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Rates and technologies for mass-market demand response

Description: Demand response programs are often quickly and poorly crafted in reaction to an energy crisis and disappear once the crisis subsides, ensuring that the electricity system will be unprepared when the next crisis hits. In this paper, we propose to eliminate the event-driven nature of demand response programs by considering demand responsiveness a component of the utility obligation to serve. As such, demand response can be required as a condition of service, and the offering of demand response rates becomes a requirement of utilities as an element of customer service. Using this foundation, we explore the costs and benefits of a smart thermostat-based demand response system capable of two types of programs: (1) a mandatory, system-operator controlled, contingency program, and (2) a voluntary, customer controlled, bill management program with rate-based incentives. Any demand response program based on this system could consist of either or both of these components. Ideally, these programs would be bundled, providing automatic load management through customer-programmed price response, plus up to 10 GW of emergency load shedding capability in California. Finally, we discuss options for and barriers to implementation of such a program in California.
Date: July 21, 2002
Creator: Herter, Karen; Levy, Roger; Wilson, John & Rosenfeld, Arthur
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rates and technologies for mass-market demand response

Description: Demand response programs are often quickly and poorlycrafted in reaction to an energy crisis and disappear once the crisissubsides, ensuring that the electricity system will be unprepared whenthe next crisis hits. In this paper, we propose to eliminate theevent-driven nature of demand response programs by considering demandresponsiveness a component of the utility obligation to serve. As such,demand response can be required as a condition of service, and theoffering of demand response rates becomes a requirement of utilities asan element of customer service. Using this foundation, we explore thecosts and benefits of a smart thermostat-based demand response systemcapable of two types of programs: (1) a mandatory, system-operatorcontrolled, contingency program, and (2) a voluntary, customercontrolled, bill management program with rate-based incentives. Anydemand response program based on this system could consist of either orboth of these components. Ideally, these programs would be bundled,providing automatic load management through customer-programmed priceresponse, plus up to 10 GW of emergency load shedding capability inCalifornia. Finally, we discuss options for and barriers toimplementation of such a program in California.
Date: July 21, 2002
Creator: Herter, Karen; Levy, Roger; Wilson, John & Rosenfeld, Arthur
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Observed Temperature Effects on Hourly Residential Electric LoadReduction in Response to an Experimental Critical Peak PricingTariff

Description: The goal of this investigation was to characterize themanual and automated response of residential customers to high-price"critical" events dispatched under critical peak pricing tariffs testedin the 2003-2004 California Statewide Pricing Pilot. The 15-monthexperimental tariff gave customers a discounted two-price time-of-userate on 430 days in exchange for 27 critical days, during which the peakperiod price (2 p.m. to 7 p.m.) was increased to about three times thenormal time-of-use peak price. We calculated response by five-degreetemperature bins as the difference between peak usage on normal andcritical weekdays. Results indicatedthat manual response to criticalperiods reached -0.23 kW per home (-13 percent) in hot weather(95-104.9oF), -0.03 kW per home (-4 percent) in mild weather (60-94.9oF),and -0.07 kW per home (-9 percent) during cold weather (50-59.9oF).Separately, we analyzed response enhanced by programmable communicatingthermostats in high-use homes with air-conditioning. Between 90oF and94.9oF, the response of this group reached -0.56 kW per home (-25percent) for five-hour critical periods and -0.89 kW/home (-41 percent)for two-hour critical periods.
Date: November 14, 2005
Creator: Herter, Karen B.; McAuliffe, Patrick K. & Rosenfeld, Arthur H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Global Cooling: Increasing World-Wide Urban Albedos to Offset CO2

Description: Modification of urban albedos reduces summertime urban temperatures, resulting in a better urban air quality and building air-conditioning savings. Furthermore, increasing urban albedos has the added benefit of reflecting some of the incoming global solar radiation and countering to some extent the effects of global warming. In many urban areas, pavements and roofs constitute over 60% of urban surfaces (roof 20-25%, pavements about 40%). Using reflective materials, both roof and the pavement albedos can be increased by about 0.25 and 0.10, respectively, resulting in a net albedo increase for urban areas of about 0.1. Many studies have demonstrated building cooling-energy savings in excess of 20% upon raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60% (a U.S. potential savings in excess of $1 billion (B) per year in net annual energy bills). On a global basis, our preliminary estimate is that increasing the world-wide albedos of urban roofs and paved surfaces will induce a negative radiative forcing on the earth equivalent to removing {approx} 22-40 Gt of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. Since, 55% of the emitted CO{sub 2} remains in the atmosphere, removal of 22-40 Gt of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere is equivalent to reducing global CO{sub 2} emissions by 40-73 Gt. At {approx} $25/tonne of CO{sub 2}, a 40-73 Gt CO{sub 2} emission reduction from changing the albedo of roofs and paved surfaces is worth about $1,000B to 1800B. These estimated savings are dependent on assumptions used in this study, but nevertheless demonstrate considerable benefits that may be obtained from cooler roofs and pavements.
Date: January 14, 2008
Creator: Akbari, Hashem; Menon, Surabi & Rosenfeld, Arthur
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conservation screening curves to compare efficiency investments topower plants: Applications to commercial sector conservationprograms

Description: This paper describes a simplified methodology to compare supply and demand-side resources. The screening curve approach supplements with load shape information the data contained in a supply curve of conserved energy. In addition, a screening curve contains information on competing supply technologies, such as annualized capital costs, variable costs, and cost per delivered kWh. The information in the screening curve allows policymakers to promptly and conveniently compare the relevant parameters affecting supply and demand-side investment decisions. While many sophisticated computer models have evolved to account for the load shape impacts of energy efficiency investments, this sophistication has, by and large, not trickled down to spreadsheet-level or 'back-of-the-envelope' analyses. Our methodology allows a simple summary of load shape characteristics based on the output of the more complicated models. It offers many advantages, principal of which is clarity in analyzing supply and demand-side investment choices. This paper first describes how supply-side screening curves have been used in the past, and develops the conceptual tools needed to apply integrated supply/demand screening curves in the least-cost utility planning process. It then presents examples of supply-side technologies and commercial sector demand-side management programs, and plots them on representative screening curves.
Date: August 1, 1990
Creator: Koomey, Jonathan; Rosenfeld, Arthur H. & Gadgil, Ashok J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Global Cooling: Policies to Cool the World and Offset Global Warming from CO2 Using Reflective Roofs and Pavements

Description: Increasing the solar reflectance of the urban surface reduce its solar heat gain, lowers its temperatures, and decreases its outflow of thermal infrared radiation into the atmosphere. This process of 'negative radiative forcing' can help counter the effects of global warming. In addition, cool roofs reduce cooling-energy use in air conditioned buildings and increase comfort in unconditioned buildings; and cool roofs and cool pavements mitigate summer urban heat islands, improving outdoor air quality and comfort. Installing cool roofs and cool pavements in cities worldwide is a compelling win-win-win activity that can be undertaken immediately, outside of international negotiations to cap CO{sub 2} emissions. We propose an international campaign to use solar reflective materials when roofs and pavements are built or resurfaced in temperate and tropical regions.
Date: August 28, 2009
Creator: Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Rosenfeld, Arthur & Elliot, Matthew
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ANGULAR DISTRIBUTIONS IN Σ<sup>+</sup> DECAY

Description: Angular distributions in SIGMA /sup +/ decay are analyzed for informatlon on SIGMA spin and parity conservation in SIGMA production. No evidence for a SIGMA spin > 1/2 or parity nonconservation in SIGMA prodiction is found. (auth)
Date: April 23, 1959
Creator: Leitner, Jack; Nordin, Paul Jr.; Rosenfeld, Arthur H.; Solmitz, Frank T. & Tripp, Robert D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Global Cooling: Effect of Urban Albedo on Global Temperature

Description: In many urban areas, pavements and roofs constitute over 60% of urban surfaces (roof 20-25%, pavements about 40%). The roof and the pavement albedo can be increased by about 0.25 and 0.10, respectively, resulting in a net albedo increase for urban areas of about 0.1. Many studies have demonstrated building cooling-energy savings in excess of 20% upon raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60%. We estimate U.S. potential savings in excess of $1 billion (B) per year in net annual energy bills. Increasing albedo of urban surfaces can reduce the summertime urban temperature and improve the urban air quality. Increasing the urban albedo has the added benefit of reflecting more of the incoming global solar radiation and countering the effect of global warming. We estimate that increasing albedo of urban areas by 0.1 results in an increase of 3 x 10{sup -4} in Earth albedo. Using a simple global model, the change in air temperature in lowest 1.8 km of the atmosphere is estimated at 0.01K. Modelers predict a warming of about 3K in the next 60 years (0.05K/year). Change of 0.1 in urban albedo will result in 0.01K global cooling, a delay of {approx}0.2 years in global warming. This 0.2 years delay in global warming is equivalent to 10 Gt reduction in CO2 emissions.
Date: May 22, 2007
Creator: Akbari, Hashem; Menon, Surabi & Rosenfeld, Arthur
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

STUDY OF RESONANCES IN THE Σ-π SYSTEM

Description: In order to study resonances in the {Sigma}-{pi} system, we have analyzed reactions in which a {Sigma} hyperon and two or three pions are produced in K{sup -}-p interactions at 1.22 {+-} 0.040 and 1.51 {+-} 0.050 GeV/c incident K{sup -} momentum (i. e., 1895 and 2025 MeV center-of-mass energy), using the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory's 72-in. hydrogen bubble chamber.
Date: June 12, 1962
Creator: Alston, Margaret H.; Alvarez, Luis W.; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Rosenfeld, Arthur H..; Ticho, Harold K. & Wojcicki, Stanley G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department