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The Effects of Unilateral Exercise Upon the Reaction-Movement Time of the Exercised Arm and the Contralateral Arm

Description: The purposes of the study were to determine (1) the effect which exercise of the nondominant arm would have upon the reaction-movement time of the dominant and nondominant arms, (2) the degree to which fatigue transfers from one arm to the other arm, and (3) the influence of lateral dominance upon the reaction-movement time of both the dominant, and nondominant arms.
Date: May 1973
Creator: Schmidt, Dianne L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Comparison of the Personalities of Non-Injured and Injured Female Athletes in Intercollegiate Competition

Description: This study was designed to determine if differences exist between the personalities of injured and non-injured athletes, injured and non-injured athletes in individual sports, and injured and non-injured athletes in team sports. Subjects were forty-three female athletes selected from six intercollegiate teams. The test instrument was the Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire. Data were analyzed by the two-way analysis of variance. Alpha was .05. Conclusions of the investigation were that the personality of injured athletes does not differ from the personality of non-injured athletes, that non-injured athletes in individual sports are more self-assured than non-injured athletes in team sports, and that the personality of athletes in team sports does not differ from the personality of athletes in individual sports.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Abadie, Deborah A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparison of Perceived Exertion Ratings of Aerobic Dance and Treadmill Performances Among College Age Males and Females

Description: The purposes of the study were to compare ratings of perceived exertion of aerobic dance and treadmill performances under equal work loads and to compare ratings of perceived exertion by males and females in aerobic dance and treadmill work. Subjects were twenty-six college men and women in co-educational conditioning classes. Heart rates were monitored after work bouts and perceived exertion was determined using Borg's RPE scale. Data were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. Conclusions of the investigation were: (1) aerobic dance is perceived as less strenuous than the treadmill under equal work loads, and (2) males and females perceive aerobic dance as less strenuous than the treadmill under equal energy bouts.
Date: August 1976
Creator: Walker, Nancy D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Influence of Psychological Stress and Personality upon Athletic Performance of Intercollegiate Tennis Players

Description: This investigation was designed to study coach and self-appraised groupings of intercollegiate tennis players who yield to stress and withstand stress and to determine if personality differences existed between groups. Subjects were 75 intercollegiate tennis players from Texas. A stress inventory and the Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire were instruments utilized in the study. Data were subjected to hierarchical profile-groupings, three-way analyses of variance, and a correlational analysis. Conclusions of the study were that intercollegiate tennis players and male and female players respond to stress differently; intercollegiate tennis players and male and female players who experience different levels of stress have different personalities; and players and coaches do not evaluate the ability to cope with stress similarly.
Date: March 1978
Creator: Reed, Rebecca Lee
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Four Different Conditions of Mental Practice on the Performance of Beginning and Intermediate Bowlers

Description: This study investigated the effects of four different types of mental practice (free imagery, directed visual, directed reading, and directed audio) on the performance of 45 beginning and 40 intermediate college bowlers. The groups bowled six games with two sets of five minutes of mental practice prior to the first frame and the sixth frame of each game. Data were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. No significant differences existed between treatment groups at either the beginning or intermediate levels. Conclusions were that no one technique of mental practice was more effective than another in increasing bowling performance.
Date: August 1979
Creator: Reading, Rosemary
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Establishment of Norms for Two Selected Tennis Skills Tests at North Texas State University

Description: The purposes of this study were 1) to establish validity and reliability for a modified service test, 2) to determine male and female norms for the service test, and 3) to establish norms for the Kemp-Vincent Rally Test. Subjects were 677 students enrolled in beginning and intermediate tennis classes at North Texas State University, Denton, Texas. Data were analyzed by the two-way analysis of variance to establish reliability. Norms were established by converting raw scores to normalized standard T-scores. Conclusions of the investigation were 1) the modified service test is valid and reliable, and 2) there is a need for separate male and female norms when the skill is governed by strength.
Date: August 1978
Creator: Avery, Cathy Ann
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Self-Recording and Projected Levels of Aspiration Upon Competitive Swimming Performance

Description: The purposes of the study were to determine the effects of self-recording techniques upon competitive swimming times, to determine the relationship between stated level of aspiration and subsequent performance, and to determine the influence of success or failure upon stated levels of aspiration. Subjects were fifteen female high-school competitive swimmers. Five subjects utilized self-recording techniques and projected levels of aspiration; ten subjects did not. Data were analyzed by analysis of covariance and by regression analysis. Alpha was .05. Conclusions of this study were that self-recording techniques do not significantly affect competitive swimming times, that a strong relationship exists between stated level of aspiration and subsequent performance, and that successful and unsuccessful performances generate increases in stated levels of aspiration.
Date: August 1976
Creator: Hamlett, Laurie Ray
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Supportive and Non-Supportive Nonverbal Movements Upon the Acquisition of a Gross Motor Skill

Description: The purposes of the study were (1) to validate five selected supportive and five selected non-supportive nonverbal movements, and (2) to determine the effects of the nonverbal expressions upon subjects' learning of a gross motor skill. Subjects were twenty-eight college women who met the established criteria. The testing instrument was the Bachman Ladder. Fourteen subjects received the supportive-- non-supportive nonverbal treatment sequence; fourteen subjects received the reverse treatment sequence. Subjects numerically ranked the degree of treatment following each experimental session. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance method. Alpha was .05. Conclusions of this study were (1) that nonverbal supportive and non-supportive treatments do not significantly affect gross motor learning, and (2) the selected expressions are valid techniques for nonverbal communications.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Laflin, Joyce
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparison of Self Concepts Among "Starter" and "Substitute" Female College Athletes in Selected Varsity Sports

Description: The purposes of the study were (1) to determine if differences exist between the self concepts of female intercollegiate starting and substitute athletes and between members of team and individual sports and (2) to determine if a significant relationship exists between coaches' ratings of an athlete and the athletes' self concepts. Subjects were forty-five college women who met the established criteria. The testing instrument was the Tennessee Self Concept Scale. Data were analyzed by the two-way analysis of variance method and the Spearman Rank Order Correlation. Alpha was .05. Conclusions of the investigation were that (1) the self concepts of athletes in basketball, softball, volleyball, tennis, and badminton are not significantly different, and (2) the coaches' ratings of athletes and athletes' self concept ratings are not significantly related.
Date: December 1975
Creator: Gotcher, Judith F.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Fear of Failure and Fear of Success: The Relationship of Achievement Motives to the Motor Performance of Males and Females

Description: The study was designed to determine the relationship between the psychological constructs of "fear of failure (FOF)" and "fear of success (FOS)" and motor performance in badminton. Forty-three males and fifty-one females in beginning badminton classes were administered the FOF and FOS scales, followed by three independent skills tests and a round-robin singles tournament. Conclusions were that FOF and FOS are two separate performance motives; FOF appears to be the dominant motive for females; both FOF and FOS are related to motor performance in face-to-face competition, while only FOS is related to performance in isolated skills.
Date: December 1982
Creator: Albury, Kevin W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Mental Imagery Training on a Baseball Throwing Task

Description: This study was designed to determine if long term training of mental imagery skills is more beneficial to an athlete than immediate imagery rehearsal practiced only prior to an event. Subjects were thirty male high school baseball athletes who were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions: (1) long term imagery training and practice; (2) immediate imagery practice only; and (3) control. An accuracy relay-throwing test was performed with pre-test, mid-test, and post-test performance trials. Results of the study revealed no statistically significant differences over the three test periods for any of the treatment conditions. Thus, long term imagery combined with immediate imagery practice, immediate imagery practice and control groups performed equally well on the baseball throwing task.
Date: December 1993
Creator: Freeman, James D. (James David Douglas)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Validity of the Health Belief Model as a Predictor of Activity in Younger and Older Adults

Description: The present investigation assessed Health Belief Model (HBM) variables and a measure of physical activity for both younger and older adults. Results of discriminant analyses suggest HBM variables and physical activity can predict age-group membership with 89% accuracy. The younger sample (n = 88; M= 21.5 years) was significantly more anxious about aging, perceived more barriers to exercise, less control from powerful others, and more social support than the older sample (n = 56; M = 71.8 years). For the younger sample, those who perceived more benefits of exercise, had social support, were male, and were less anxious about aging were more active. For the older sample, those who perceived more benefits of exercise were more likely to be active.
Date: August 1993
Creator: Weigand, Daniel A. (Daniel Arthur)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Positive Verbal Reinforcement on the Four Underlying Factors in Intrinsic Motivation

Description: The study examined the effects of positive verbal reinforcement on intrinsic motivation by determining differential effects over four multidimensions of Ryan's Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI). Subjects (N=60) were 30 male and 30 female college students. The subjects were blocked by gender and randomly assigned to a positive verbal reinforcement group or a control group. The subjects received 10 trials on the stabilometer. The results of the study indicated that there were significant group differences for composite intrinsic motivation and for perceived competence; however, there were no significant gender differences found. Furthermore, no group differences were reported for the underlying factors of interest/enjoyment, effort, or pressure/tension.
Date: August 1993
Creator: Prentice, Ray (Grant Ray)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship of Anxiety to Performance in Stressful Situations in Slo-Pitch Softball

Description: The purposes of the study were to compare (1) the relationship between competitive A-trait and competitive A-state in Slo-Pitch softball and (2) the relationship between A-trait and performance in selected stressful situations in softball. The study also considered the ranking of players by a manager and overall performance. The Sport Competition Anxiety Test and a competitive short form of the State Anxiety Inventory were used to measure A-trait and A-state. Trait anxiety, state anxiety and performance were compared using the Pearson product moment correlation technique. Trait anxiety scores were found to be accurate predictors of pregame state anxiety, but not of performance. The manager's rating was a better predictor of performance than competitive A-trait in selected stress situations.
Date: August 1979
Creator: Rogers, Michael E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Psychological Sex-Role and Sex of Performer on Pre-Performance Anxiety in Selected Masculine, Feminine, and Neutral Sports

Description: The study was designed to determine the effects of psychological sex-role on pre-performance anxiety in masculine (rugby), feminine (balance beam), and neutral (badminton) sex-typed motor activities. Instruments used to gather data included the Personal Attributes Questionnaire, the Sport Competition Anxiety Test, and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2. Twenty-six masculine, 24 feminine, and 27 androgynous males and females were submitted to a three-phase training session for each sport skill. At the conclusion of each session, prior to performing the skill in front of a panel of judges (confederates of the experimenter), subjects were administered the self-report state anxiety (A-state) inventory. Data were analyzed by a 2 x 3 x 3 design. Conclusions were that individuals classified as feminine reported more feelings of A-state prior to performance than individuals classified as masculine or androgynous. Furthermore, the performer's biological sex affected anxiety levels, depending upon perceptions concerning the sex-appropriateness of the activity.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Taylor, Angela D. (Angela Denise)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Ann Richards : An Adlerian Psychobiography

Description: This psychobiography used the framework of Individual Psychology to examine the life style development of the Honorable Ann Richards in order to provide insight into the creation of a life style by a successful, contemporary female leader. This single case study utilized a qualitative/phenomenological research methodology to examine from Ms. Richards' point of view the manner in which a highly visible and well-known individual created her particular style of life.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Pearson, Mary
Partner: UNT Libraries

Status Determinants for Professional Sports and Professional Athletes

Description: The purposes of the investigation were to determine if status of professional sports and professional athletes increases as male participation increases, if perceived status of 'athlete' increases with participation in sports that contain 'male' attributes, and if gender differences are related to status indicators. Sixty-eight students were administered a status-determinants questionnaire. A one-way ANOVA (gender) and a 2 x 12 ANOVA (gender x sport) were employed to determine status ratings of sports. A 3 x 2 (increase/decrease/no change x gender) Chi square was employed to determine status of sports, perceived masculinity of males/femininity of females, and status of the athlete related to gender attributes of sports.
Date: May 1998
Creator: Kaye, Fern V. (Fern Victoria)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Factors or Criteria Used by Female Basketball Players in Selecting a College

Description: This study was an attempt to identify the factors that female basketball players consider important in their selection of a college to attend. A questionnaire was sent to all scholarship-granting junior colleges and Division I National Collegiate Athletic Association universities in the State of Texas during the 1991 spring semester. Students from 11 junior colleges and 11 Division I universities replied to the survey. The findings of this study are based on data collected from the 244 subjects' responses to a four-page, paired-comparison questionnaire. According to the junior college basketball players, the availability of scholarships and the opportunity to play were the two most important factors in their sleection of a college. Six other factors that were considered important to the junior college players' selection of a college were parental influence, the head coach, degrees offered, high school coaches' influence, geographical location of the university, and the style of ball played. The availability of scholarships was the most important factor in Division I female basketball players' selection of a university. Five other factors considered to be significant by Division I female players were the opportunity to play, the geographical location of the university, the degrees offered, the university facilities, and the head coach. A high positive correlation was found between the rankings of the junior college and the Division I female basketball players.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Speer, George B. (George Blake)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Goal Setting on Performance Enhancement in a Competitive Athletic Setting

Description: The purpose of the investigation was to determine if goal setting has an effect on physical performance in a realistic, natural, and competitive athletic environment. Results revealed no significant differences between the goal-setting group and the "do your best" group when performing lacrosse skills. However, results from the questionnaire indicated significant main effect difficulty of the tasks. These results imply that athletes in the goal-setting group felt that their goals were not realistic and that it was increasingly difficult to reach their goals as the season progressed. Because the athlete does not have control over some factors which influence game situations, he or she may be hindered in reaching his or her goals, whether specified or individually chosen. Therefore, a research methodology that manipulates and attempts to control types of goal setting may not be appropriate or realistic when applied to the natural field environment of a highly organized competitive sport.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Stitcher, Thomas P.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Male Attitudes Toward Sport Participation by Females

Description: This investigation was designed to determine if attitudinal differences toward involvement of females in athletic competitions existed between males when age, education, and sport backgrounds were considered. Subjects were 186 male employees of Air Products and Chemicals, Incorporated and the City of De Soto, Texas, and students at North Texas State University. A fifty-one item attitude inventory developed by the investigator was the instrument utilized in the study. Data were analyzed by a three-way analysis of variance. Conclusions of the study were that males of various ages, educational levels, and sport backgrounds do not differ in their attitudes and possess favorable opinions toward female sport participation, Males with nonactive sport backgrounds were more favorable than males with active-semiactive backgrounds when spectators at female sport events.
Date: August 1977
Creator: Hibbard, Jeana E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Relationship Between Mood State and Cognitive Strategies on Endurance Performance

Description: The present investigation examined the relationship between elated and depressed moods and dissociation, association, and positive self-talk strategies on endurance performance. Results showed a significant mood main effect with elated subjects performing longer than depressed subjects. Results also revealed a significant cognitive strategy main effect with positive self-talk and dissociation groups producing longer endurance times than association and control groups. A significant interaction between mood and cognitive strategy found that subjects in the positive self-talk and dissociation groups increased their performance time to a greater extent from the depressed to the elated condition than did subjects in the association and control groups. Results are discussed in terms of previous investigations of mood and cognitive strategies on physical performance.
Date: December 1991
Creator: Litke, Lonnie D. (Lonnie Dale)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Manipulation of Efficacy Information to Enhance Muscular Endurance Performance

Description: The present investigation was designed to examine the effects of the positive manipulation of information on self-efficacy and subsequent performance of 180 female subjects. High, moderate, and low self-efficacy subjects were randomly assigned to a treatment condition in a 3 x 4 x 3 (preexisting self-efficacy x efficacy information source x trials) factorial design. Information from the three efficacy sources of performance accomplishments, verbal persuasion, and vicarious experience was manipulated towards success after subjects completed a muscular leg endurance task. The results supported self-efficacy theory with high self-efficacy subjects extending their legs significantly longer than moderate and low self-efficacy subjects. However, subjects did not differentially [sic] respond to the manipulation of the efficacy information. Results are discussed in terms of efficacy as a mediator of performance on an endurance task as well as the lack of differential changes in efficacy based on the source from which that information is derived.
Date: December 1989
Creator: Lerner, J. Dana (Jocelyn Dana)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Psychological Factors Related to Drug Use in College Athletes

Description: The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the psychological factors related to drug use by college athletes on seven drug categories. A questionnaire was given to male and female Division I college athletes asking them about their use of drugs. The frequency, intensity and duration of use/non-use was used to divide subjects into high and low/nonuser categories. Dependent measures included the Profile of Mood States, Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and questions assessing athlete stress. A multivariate analysis of variance(MANOVA) was conducted in a 2 x 2 (alcohol high/low, non-user x male/female) design to distinguish significant differences on the POMS and stress questions followed by univariate ANOVA's. A separate ANOVA was run on Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory. Results indicated that high alcohol users scored significantly higher on anger, fatigue and vigor than low/non-users. Significant differences were found between males and females on the pressure felt from coaches to perform well.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Evans, Melissa
Partner: UNT Libraries