The mask was then imaged at-wavelength for the direct characterization of the aerial image speckle using the SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT). Modeling was used to test the effectiveness of the different metrologies in predicting the measured aerial-image speckle. AIT measured contrast values are 25% or more than the calculated image contrast values obtained using the measured rms roughness input. The extent to which the various metrologies can be utilized for specifying tolerable roughness limits on EUV masks is still to be determined. Further modeling and measurements are being planned.
Date: March 11, 2011
Creator: George, Simi A.; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Mochi, Iacopo; Salmassi, Farhad; Goldberg, Kenneth A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and fabrication of advanced EUV diffractive elements

Description: As extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography approaches commercial reality, the development of EUV-compatible diffractive structures becomes increasingly important. Such devices are relevant to many aspects of EUV technology including interferometry, illumination, and spectral filtering. Moreover, the current scarcity of high power EUV sources makes the optical efficiency of these diffractive structures a paramount concern. This fact has led to a strong interest in phase-enhanced diffractive structures. Here we describe recent advancements made in the fabrication of such devices.
Date: November 16, 2003
Creator: Naulleau, Patrick P.; Liddle, J. Alexander; Salmassi, Farhad; Anderson, Erik H. & Gullikson, Eric M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design, fabrication, and characterization of high-efficiency extreme ultraviolet diffusers

Description: As the development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography progresses, interest grows in the extension of traditional optical components to the EUV regime. The strong absorption of EUV by most materials and its extremely short wavelength, however, makes it very difficult to implement many components that are commonplace in the longer wavelength regimes. One such example is the diffuser often implemented with ordinary ground glass in the visible light regime. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of reflective EUV diffusers with high efficiency within a controllable bandwidth. Using these techniques we have fabricated diffusers with efficiencies exceeding 10% within a moderate angular single-sided bandwidth of approximately 0.06 radians.
Date: February 19, 2004
Creator: Naulleau, Patrick P.; Liddle, J. Alexander; Salmassi, Farhad; Anderson, Erik H. & Gullikson, Eric M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A 10,000 groove/mm multilayer coated grating for EUV spectroscopy

Description: Ultra-high spectral resolution in the EUV and soft x-ray energy ranges requires the use of very high line density gratings with optimal design resulting in use of a Blazed Multilayer Grating (BMG) structure. Here we demonstrate the production of near-atomically perfect Si blazed substrates with an ultra-high groove density (10,000 l/mm) together with the measured and theoretical performance of an Al/Zr multilayer coating on the grating. A 1st order absolute efficiency of 13percent and 24.6percent was achieved at incidence angles of 11o and 36o respectively. Cross-sectional TEM shows the effect of smoothing caused by the surface mobility of deposited atoms and we correlate this effect with a reduction in peak diffraction efficiency. This work shows the high performance that can be achieved with BMGs based on small-period anisotropic etched Si substrates, but also the constraints imposed by the surface mobility of deposited species.
Date: February 7, 2011
Creator: Voronov, Dmytro; Anderson, Erik; Cambie, Rossana; Cabrini, Stefano; Dhuey, Scott; Goray, Leonid et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High efficiency multilayer blazed gratings for EUV and soft X-rays: Recent developments

Description: Multilayer coated blazed gratings with high groove density are the best candidates for use in high resolution EUV and soft x-ray spectroscopy. Theoretical analysis shows that such a grating can be potentially optimized for high dispersion and spectral resolution in a desired high diffraction order without significant loss of diffraction efficiency. In order to realize this potential, the grating fabrication process should provide a perfect triangular groove profile and an extremely smooth surface of the blazed facets. Here we report on recent progress achieved at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) in fabrication of high quality multilayer coated blazed gratings. The blazed gratings were fabricated using scanning beam interference lithography followed by wet anisotropic etching of silicon. A 200 nm period grating coated with a Mo/Si multilayer composed with 30 bi-layers demonstrated an absolute efficiency of 37.6percent in the 3rd diffraction order at 13.6 nm wavelength. The groove profile of the grating was thoroughly characterized with atomic force microscopy before and after the multilayer deposition. The obtained metrology data were used for simulation of the grating efficiency with the vector electromagnetic PCGrate-6.1 code. The simulations showed that smoothing of the grating profile during the multilayer deposition is the main reason for efficiency losses compared to the theoretical maximum. Investigation of the grating with cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy revealed a complex evolution of the groove profile in the course of the multilayer deposition. Impact of the shadowing and smoothing processes on growth of the multilayer on the surface of the sawtooth substrate is discussed.
Date: July 26, 2011
Creator: Voronov, Dmitriy; Ahn, Minseung; Anderson, Erik; Cambie, Rossana; Chang, Chih-Hao; Goray, Leonid et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cross-check of different techniques for two-dimensional powerspectral density measurements of X-ray optics

Description: The consistency of different instruments and methods for measuring two-dimensional (2D) power spectral density (PSD) distributions are investigated. The instruments are an interferometric microscope, an atomic force microscope (AFM) and the X-ray Reflectivity and Scattering experimental facility, all available at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The measurements were performed with a gold-coated mirror with a highly polished stainless steel substrate. It was shown that these three techniques provide essentially consistent results. For the stainless steel mirror, an envelope over all measured PSD distributions can be described with an inverse power-law PSD function. It is also shown that the measurements can be corrected for the specific spatial frequency dependent systematic errors of the instruments. The AFM and the X-ray scattering measurements were used to determine the modulation transfer function of the interferometric microscope. The corresponding correction procedure is discussed in detail. Lower frequency investigation of the 2D PSD distribution was also performed with a long trace profiler and a ZYGO GPI interferometer. These measurements are in some contradiction, suggesting that the reliability of the measurements has to be confirmed with additional investigation. Based on the crosscheck of the performance of all used methods, we discuss the ways for improving the 2D PSD characterization of X-ray optics.
Date: April 17, 2005
Creator: Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Irick, Steve C.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Howells, Malcolm R.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; McKinney, Wayne R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of actinic EUVL mask imaging using a zoneplatemicroscope

Description: The SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT) is a dual-mode, scanning and imaging extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) microscope designed for pre-commercial EUV mask research. Dramatic improvements in image quality have been made by the replacement of several critical optical elements, and the introduction of scanning illumination to improve uniformity and contrast. We report high quality actinic EUV mask imaging with resolutions as low as 100-nm half-pitch, (20-nm, 5x wafer equivalent size), and an assessment of the imaging performance based on several metrics. Modulation transfer function (MTF) measurements show high contrast imaging for features sizes close to the diffraction-limit. An investigation of the illumination coherence shows that AIT imaging is much more coherent than previously anticipated, with {sigma} below 0.2. Flare measurements with several line-widths show a flare contribution on the order of 2-3% relative intensity in dark regions above the 1.3% absorber reflectivity on the test mask used for these experiments. Astigmatism coupled with focal plane tilt are the dominant aberrations we have observed. The AIT routinely records 250-350 high-quality images in numerous through-focus series per 8-hour shift. Typical exposure times range from 0.5 seconds during alignment, to approximately 20 seconds for high-resolution images.
Date: August 20, 2007
Creator: Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Barty, Anton; Rekawa,Senajith B.; Kemp, Charles D.; Gunion, Robert F. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

5000 groove/mm multilayer-coated blazed grating with 33percent efficiency in the 3rd order in the EUV wavelength range

Description: We report on recent progress in developing diffraction gratings which can potentially provide extremely high spectral resolution of 105-106 in the EUV and soft x-ray photon energy ranges. Such a grating was fabricated by deposition of a multilayer on a substrate which consists ofa 6-degree blazed grating with a high groove density. The fabrication of the substrate gratings was based on scanning interference lithography and anisotropic wet etch of silicon single crystals. The optimized fabrication process provided precise control of the grating periodicity, and the grating groove profile, together with very short anti-blazed facets, and near atomically smooth surface blazed facets. The blazed grating coated with 20 Mo/Si bilayers demonstrated a diffraction efficiency in the third order as high as 33percent at an incidence angle of 11? and wavelength of 14.18 nm.
Date: July 7, 2009
Creator: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Advanced Light Source.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-efficiency 5000 lines/mm multilayer-coated blazed grating for EUV wavelengths

Description: Volume x-ray gratings consisting of a multilayer coating deposited on a blazed substrate can diffract with very high efficiency even in high orders if diffraction conditions in-plane (grating) and out-of-plane (Bragg multilayer) are met simultaneously. This remarkable property however depends critically on the ability to create a structure with near atomic perfection. In this work we report on a method to produce these structures. We report measurements that show, for a 5000 l/mm grating diffracting in the 3rd order, a diffraction efficiency of 37.6percent at a wavelength of 13.6 nm, close to the theoretical maximum. This work now shows a direct route to achieving high diffraction efficiency in high order at wavelengths throughout the soft x-ray energy range.
Date: April 19, 2010
Creator: Voronov, Dmitriy; Ahn, Minseung; Anderson, Erik; Cambie, Rossana; Chang, Chih-Hao; Gullikson, Eric et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surface Roughness of Stainless Steel Bender Mirrors for Focusing Soft X-rays

Description: We have used polished stainless steel as a mirror substrate to provide focusing of soft x-rays in grazing incidence reflection. The substrate is bent to an elliptical shape with large curvature and high stresses in the substrate require a strong elastic material. Conventional material choices of silicon or of glass will not withstand the stress required. The use of steel allows the substrates to be polished and installed flat, using screws in tapped holes. The ultra-high-vacuum bender mechanism is motorized and computer controlled. These mirrors are used to deliver focused beams of soft x-rays onto the surface of a sample for experiments at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). They provide an illumination field that can be as small as the mirror demagnification allows, for localized study, and can be enlarged, under computer control,for survey measurements over areas of the surface up to several millimeters. The critical issue of the quality of the steel surface, polished and coated with gold, which limits the minimum achievable focused spot size is discussed in detail. Comparison is made to a polished, gold coated, electroless nickel surface, which provides a smoother finish. Surface measurements are presented as power spectral densities, as a function of spatial frequency. The surface height distributions measured with an interferometric microscope, and complemented by atomic force microscope measurements, are used to compute power spectral densities and then to evaluate the surface roughness. The effects of roughness in reducing the specular reflectivity are verified by soft x-ray measurements.
Date: October 11, 2005
Creator: Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Howells, Malcolm R.; Irick, Steve C.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; McKinney, Wayne R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department