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Experimental and Theoretical Study of Electronic Transitions in Phosphorus, Phosphoryl, and Thiophosphoryl Trichlorofluorides

Description: This thesis is an investigation of the vacuum uv spectra of the phosphorus, phosphoryl, and thiophosphoryl trichlorofluorides in the region 1250 to 3000A. Assignments for absorption bands are made utilizing results from photoelectron spectra and ab initio calculations, oscillator strengths for absorption bands, and CNDO/2 molecular orbital calculations. Results from CNDO/2 calculations are compared with theoretical calculations, and experimental data are discussed with regard to the bonding in the compounds.
Date: May 1973
Creator: McAdams, Mary Jane
Partner: UNT Libraries

Kinetics of Reactions of Substituted Group VI B Metal Carbonyls with Phosphites

Description: The problem with which this investigation is concerned is twofold. The initial part of the problem was to prepare a non-sterically demanding bidentate phosphine ligand, 1,2-bis-(Phosphino)ethane, (P-en), and to determine the kinetics of (P-en)Mo(CO)4 with phosphites via spectrophotometric methods in an attempt to determine if steric effects are directing the type of mechanism followed.
Date: August 1972
Creator: Rettenmaier, Albert J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Oxovanadium(IV) Complexes of Substituted N-(2-Thiophenyl)Salicylideneimine

Description: In an effort to study the spectral, magnetic, and stereochemical properties of vanadyl complexes, both a new series of vanadyl complexes derived from type (VII) ligands with subnormal magnetic moment and from type (VIII) ligands with normal magnetic moment are synthesized and characterized.
Date: June 1970
Creator: Lee, Cheng Chang
Partner: UNT Libraries

Magnetic Properties of Oxovanadium(IV) Complexes of Substituted N-(Hydroxylalkyl) Salicylideneimines

Description: A series of oxovanadium(IV) complexes of Schiff bases derived from substituted salicylaldehyde and aminoalcohols has been prepared and characterized. The Schiff bases coordinate through 0, N, and 0 as tridentate bivalent ligands. The primary purpose of the investigation is to describe the structure and bonding in these complexes. The subnormal magnetic properties of the complexes provide much information about both the structure and the bonding in the complexes.
Date: May 1972
Creator: Carey, Elbert Franklin
Partner: UNT Libraries

Copper (II) Complexes with Deprotonated N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine

Description: This thesis reports the synthesis and characterization of two new copper(II) halide complexes with deprotonated N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine behaving as a bidentate. The magnetic properties of the new copper(II) complexes were studied from room temperature to liquid nitrogen temperatures. The magnetic data show that both complexes exhibit antiferromagnetic interactions with a singlet ground state and a thermally accessible triplet excited state. Magnetic data and infrared spectra indicate the complexes are halogenbridged. Deprotonation at an amine nitrogen is based on the presence of a hydroxyl stretching band in the infrared spectra. Electronic spectra and infrared spectra indicate the complexes are square planar. Elemental analyses, infrared spectra, electronic spectra, electron spin resonance spectra, and magnetic data are reported and discussed.
Date: December 1975
Creator: Miller, Toney G.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Chemical Cleavage of Human Phosphoglucose Isomerase at Cysteine

Description: The present study has resulted in the development of a procedure for the specific chemical fragmentation of human phosphoglucose isomerase into a minimal number of peptides. A two-cycle procedure for cleaving the protein with 2-nitro-5- thiocyanobenzoic acid results in four primary peptides and three overlap peptides. The peptides can be readily separated on the basis of their size by using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Preliminary peptide alignments have been considered, and amino acid analyses have been performed. End-terminal analyses of the enzyme revealed a carboxyl terminal sequence of Asp-Val-Gln and a blocked amino terminus. The cysteine cleavage procedure provides an excellent method for the identification and location of specific genetic mutations of human phosphoglucose isomerase.
Date: December 1975
Creator: Conn, Worth R.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectra of Cyclohexane, Cyclohexene, 1,4-Cyclohexadiene, Isotetralin, and Several Methyl Substituted Analogs

Description: A paucity of literature exists on the Independent System analysis of adjacent, parallel transition dipoles. Applying this theory and certain spectral information semiemperical calculations were made to predict absorption profiles and band intensities. To aid in the assignment of the 7*+7 absorption bands it was necessary to obtain the vacuum ultraviolet spectra of cyclohexane and cyclohexene. Because the spectra of these molecules contained sharp, atomic-like absorption bands a Rydberg series could be fitted to certain absorptions, thus the determination of their ionization potentials. Using Independent System analysis profiles and intensities of 7*+q-- absorption bands ins 'several methyl substituted 1,4- cyclohexadienes and isotetralin were predicted where general agreement was found with observed experimental spectra.
Date: December 1974
Creator: Tidwell, Edgar Rhea
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Electronic Spectrum of (-)-S-(pS)-2,5,3',6'-Tetrahydro-2.2-Paracyclophane-2-Carboxylic Acid

Description: A new, efficient route was used in the synthesis of [2.2]-paracyclophane-2-carboxylic acid. The acid as then resolved and the Birch reduction performed yielding one enantiomer of tetrahydro-[2.2]-paracyclophane-2-carboxylic acid. The ultraviolet spectrum of tetrahydro-[2.2]-paracyclophane- 2-carboxylic acid in isopenthane shows one absorption at 206 nm (Emax = 5,271). There are three bands observed in the circular dichroism spectrum in isopentane at 236 nm ([] = 1.8 X 104), 201 nm ([0] = -16 X 104) and a positive band indicated below 180 nm but not observed. The bands were assigned and possible reasons for the occurrence of a mr'r* transition at unexpectedly long wavelengths are discussed.
Date: May 1980
Creator: Hall, Lindsey
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Recombination Rate Coefficient of Molecular Helium Ions in a Pulsed Afterglow at 1.86 Torr

Description: The recombination rate coefficient for molecular helium ions has been measured in a pulsed afterglow at 1.86 Torr as a function of electron temperature and electron density without making a priori assumptions about the functional dependence. The concentrations of the molecular ions and electrons were measured and the source terms for the molecular ions were included in the rate equation.
Date: August 1972
Creator: Hicks, Helen Segrave
Partner: UNT Libraries

Bonding Studies in Group IV Substituted n,n-dimethylanilines

Description: The purpose of the present work is to study the effects of the trimethylsilyl and trimethylgermyl substituents on the N,N-dimethylamino ring system. Both ground and excited state interactions were studied and their magnitudes determined. The experimental data were then used in conjunction with molecular orbital calculations to differentiate among, and determine the importance of, d-p bonding, hyperconjugation or polarization of the trimethylsilyl group on the ground and excited state bonding.
Date: December 1971
Creator: Drews, Michael James
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Regulation of HMG-CoA Reductase by Enzyme-Lipid Interactions

Description: The temperature-dependent catalytic activity of rat liver 3-hydroxy-3 -methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) displays the nonlinear Arrhenius behavior characteristic of many membrane-bound enzymes. A two-conformer equilibrium model has been developed to characterize this behavior. In the model, HMG-CoA reductase undergoes a conformational change from a low specific activity to a high specific activity form. This conformation change is apparently driven by a temperature-dependent phase transition of the membrane lipids. It has been found that this model accurately describes the data from diets including rat chow, low-fat, high-carbohydrate, and diets supplemented with fat, cholesterol or cholestyramine. The effects characterized by the model are consistent with the regulation of HMG-CoA reductase by enzyme-lipid interactions.
Date: May 1981
Creator: Smith, Vana L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Synthesis and Characterization of Copper(II) Complexes

Description: A series of dihydroxy bridged copper(II) complexes of the type [(L)Cu(OH)₂Cu(L)]x₂ * nH₂0, where L is 2,2'-bipyridine, 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine or 1,10-phenanthroline, x is a counter ion, and n is the number of water molecules, was synthesized. In the case of monohydroxy bridged copper(II) complexes, we have found a new method of synthesis for [ (L)₂Cu(OH)Cu(L)₂ ] (ClO₄)₃, where L is 2,2'-bipyridine or 1,10-phenanthroline. We have synthesized five new monohydroxy bridged copper(II) complexes, thus increasing the number of monohydroxy bridged copper(II) complexes to nine. All complexes have been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, magnetic moments, and elemental analysis. The electron spin resonance results establish that the fulvic acids contain organic free radicals as an internal part of their molecular structure. The concentration of unpaired electrons will increase by increasing the pH. The unpaired electron in fulvic acid interacts with the unpaired electron on copper(II) through the Π system, and this will decrease the spin concentration of fulvic acid complexed with copper(II). The displacement of titration curve from a free ligand (fructose-1,6-diphosphate, ribulose-1,5-diphosphate, phospherine, phosphothreonine, and 3-phosphoglyceric acid, to a ligand plus copper(II) (1:1 ratio) shows there is a strong interaction between copper(II) and the corresponding ligand. All complexes absorb UV-visible at 250-300 nm. The absorption intensity changes as a function of pH. Copper (II) forms a complex with fructose-1,6-diphosphate, ribulose-1,5-diphosphate, phosphoserine, phosphothreonine, and 3-phosphoglyceric acid by the ratio of 1:3, 1:3, 1:1, 1:1, and 1:2, respectively.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Amani, Saeid
Partner: UNT Libraries

Synthetic Applications of Ketene Cycloadditions: Natural and Novel Pyrethroid Insecticides

Description: A new synthetic route to natural and novel pyrethroid acids was developed utilizing ketene cycloaddition which is a significant improvement over existing syntheses. The newly synthesized pyrethroid acids were converted to pyrethroid esters and used to study structure-activity relationships. The cycloaddition of dichloroketene with 2,5-dimethyl-2,4-hexadiene yields (2+2) cycloaddition products, 2,2-dichlorocyclobutanones. The reductive removal of one chlorine atom from these cycloaddition products gave monochlorocyclobutanones which underwent a Favorskii-type ring contraction to yield cis- and trans-chrysanthemic acids. 4-Methyl-1,3-pentadiene was also used as a precursor in this synthetic scheme to yield an analogue of the chrysanthemic acid. These results are consistent with a concerted cycloaddition process involving a dipolar transition state. The zinc reduction is not a regiospecific reaction which accounts for the two regioisomers of the monochlorocyclobutanones. The Favorskii-type ring contraction is a regiospecific reaction. A variety of different bicyclo(3.1.0)alkenecarboxylates and bicyclo(4.1.0)heptenecarboxylates were synthesized from alkylcyclopentadiene and fulvene derivatives. These new bicyclo pyrethroid acids are structurally similar to the natural chrysanthemic acid but are rigid and locked in a single conformation which is likely the least stable conformer of the natural acid. The acids were converted to pyrethroid esters and tested against the housefly and cockroach. The test results indicate that the bicyclo pyrethroids synthesized are not as active as the natural pyrethroid. Apparently, these bicyclo pyrethroids with structures similar to the less stable conformer of the natural pyrethroids are of little consequence as it binds to the target site in the insect. In an effort to learn more about the conformational requirements of the pyrethroid acid, a new bicyclo-spiro pyrethroid system with a structure similar to the most stable conformation of the natural pyrethroid was designed and synthesized. These bicyclo-spiro pyrethroids were derived from a new isopropylidenecyclobutane derivatives as a starting compound instead of a conjugated diene. The test results of ...
Date: August 1985
Creator: Ko, Jinren
Partner: UNT Libraries

Molecular Dynamics and Interactions in Liquids

Description: Various modern spectroscopies have been utilized with considerable success in recent years to probe the dynamics of vibrational and reorientational relaxation of molecules in condensed phases. We have studied the temperature dependence of the polarized and depolarized Raman spectra of various modes in the following dihalomethanes: dibromomethane, dichloromethane, dichloromethane-d2, and bromochloromethane. Among other observed trends, we have found the following: Vibrational dephasing times calculated from the bend) and (C-Br stretch) lineshapes are of the same magnitude in CI^B^. The vibrational dephasing time of [C-D(H) stretch] is twice as long in CD2Cl2 as in CH-^C^, and the relaxation time of (C-Cl stretch) is greater in CI^C^ than in CD2CI2. Isotropic relaxation times for all three stretching vibrations are significantly shorter in C^BrCl than in CI^C^ or CI^B^. Application of the Kubo model revealed that derived modulation times are close to equal for equivalent vibrations in the various dihalomethanes. Thus, the more efficient relaxation of the A^ modes in CE^BrCl can be attributed almost entirely to the broader mean squared frequency perturbation of the vibrations in this molecule.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Chen, Jen Hui
Partner: UNT Libraries

Regulation of Lactobacillic Acid Formation in Lactobacillus Plantarum

Description: Cyclopropanation of the unsaturated fatty acid moieties of membrane phospholipids is a commonly observed phenomenon in a number of bacterial systems. The cyclopropane fatty acids are usually synthesized during and after the transition from exponential growth to stationary phase, or under such environmental conditions as acidic culture pH, low oxygen tension or high salt concentrations. S-Adenosylmethionine, the ubiquitous methyl group donor, provides the methylene bridge carbon in the reaction catalyzed by cyclopropane fatty acid synthase. Also formed in the reaction is S-adenosylhomocysteine, a potent inhibitor of cyclopropane fatty acid synthase, which is degraded by S-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase. This work provides evidence for at least two modes of regulation of lactobacillic acid synthesis, the cyclopropane fatty acid formed from cis-vaccenic acid (cis-11,12-octadecenoic acid), in Lactobacillus piantarum.
Date: December 1980
Creator: Smith, Darwin Dennis
Partner: UNT Libraries

Synthesis of Anthracyclines Related to Adriamycin

Description: This dissertation reports the preparation of several types of anthraquinones structurally related to adriamycin. It describes the synthesis of two types of 2-aminoquinizarin compounds. It also presents two new syntheses of a heterocyclic tetracyclic ring system, similar to the aglicone ring system of adriamycin. A series of 2-aminoquinizarins was prepared by adding several primary amines to quinizarin. Quinizarin was shown to be essentially inert toward secondary amines. Several secondary amine adducts with quinizarin have been prepared, however, by treating the bis-boroacetate ester of quinizarin with the amines. Both types of 2-aminoquinizarin compounds exhibit outstanding potential for possessing antineoplastic activity, and several have been submitted to the National Cancer Institute for testing in their screening program for antineoplastic agents.
Date: May 1981
Creator: White, Roger J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Spectroscopic and Physical Effects of Highly Polar Groups

Description: Since the development of the understanding that the electron distribution within a molecule is chiefly responsible for its properties and behavior, factors influencing this charge distribution have been of interest to scientists. The chemical reactivity of a molecule, the physical properties, and to a large extent, structure and geometry, are all functions of the electron distribution. This study examines the issue of electronic structure from two points of view, each of them focussing on a specific component within the molecules studied. In the present work, the effects of the highly polar carbonyl group on spectroscopic parameters and physical behavior are investigated. An additional area of study is the effect of fluorine substitution on the energy levels of some halogenated ethylenes. The specific parameters examined are the ionization potentials, the absorption frequencies, and the energies of a class of excited states known as molecular Rydberg states. It was during the study of these halogenated ethylenes that the observations leading to the carbonyl compound investigations were made, so that the two areas examined are connected both experimentally and chemically.
Date: December 1981
Creator: Schander, Judith Turner
Partner: UNT Libraries

Purification and Studies of Mammalian Glyoxalase Enzymes

Description: The glyoxalase system, which has been known since 1913, is widely distributed in nature. The system consists of two enzymes, glyoxalase I and glyoxalase II. Methylglyoxal is very unstable and undergoes oxidation and polymerization reactions. One of the purposes of this study was to find a simple, convenient and reproducible method of methylglyoxal preparation. Another objective was the purification of both glyoxalase enzymes employing affinity chromatography as a major step. The purified enzymes were to be characterized by chemical, physical and kinetic properties as an approach to the understanding of the biological function of the system.
Date: December 1980
Creator: Oray, Bedii
Partner: UNT Libraries

Picosecond Spectroscopy of Rhodamine B

Description: A series of picosecond excite-probe experiments was performed on various concentrations of aqueous and ethanolic solutions of rhodamine B in order to determine the existence of dimerization in those solutions. The goals of the research presented in this dissertation were twofold. Initially, various techniques of time-resolved spectroscopy were to be employed to further characterize the ground and excited-state molecular properties of the aqueous RB dimer. The information obtained, and the techniques developed in that study would then be utilized in an effort to secure evidence which would support or refute the claims of rhodamine B dimerization in an ethanolic solution.
Date: December 1981
Creator: Clark, James Burton
Partner: UNT Libraries

Calcium Aluminates Synthesis, Characterization, and Hydration Behavior

Description: The hydration behavior of the calcium aluminates as a function of the glass content, the curing temperature, and the water-solid ratio was investigated. In order to keep them from influencing the results, the free-lime content and the surface area of all samples were kept constant, whenever possible. Samples were hydrated with a water-solid ratio of 10/1 for periods of 1 to 90 days. Three curing temperatures were studied; 2°C, 25°C, and 50°C. Samples were hydrated in tightly sealed polyethylene containers to prevent reactions with atmospheric carbon dioxide. The hydration was followed by X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. Only two samples, Hexacalcium Tetra-alumino Magnesium Silicate and Tricalcium Magnesium Dialuminate, were successfully prepared in an amorphous form. These compounds were used to investigate the effect of glass content on the hydration behavior. Results indicate that when the glass content is increased a corresponding increase is found in the percent combined water. Samples hydrated at 25°C were influenced by changes in the glass content to a greater degree than were those hydrated at either 2°C or 50°C. The effect of the water-solid ratio on the hydration behavior of the calcium aluminates was studied using the compounds; Hexacalcium Tetra-Alumino Magnesium Silicate/ and Dodecacalcium Hepta-Aluminate. In general, samples that were hydrated with large water-solid ratios reacted more completely than did those hydrated with small water-solid ratios. The presence of sufficient water to theoretically hydrate the samples to completion did not guarantee that the sample would do so. The curing temperature influenced the hydration behavior to a greater degree than did the glass content or the water-solid ratio. Increasing the curing temperature not only increased the rate of hydration, but, in some cases, also changed the hydration products.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Griffin, Joseph George
Partner: UNT Libraries

Raman Studies of Molecular Dynamics and Interactions in Liquids

Description: In order to explore the N-H stretching region of aliphatic amines, we performed a study of the Raman spectrum of n-propylamine at various concentrations in cyclohexane. Statistical analysis provided evidence of a second symmetric stretching vibration, which we were able to assign to nonhydrogen bonded NH2 groups. To obtain additional evidence on the existence of monomers in n-propylamine and to further study hydrogen bonding and Fermi resonance in aliphatic amines, we extended the investigation to the analysis of the Raman spectrum of this compound over an extended range of temperature in the neat liquid phase. This study corroborated our finding that the peak previously assigned to the symmetric stretching mode of hydrogen bonded amines is actually composed of two bands. Furthermore, trends in both the resolved band parameters and the Fermi resonance analysis were tabulated, allowing one to monitor the change in the N-H valence region with concentration and temperature.
Date: May 1984
Creator: Friedman, Barry R. (Barry Richard)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Pressure Effects on Electric Field Spectra of Molecular Rydberg States

Description: Electric field studies, electrochromism, were used to obtain excited-state data for analogous divalent sulfur compounds. The sulfides investigated were dimethyl sulfide and small cyclic sulfides including the three to six member ring compounds. The excited-state dipole moments and polarizabilities are reported for the first s, p, and d Rydberg absorption bands which occur in the near vacuum ultraviolet region from 230 to 170 nm. The excited-state data are interpreted in terms of the particular excited-state (s, p, or d) for the molecules and the bending differences due to the presence of the ring and the number of atoms in the ring. The next section describes the use of electrochromism to investigate the pressure effect of argon, carbon tetrafluoride and sulfur hexafluoride on the spectra for molecular Rydberg states.
Date: December 1982
Creator: Altenloh, Daniel Dean
Partner: UNT Libraries

Synthesis and Reactions of Some N-Nitrosamines

Description: Nucleophiles react with the α-acetoxy derivative of α-hydroxybenzylbenzylnitrosamine at the carbonyl carbon of the acetoxy moiety followed by fragmentation to the very same intermediates formed by oxidative metabolism. Since α-acetoxybenzylbenzylnitrosamine has been shown to be able to acylate nucleophiles and since the nucleic acids are nucleophiles, then it is possible that this compound may cause mutations by an acylation pathway instead of or in addition to the more common alkylation pathway. The data in Part I of this dissertation should be considered in any further biological investigations of N,N-dialkylnitrosamine induced mutagenesis or carcinogenesis. The study of the synthesis, reactions, mutagenicity, and the possible correlation to compound liposolubility of cyclic N-nitrosamines was also investigated.
Date: December 1982
Creator: Gunn, Valerie E. (Valerie Elizabeth)
Partner: UNT Libraries