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Hydraulics of fuel-injection pumps for compression-ignition engines

Description: Formulas are derived for computing the instantaneous pressures delivered by a fuel pump. The first derivation considers the compressibility of the fuel and the second, the compressibility, elasticity, and inertia of the fuel. The second derivation follows that given by Sass; it is shown to be the more accurate of the two. Additional formulas are given for determining the resistance losses in the injection tube. Experimental data are presented in support of the analyses. The report is concluded with an application of the theory to the design of fuel pump injection systems for which sample calculations are included.
Date: January 1, 1932
Creator: Rothrock, A. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The N.A.C.A. apparatus for studying the formation and combustion of fuel sprays and the results from preliminary tests

Description: Described here is an apparatus for studying the formation and combustion of fuel sprays under conditions closely simulating those in a high speed compression-ignition engine. The apparatus consists of a single-cylinder modified test engine, a fuel injection system so designed that a single charge of fuel can be injected into the combustion chamber, an electric driving motor, and a high-speed photographic apparatus. The cylinder head of the engine has a vertical disk form of combustion chamber whose sides are glass windows. When the fuel is injected into the combustion chamber, motion pictures at the rate of 2000 per second are taken of the spray formation by means of spark discharges. When combustion takes place, the light of combustion is recorded on the same photographic film as the spray photographs. Included here are the results of some tests to determine the effect of air temperature, air flow, and nozzle design on the spray formation. The results show that the compression temperature has little effect on the penetration of the fuel spray, but does not affect the dispersion, that air velocities of about 300 feet per second are necessary to destroy the core of the spray, and that the effect of air flow on the spray is controlled to a certain extent by the design of the injection nozzle. The results on the combustion of the spray show that when ignition does not take place until after spray cut-off, the ignition may start almost simultaneously throughout the combustion chamber or at different points throughout the chamber. When ignition takes place before spray cut-off, the combustion starts around the edge of the spray and then spreads throughout the chamber.
Date: September 1, 1931
Creator: Rothrock, A. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The NACA apparatus for studying the formation and combustion of fuel sprays and the results from preliminary tests

Description: This report describes the apparatus as designed and constructed at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, for studying the formation and combustion of fuel sprays under conditions closely simulating those occurring in a high-speed compression-ignition engine. The apparatus consists of a single-cylinder modified test engine, a fuel-injection system so designed that a single charge of fuel can be injected into the combustion chamber of the engine, an electric driving motor, and a high-speed photographic apparatus. The cylinder head of the engine has a vertical-disk form of combustion chamber whose sides are glass windows. When the fuel is injected into the combustion chamber, motion pictures at the rate of 2,000 per second are taken of the spray formation by means of spark discharges. When combustion takes place the light of the combustion is recorded on the same photographic film as the spray photographs. The report includes the results of some tests to determine the effect of air temperature, air flow, and nozzle design on the spray formation.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Rothrock, A. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure fluctuations in a common-rail fuel injection system

Description: This report presents the results of an investigation to determine experimentally the instantaneous pressures at the discharge orifice of a common-rail fuel injection system in which the timing valve and cut-off valve were at some distance from the automatic fuel injection valve, and also to determine the methods by which the pressure fluctuations could be controlled. The results show that pressure wave phenomena occur between the high-pressure reservoir and the discharge orifice, but that these pressure waves can be controlled so as to be advantageous to the injection of the fuel. The results also give data applicable to the design of such an injection system for a high-speed compression-ignition engine.
Date: January 1, 1931
Creator: Rothrock, A. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of high air velocities on the distribution and penetration of a fuel spray

Description: By means of the NACA Spray Photography Equipment high speed moving pictures were taken of the formation and development of fuel sprays from an automatic injection valve. The sprays were injected normal to and counter to air at velocities from 0 to 800 feet per second. The air was at atmosphere temperature and pressure. The results show that high air velocities are an effective means of mixing the fuel spray with the air during injection.
Date: May 1, 1931
Creator: Rothrock, A. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Injection Labs in a Common-Rail Fuel Injection System

Description: Note presenting injection lags determined for a common-rail fuel injection system for a compression-ignition engine. The system consisted of a high-pressure reservoir, a timing valve, an injection valve tube, and an automatic injection valve. Results regarding the variable injection valve tube length, variable tube diameter, variable valve opening pressure, variable injection pressure, and variable initial pressure are provided.
Date: February 1930
Creator: Rothrock, A. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Combustion in a High-Speed Compression-Ignition Engine

Description: "An investigation conducted to determine the factors which control the combustion in a high-speed compression-ignition engine is presented. Indicator cards were taken with the Farnboro indicator and analyzed according to the tangent method devised by Schweitzer. The analysis show that in a quiescent combustion chamber increasing the time lag of auto-ignition increases the maximum rate of combustion. Increasing the maximum rate of combustion increases the tendency for detonation to occur" (p. 63).
Date: May 21, 1931
Creator: Rothrock, A. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Tests on the Vaporization of Fuel Sprays

Description: "High-speed motion pictures were taken of fuel sprays injected into the combustion chamber of the N.A.C.A. combustion apparatus. Three fuels, ethyl alcohol, gasoline, and fuel oil, which differed considerably in volatility were tested. By maintaining the engine temperature below that required for ignition the spray could be studied from soon after the start of injection until 130 crank degrees later. The results show that the sprays vaporize appreciably so that it is possible for the ignition in high speed compression-ignition engines to take place from the vapor phase" (p. 1).
Date: February 1932
Creator: Rothrock, A. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fuel vapor pressures and the relation of vapor pressure to the preparation of fuel for combustion in fuel injection engines

Description: This investigation on the vapor pressure of fuels was conducted in connection with the general research on combustion in fuel injection engines. The purpose of the investigation was to study the effects of high temperatures such as exist during the first stages of injection on the vapor pressures of several fuels and certain fuel mixtures, and the relation of these vapor pressures to the preparation of the fuel for combustion in high-speed fuel injection engines.
Date: 1930
Creator: Joachim, William F. & Rothrock, A. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Correlation of knocking characteristics of fuels in an engine having a hemispherical combustion chamber

Description: From Summary: "Data are presented to show the effects of inlet-air pressure, inlet-air temperature, and compression ratio on the maximum permissible performance obtained with having a hemispherical-dome combustion chamber. The five aircraft-engine fuels used have octane numbers varying from 90 to 100 plus 2 ml of tetraethyl lead per gallon. The data were obtained on a 5 1/4-inch by 4 3/4-inch liquid-cooled engine operating at 2,500 r.p.m. The compression ratio was varied from 6.0 to 8.9. The inlet-air temperature was varied from 110 to 310 F. For each set of conditions, the inlet-air pressure was increased until audible knock occurred and then reduced 2 inches of mercury before data were recorded."
Date: July 1940
Creator: Rothrock, A. M. & Biermann, Arnold E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some characteristics of fuel sprays at low-injection pressures

Description: "This report presents the results of tests conducted at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, Langley Field, Va., to determine some of the characteristics of the fuel sprays obtained from an 0.008-inch and a 0.020-inch open nozzle when injection pressures from 100 to 500 pounds per square inch were used. Fuel oil and gasoline were injected into air at densities of atmospheric land 0.325 pound per cubic foot. It was found that the penetration rate at these low pressures was about the same as the rate obtained with higher pressures. Spray cone-angles were small and individual oil drops were visible in all the sprays. Gasoline and fuel oil sprays had similar characteristics" (p. 1).
Date: November 1931
Creator: Rothrock, A. M. & Waldron, C. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some effects of injection advance angle, engine-jacket temperature, and speed on combustion in a compression-ignition engine

Description: "An optical indicator and a high-speed motion-picture camera capable of operating at the rate of 2,000 frames per second were used to record simultaneously the pressure development and the flame formation in the combustion chamber of the NACA combustion apparatus. Tests were made at engine speeds of 570 and 1,500 r.p.m. The engine-jacket temperature was varied from 100 degrees to 300 degrees F. And the injection advance angle from 13 degrees after top center to 120 degrees before top center. The results show that the course of the combustion is largely controlled by the temperature and pressure of the air in the chamber from the time the fuel is injected until the time at which combustion starts and by the ignition lag" (p. 343).
Date: January 15, 1935
Creator: Rothrock, A. M. & Waldron, C. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of engine operating conditions on the vaporization of safety fuels

Description: "Tests were conducted with the N.A.C.A. combustion apparatus to determine the effect of compression ratio and engine temperature on the vaporization of a hydrogenated "safety fuel" during the compression stroke under conditions similar to those in a spark-ignition engine. The effects of fuel boiling temperature on vaporization using gasoline, safety fuel, and Diesel fuel oil was also investigated. The results show that increasing the compression ratio has little effect on the rate of fuel vaporization, but that increasing the air temperature by increasing the engine temperature increases the rate of fuel vaporization" (p. 1).
Date: August 1932
Creator: Rothrock, A. M. & Waldron, C. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of nozzle design on fuel spray and flame formation in a high-speed compression-ignition engine

Description: "Fuel was injected from different type of injection nozzles into the combustion chamber of the NACA combustion apparatus, operated as a compression-ignition engine. High speed motion pictures were taken of the fuel sprays and combustion. Single-orifice nozzles of 0.008, 0.020, and 0.040 inch diameter, and multiorifice nozzles having 2, 6, and 16 orifices were tested. Nozzles having impinging jets and slit orifices were also included" (p. 327).
Date: March 19, 1936
Creator: Rothrock, A. M. & Waldron, C. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fuel spray and flame formation in a compression-ignition engine employing air flow

Description: "The effects of air flow on fuel spray and flame formation in a high-speed compression-ignition engine have been investigated by means of the NACA combustion apparatus. The process was studied by examining high-speed motion pictures taken at the rate of 2,200 frames a second. The combustion chamber was of the flat-disk type used in previous experiments with this apparatus. The air flow was produced by a rectangular displacer mounted on top of the engine piston. Three fuel-injection nozzles were tested: a 0.020-inch single-orifice nozzle, a 6-orifice nozzle, and a slit nozzle" (p. 281).
Date: November 25, 1936
Creator: Rothrock, A. M. & Waldron, C. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fuel vaporization and its effect on combustion in a high-speed compression-ignition engine

Description: "The tests discussed in this report were conducted to determine whether or not there is appreciable vaporization of the fuel injected into a high-speed compression-ignition engine during the time available for injection and combustion. The effects of injection advance angle and fuel boiling temperature were investigated. The results show that an appreciable amount of the fuel is vaporized during injection even though the temperature and pressure conditions in the engine are not sufficient to cause ignition either during or after injection, and that when the conditions are such as to cause ignition the vaporization process affects the combustion. The results are compared with those of several other investigators in the same field" (p. 629).
Date: May 4, 1932
Creator: Rothrock, A. M. & Waldron, C. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of air-fuel spray and flame formation in a compression-ignition engine

Description: "High-speed motion pictures were taken at the rate of 2,500 frames per second of the fuel spray and flame formation in the combustion chamber of the NACA combustion apparatus. The compression ratio was 13.2 and the speed 1,500 revolutions per minute. An optical indicator was used to record the time-pressure relationship in the combustion chamber. The air-fuel ratio was varied from 10.4 to 365. The results showed that as the air-fuel ratio was increased definite stratification of the charge occurred in the combustion chamber even though moderate air flow existed. The results also showed the rate of vapor diffusion to be relatively slow" (p. 119).
Date: August 26, 1935
Creator: Rothrock, A. M. & Waldron, C. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A preliminary study of flame propagation in a spark-ignition engine

Description: "The N.A.C.A. combustion apparatus was altered to operate as a fuel-injection, spark-ignition engine, and a preliminary study was made of the combustion of gasoline-air mixtures at various air-fuel ratios. Air-fuel ratios ranging from 10 to 21.6 were investigated. Records from an optical indicator and films from a high-speed motion-picture camera were the chief sources of data. Schlieren photography was used for an additional study" (p. 1).
Date: June 1937
Creator: Rothrock, A. M. & Spencer, R. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of moderate air flow on the distribution of fuel sprays after injection cut-off

Description: "High-speed motion pictures were taken of fuel sprays with the NACA spray-photographic apparatus to study the distribution of the liquid fuel from the instant of injection cut-off until about 0.05 second later. The fuel was injected into a glass-walled chamber in which the air density was varied from 1 to 13 times atmospheric air density (0.0765 to 0.99 pound per cubic foot) and in which the air was at room temperature. The air in the chamber was set in motion by means of a fan, and was directed counter to the spray at velocities up to 27 feet per second" (p. 163).
Date: February 14, 1934
Creator: Rothrock, A. M. & Spencer, R. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A photographic study of combustion and knock in a spark-ignition engine

Description: Report presents the results of a photographic study of the combustion in a spark-ignition engine using both Schlieren and flame photographs taken at high rates of speed. Although shock waves are present after knock occurs, there was no evidence of any type of sonic or supersonic compression waves existing in the combustion gases prior to the occurrence of knock. Artificially induced shock waves in the engine did not in themselves cause knock.
Date: December 6, 1937
Creator: Rothrock, A. M. & Spencer, R. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The influence of directed air flow on combustion in spark-ignition engine

Description: "The air movement within the cylinder of the NACA combustion apparatus was regulated by using shrouded inlet valves and by fairing the inlet passage. Rates of combustion were determined at different inlet-air velocities with the engine speed maintained constant and at different engine speeds with the inlet-air velocity maintained approximately constant. The rate of combustion increased when the engine speed was doubled without changing the inlet-air velocity; the observed increase was about the same as the increase in the rate of combustion obtained by doubling the inlet-air velocity without changing the engine speed" (p. 313).
Date: October 10, 1938
Creator: Rothrock, A. M. & Spencer, R. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental and analytical determination of the motion of hydraulically operated valve stems in oil engine injection systems

Description: This research on the pressure variations in the injection system of the N.A.C.A. Spray Photography Equipment and on the effects of these variations on the motion of the timing valve stem was undertaken in connection with the study of fuel injection systems for high-speed oil engines. The methods of analysis of the pressure variations and the general equation for the motion of the spring-loaded stem for the timing valve are applicable to a spring-loaded automatic injection valve, and in general to all hydraulically operated valves. A sample calculation for a spring-loaded automatic injection valve is included.
Date: December 26, 1928
Creator: Gelalles, A. G. & Rothrock, A. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some factors affecting combustion in an internal-combustion engine

Description: An investigation of the combustion of gasoline, safety, and diesel fuels was made in the NACA combustion apparatus under conditions of temperature that permitted ignition by spark with direct fuel injection, in spite of the compression ratio of 12.7 employed. The influence of such variables as injection advance angle, jacket temperature, engine speed, and spark position was studied. The most pronounced effect was that an increase in the injection advance angle (beyond a certain minimum value) caused a decrease in the extent and rate of combustion. In almost all cases combustion improved with increased temperature. The results show that at low air temperatures the rates of combustion vary with the volatility of the fuel, but that at high temperatures this relationship does not exist and the rates depend to a greater extent on the chemical nature of the fuel.
Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Rothrock, A. M. & Cohn, Mildred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some characteristics of fuel sprays from open nozzles

Description: The penetration and cone-angle of fuel sprays from open nozzles were recorded with the NACA Spray Photography Equipment. The results show that for injection systems in which the rate of pressure rise at the discharge orifice is high, open nozzles give spray-tip velocities and penetrations which compare favorably with those of closed nozzles. The spray cone-angle was the same for all tests, although open nozzles having different orifice diameters were used, and one nozzle was used both as an open and as a closed nozzle. In designing a fuel system using open nozzles, particular care must be taken to avoid air pockets. The check valve should be placed close to the discharge orifice.
Date: November 1, 1930
Creator: Rothrock, A. M. & Lee, D. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department