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Radioisotopic heat sources. Revision 1

Description: For the radioisotopes with half-lives over a year, only eight appear to be obtainable in the foreseeable future. The fission products, strontium-90, cesium-137, and promethium-147, exist in wastes from reactor processing, diluted with enormous volumes of other elements and salts. Among those isotopes producible by irradiation of special target materials (cobalt-60, uranium-232, plutonium-238, and curium-244) cobalt-60, though easy to produce, requires a special design for the heat source generator because much of its emitted energy is penetrating gamma radiation. Cobalt-60 appears, therefore, to be rather limited in its prospects for use. Plutonium-238 is favored as a heat source because of its long half-line and no need for special shielding. However, its projected high cost, scarcity, and biological hazard encourages the search for a competitive material. When plutonium assumes a significant place as a recycled fuel in thermal reactors for power production, curium-244 can then become available at costs below that for plutonium-238. Curiunm-244 has five times the specific power of plutonium-238 and appears to be just as easy to handle. Promethium-147, although probably on the ''short end'' of the half-life scale, can be considered for some uses as a substitute for plutonium-238. Although the factors of availability, gamma activity, and biological characteristics are unfavorable, the strongly points for uranium-232 (and thorium-228) are extremely high power densities, relatively low expected costs, and unusually long-life nearly constant heat output. The short life of thorium-228 (1.9 years) is a disadvantage. This study indicates that aged promethium-147 should be receiving more serious attention as a heat source.
Date: October 15, 1963
Creator: Rohrmann, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RDA No. DC-7 -- Capacity basis for increasing production from Redox -- 202-S

Description: The outstanding economy of the Redox process when compared with the BiPO{sub 4} process dictates that as much production as possible, and as soon as possible, should be shifted from the BiPO{sub 4} process to Redox (202-S). It is proposed that the capacity basis for the subject study be for as much as 200 tons of uranium and up to 105 kilograms of plutonium per month, assuming that facilities proposed for these capacity levels will not interfere with the operating flexibility of the plant, if it is required to produce at the original rate of an average of 75 tons of uranium per month with the attendant plutonium.
Date: November 8, 1951
Creator: Rohrmann, C. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IONIUM (THORIUM-230) FOR RADIOISOTOPE PREPARATION--STATUS REPORT

Description: The general prospects of several radioisotopes are reviewed; the special properties of U/sup 232/ and Th/sup 228/ are poi nted out; and ionium (Th/sup 230/ ) and protactinium target materials are discussed from the sthndpoint of availability and chemical separations processes required for the preparation of U/ sup 232/ and Th/sup 228/. Outlines are given for potential schem es for the separation of U/sup 232/ and Th/sup 228/ from uranium milling pr ocess waste streams and from the irradiation products of Th/sup 230/--Th/sup 232/ mixtures. The high heat generating rates of these potent alpha emitters make them especially suitable for primary consideration as heat sources for small thermoelectric generators. The exceptionally high alpha activity suggests their use in special neutron sources as Ra-Be sources, and they may have sufficiently high neutron generating rates to be in contention with some of the smaller research reactors and experimental neutron producers. (B.O.G.)
Date: December 15, 1959
Creator: Coppinger, E.A. & Rohrmann, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Process modifications 202-S building

Description: A scheme was proposed whereby the third and second uranium cycle salt wastes in the Redox plant are combined, stripped, evaporated, and then returned as scrub to the first (and possibly second) cycles as scrub, operating as a dual scrub column. It is the purpose of this report to study this proposed method of back-cycling, and to investigate other methods of reducing chemical and waste storage costs.
Date: May 5, 1953
Creator: Rohrmann, C. A. & Ludloy, J. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Redox iodine and nitric acid absorbers

Description: A desirable radio-iodine emission goal for all HAPO has recently been set at one curie per day maximum. At the same time it was suggested that a more relaxed limit of ten curries per week with no more than three in any one day, would probably be satisfactory. To assure the achievement of these goal figures in the separations plants it was deemed necessary to either cool'' the irradiated material a greater length of time than is presently done before processing, or provide more efficient, iodine retention facilities. Increased power levels, higher production rates, and an increase in the awareness of radio-iodine emissions, have all coupled together to make present facilities generally inadequate when processing material aged less than about 100 days. Several alternate methods of providing additional iodine retention facilities for Redox were preliminarily scoped and presented for consideration. The purpose of this report is to present a scope design for improving iodine emission control at Redox.
Date: August 2, 1955
Creator: Stoker, D.J. & Rohrmann, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Items for over-all Redox contamination improvement

Description: In view of contamination difficulties within the Redox operation, number of items are being considered to improve this situation. It is the objective of this document to list and describe seven times which it is felt would contribute most toward improvement. It is also an objective to present for RDS-D-12 Group consideration the recommendations of representatives from Manufacturing, Technical, and Design in these matters with the expectation that a project proposal written in general terms for overall contamination improvement would be prepared.
Date: January 13, 1955
Creator: Rohrmann, C. A.; Wilson, B. D. & Merrill, E. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical production from waste carbon monoxide: its potential for energy conservation

Description: Results of a study of the potential for energy conservation by producing chemicals from by-product or waste carbon monoxide (CO) from industrial sources are summarized. Extensive compilations of both industrial sources and uses for carbon monoxide were developed and included. Reviews of carbon monoxide purification and concentration technology and preliminary economic evaluations of carbon monoxide concentration, pipeline transportation and utilization of CO in the synthesis of ammonia and methanol are included. Preliminary technical and economic feasibility studies were made of producing ammonia and methanol from the by-product CO produced by a typical elemental phosphorus plant. Methanol synthesis appears to be more attractive than ammonia synthesis when using CO feedstock because of reduced water gas shift and carbon dioxide removal requirements. The economic studies indicate that methanol synthesis from CO appears to be competitive with conventional technology when the price of natural gas exceeds $0.82/million Btu, while ammonia synthesis from CO is probably not competitive until the price of natural gas exceeds $1.90/million Btu. It is concluded that there appears to be considerable potential for energy conservation in the chemical industry, by collecting CO rather than flaring it, and using it to make major chemicals such as ammonia and methanol.
Date: November 1, 1977
Creator: Rohrmann, C.A.; Schiefelbein, G.F.; Molton, P.M.; Li, C.T.; Elliott, D.C. & Baker, E.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some alternatives to the mixed oxide fuel cycle

Description: While on initial examination each of the six fuel cycle concepts (tandem cycle, extended burnup, fuel rejuvenation, coprocessing, partial reprocessing, and thorium) described in the report may have some potential for improving safeguards, none of the six appears to have any other major or compelling advantages over the mixed oxide (MOX) fuel cycle. Compared to the MOX cycle, all but coprocessing appear to have major disadvantages, including severe cost penalties. Three of the concepts-tandem, extended burnup, and rejuvenation--share the basic problems of the throwaway cycle (GESMO Alternative 6): without reprocessing, high-level waste volumes and costs are substantially increased, and overall uranium utilization decreases for three reasons. First, the parasitic fission products left in the fuel absorb neutrons in later irradiation steps reducing the overall neutronic efficiencies of these cycles. Second, discarded fuel still has sufficient fissile values to warrant recycle. Third, perhaps most important, the plutonium needed for breeder start-up will not be available; without the breeder, uranium utilization would drop by about a factor of sixty. Two of the concepts--coprocessing and partial reprocessing--involve variations of the basic MOX fuel cycle's chemical reprocessing step to make plutonium diversion potentially more difficult. These concepts could be used with the MOX fuel cycle or in conjunction with the tandem, extended burnup and rejuvenation concepts to eliminate some of the problems with those cycles. But in so doing, the basic impetus for those cycles--elimination of reprocessing for safeguards purposes--no longer exists. Of all the concepts considered, only coprocessing--and particularly the ''master blend'' version--appears to have sufficient promise to warrant a more detailed study. The master blend concept could possibly make plutonium diversion more difficult with minimal impact on the reprocessing and MOX fuel fabrication operations.
Date: February 1, 1977
Creator: Deonigi, D. E.; Eschbach, E. A.; Goldsmith, S.; Pankaskie, P. J.; Rohrmann, C. A. & Widrig, R. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recommendations for a US geothermal research plan. Volume 1

Description: A multidisciplinary study team developed a comprehensive research program. Five- and ten-year program plans emphasize critical five-year milestones. Recommended plans are presented here under constraint of three different five-year budgets: $100, $300 and $500 million, respectively. Plans are detailed in six resource subprograms: high temperature water, moderate temperature water, hot dry rock, brine, geopressured, and dry steam. Also presented are plans for five subprograms common to all geothermal resources: exploration, assessment, drilling technology, environmental-social, and institutional. (MHR)
Date: December 1, 1975
Creator: Burnham, J.B.; Bloomster, C.H.; Cohn, P.D.; Eliason, J.R.; Peterson, P.L.; Rohrmann, C.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy intensive industry for Alaska. Volume I: Alaskan cost factors; market factors; survey of energy-intensive industries

Description: The Alaskan and product market factors influencing industry locations in the state are discussed and a survey of the most energy intensive industries was made. Factors external to Alaska that would influence development and the cost of energy and labor in Alaska are analyzed. Industries that are likely to be drawn to Alaska because of its energy resources are analyzed in terms of: the cost of using Alaska energy resources in Alaska as opposed to the Lower 48; skill-adjusted wage and salary differentials between relevant Alaskan areas and the Lower 48; and basic plant and equipment and other operating cost differentials between relevant Alaskan areas and the Lower 48. Screening and evaluation of the aluminum metal industry, cement industry, chlor-alkali industry, lime industry, production of methanol from coal, petroleum refining, and production of petrochemicals and agrichemicals from North Slope natural gas for development are made.
Date: September 1, 1978
Creator: Swift, W.H.; Clement, M.; Baker, E.G.; Elliot, D.C.; Jacobsen, J.J.; Powers, T.B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Hanford Isotopes Production Plant Engineering Study

Description: Report presenting the conceptual design, estimates of capital and operating costs, and details of the operation of a plant "capable of high volume production of encapsulated heat sources" (p. 3) of radioisotopes Sr90, Cs137, Ce144, and Pm147.
Date: July 1963
Creator: La Riviere, J. R.; Michels, L. R.; Riches, H. C.; Rohrmann, C. A.; Smith, C. W. & Swift, W. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department