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DATA FOR ELEMENTARY-PARTICLE PHYSICS

Description: S>Tables of elementary-particle data in easily accessible form are presented for researchers in highenergy physics. Included are: The Masses used Mean Lives of the Elementary Particles; Atomic and Nuclear Properties of Materials; Particle Scattering; atomic and Nuclear Constants; and Particle Decay and Reaction Dynamics. (T.R.H.)
Date: March 20, 1958
Creator: Barkas, W.H. & Rosenfeld, A.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of heavy charged particles and x-rays for axial tomograpic scanning

Description: Heavy charged particles are applicable to the problem of 3- dimensional reconstruction of electron density distributions of biological samples. The transverse uncertainty in the path of a heavy charged particle due to multiple scattering can be reduced by measuring the entrance and exit positions and angles of the particle. Patient doses for He ions and 80 keV x rays are compared under conditions suitable for imaging the human head. (auth)
Date: September 1, 1975
Creator: Huesman, R.H.; Rosenfeld, A.H. & Solmitz, F.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Studies of evaporative and conventional cooling of an energy conserving California house

Description: For cooling a Sacramento, California home, (1) higher thermostat settings, (2) insulation (3) ''solar control'' window shades, and (4) the use of an evaporative cooler in the place of a vapor compression cycle air conditioner are studied. A computer program TWOZONE is used to evaluate the effect on energy consumption and peak power. It is calculated that the peak cooling load can be reduced by a factor of 5 or more and the total energy by a factor of 20 or more.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Gates, S.D.; Baughn, J. & Rosenfeld, A.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions

Description: Improvements in energy efficiency can significantly reduce the annual growth in greenhouse gas emissions. Such improvements occur when energy intensity is reduced; no reduction in energy services is required. Using the concept of cost of conserved energy'' to develop conservation supply curves similar to resource supply curves, researchers consistently find that electricity and natural gas savings of nearly 50% of current consumption are possible for US buildings. Such reductions in energy consumption directly reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. To capture these savings, we must continue to develop energy-efficient technologies and strategies. This paper describes three recent energy-efficient technologies that benefited from energy conservation research and development (R D) funding: high-frequency ballasts, compact fluorescent lamps, and low-emissivity windows. Other advanced technologies and strategies of spectrally selective windows, superwindows, electrochromic windows, advanced insulation, low-flow showerheads, improved recessed lamp fixtures, whitening surfaces and planting urban trees, daylighting, and thermal energy storage are also discussed. 33 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: August 1, 1991
Creator: Rosenfeld, A.H. & Price, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potential Nationwide Improvements in Productivity and Health from Better Indoor Environments

Description: Theoretical considerations and empirical data suggest that existing technologies and procedures can improve indoor environments in a manner that significantly increases productivity and health. Existing literature contains moderate to strong evidence that characteristics of buildings and indoor environments significantly influence rates of respiratory disease, allergy and asthma symptoms, sick building symptoms, and worker performance. While there is considerable uncertainty in our estimates of the magnitudes of productivity gains that may be obtained by providing better indoor environments, the projected gains are very large. For the U.S., we estimate potential annual savings and productivity gains of $6 to $19 billion from reduced respiratory disease, $1 to $4 billion from reduced allergies and asthma, $10 to $20 billion from reduced sick building syndrome symptoms, and $12 to $125 billion from direct improvements in worker performance that are unrelated to health. In two example calculations, the potential financial benefits of improving indoor environments exceed costs by a factor of 8 and 14. Productivity gains that are quantified and demonstrated could serve as a strong stimulus for energy efficiency measures that simultaneously improve the indoor environment.
Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: Fisk, W.J. & Rosenfeld, A.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PROGRESS IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

Description: Recent accomplishments in buildings energy research by the diverse groups in the Energy Efficient Buildings Program at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) are summarized. We review technological progress in the areas of ventilation and indoor air quality, buildings energy performance, computer modeling, windows, and artificial lighting. The need for actual consumption data to track accurately the improving energy efficiency of buildings is being addressed by the Buildings Energy Data (BED) Group at LBL. We summarize results to date from our Building Energy Use Compilation and Analysis (BECA) studies, which include time trends in the energy consumption of new commercial and new residential buildings, the measured savings being attained by both commercial and residential retrofits, and the cost-effectiveness of buildings energy conservation measures. We also examine recent comparisons of predicted vs. actual energy usage/savings, and present the case for building energy use labels.
Date: December 1, 1982
Creator: Wall, L.W. & Rosenfeld, A.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Storage of heat and coolth in hollow-core concrete slabs. Swedish experience, and application to large, American-style buildings

Description: The Folksam office building in Farsta, near Stockholm, has operated since December 1977 with an energy use for direct space heating of only 60 kWh/m/sup 2/ (19,000 Btu/ft/sup 2/), which is only half the Stockholm average for new buildings. To this 60 kWh/m/sup 2/ must be added the typical electric use of another 60 kWh/m/sup 2/ for lights, equipment, fans, etc. Even though Stockholm has 3580 deg-day (C), new Swedish buildings are so well insulated that their temperature floats upwards during most winter working days. In the Folksam building, this surplus heat from 40 full-occupied hours per week is stored in hollow-core concrete slabs, and then is used to compensate for the heat losses during the remaining 128 unoccupied hours. The energy transport/storage system necessary to keep the indoor temperature comfortable, summer and winter, is called Thermodeck, and is described in detail.
Date: October 26, 1979
Creator: Anderson, L.O.; Bernander, K.G.; Isfaelt, E. & Rosenfeld, A.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Data for Elementary-Particle Physics

Description: These data are provided: Masses and .Mean Lives of Elementary Particles; Atomic and Nuclear Properties of Materials; Particle Scattering; Atomic and Nuclear Constants; Particle Decay and Reaction Dynamics; Tentative Data on Strongly lnteracting Particles and Resonances; and Clebsch-Gordan Coefficients and Spherical Harmonics.
Date: April 30, 1963
Creator: Rosenfeld, A. H. & Barkas, W. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conservation screening curves to compare efficiency investments to power plants

Description: This paper describes a simplified methodology to compare supply and demand-side resources. The screening curve approach supplements with load shape information the data contained in a supply curve of conserved energy. In addition, a screening curve contains information on competing supply technologies, such as annualized capital costs, variable costs, and cost per delivered kWh. The information in the screening curve allows policymakers to promptly and conveniently compare the relevant parameters affecting supply and demand-side investment decisions. While many sophisticated computer models have evolved to account for the load shape impacts of energy efficiency investments, this sophistication has, by and large, not trickled down to spreadsheet-level or back-of-the-envelope analyses. This methodology allows a simple summary of load shape characteristics based on the output of the more complicated models. It offers many advantages, principal of which is clarity in analyzing supply and demand-side investment choices. This paper first describes how supply-side screening curves have been used in the past, and develops the conceptual tools needed to apply integrated supply/demand screening curves in the least-cost utility planning process. It then presents examples of supply and demand-side technologies and plots them on a representative screening curve. 12 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1989
Creator: Koomey, J.; Rosenfeld, A.H. & Gadgil, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HUMAN DISEASE FROM RADON EXPOSURES: THE IMPACT OF ENERGY CONSERVATION IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

Description: The level of radon and its daughters inside conventional buildings is often higher than the ambient background level. Interest in conserving energy is motivating homeowners and builers to reduce ventilation and hence to increase the concentration of indoor generated air contaminants, including radon. It is unliekly that the current radiation levels in conventional homes and buildings from radon daughters could account for a significant portion of the lung cancer rate in non-smokers. However, it is likely that some increased lung cancer risk would result from increased radon exposures; hence, it is prudent not to allow radon concentrations to rise significantly. There are several ways to implement energy conservation measures without increasing risks.
Date: July 1, 1979
Creator: Budnitz, R.J.; Berk, J.V.; Hollowell, C.D.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V. & Rosenfeld, A.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CONSERVATION OPTIONS IN RESIDENTIAL ENERGY USE: STUDIES USING THE COMPUTER PROGRAM TWOZONE

Description: A computer model called TWOZONE, which differentiates between the thermal behavior of the north and south zones of a house, is used to study the heating and cooling loads of single-family residences. The model agrees well with the available field data and with the NBSLD (NBSFAST) computer program. In this paper we resolve the furnace output into component loads. We show that depending on the climate, there is an optimum glass area and location in the house from the viewpoint of minimizing the yearly heating bill. The effectiveness of several window management strategies is studied. The energy savings and cost effectiveness of various retrofit measures such as ceiling and wall insulation, storm windows, and clock thermostat are evaluated for two different climates.
Date: August 1, 1977
Creator: Wall, L.W.; Dey, T.; Gadgil, A.J.; Lilly, A.B. & Rosenfeld, A.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Paving materials for heat island mitigation

Description: This report summarizes paving materials suitable for urban streets, driveways, parking lots and walkways. The authors evaluate materials for their abilities to reflect sunlight, which will reduce their temperatures. This in turn reduces the excess air temperature of cities (the heat island effect). The report presents the compositions of the materials, their suitability for particular applications, and their approximate costs (in 1996). Both new and resurfacing are described. They conclude that, although light-colored materials may be more expensive than conventional black materials, a thin layer of light-colored pavement may produce energy savings and smog reductions whose long-term worth is greater than the extra cost.
Date: November 1997
Creator: Pomerantz, M.; Akbari, H.; Chen, A.; Taha, H. & Rosenfeld, A. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Policies to reduce heat islands: Magnitudes of benefits and incentives to achieve them

Description: A ``Cool Communities`` strategy of lighter-colored reroofs and resurfaced pavements, and shade trees, can directly lower annual air conditioning bills in Los Angeles (LA) by about $100 million (M), cool the air in the LA Basin (thereby saving indirectly $70M more in air conditioning), and reduce smog exceedance by about 10%, worth another $360M, for a total savings of about $0.5 billion per year. Trees are most effective if they shade buildings; but they are still very cost effective if they merely cool the air by evapotranspiration. Avoided peak power for air conditioning can be about 1.5GW (more than 15% of LA air conditioning). Extrapolated to the entire US, the authors estimate 20GW avoided and potential annual electricity savings of about $5--10B in 2015. To achieve these savings, they call for ratings and labels for cool materials, buildings` performance standards, utility incentive programs, and an extension of the existing smog-offset trading market (RECLAIM) to include credit for cool surfaces and trees. EPA can include cool materials and trees in its proposed regional ``open market smog-offset trading credits``.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Rosenfeld, A.H.; Romm, J.J.; Akbari, H.; Pomerantz, M. & Taha, H.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department