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Practical Modeling of aluminum species in high-pH waste

Description: One of the main components of the nuclear waste stored at the Hanford Site is aluminum. As efforts are made to dispose of the waste, the need to predict the various phases of the aluminum becomes important for modeling of the disposal processes. Current databases of the aluminum species are not adequate as they stand. This study is not an attempt to present a rigorous discussion of aluminum chemistry, but to approach aluminum solubility as a practical application. The approach considers two different forms of aluminate; Al(OH){sub 4}{sup {minus}} and AlO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}. By taking both of these forms of aluminate into consideration, a workable system of aluminium chemistry is formed that can be used to model the various waste disposal processes.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Reynolds, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waste segregation analysis for salt well pumping in the 200 W Area -- Task 3.4

Description: There is an estimated 7 million liters (1.9 million gallons) of potentially complexed waste that need to be pumped from single-shell tanks (SST) in the 200 West Area. This represents up to 40% of the salt well liquor that needs to be pumped in the 200 West Area. There are three double-shell (DST) tanks in the 241-SY tank farm in the 200 West Area. Tank 241-SY-101 is full and not usable. Tank 241-SY-102 has a transuranic (TRU) sludge in the bottom. Current rules prohibit mixing complexed waste with TRU waste. Tank 241-SY-103 has three major problems. First, 241-SY-103 is on the Flammable Watch list. Second, adding waste to tank 241-SY-103 has the potential for an episodic release of hydrogen gas. Third, 241-SY-103 will not hold all of the potentially complexed waste from the SSTs. This document looks at more details regarding the salt well pumping of the 200 West Area tank farm. Some options are considered but it is beyond the scope of this document to provide an in-depth study necessary to provide a defensible solution to the complexed waste problem.
Date: April 28, 1995
Creator: Reynolds, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste

Description: Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables.
Date: September 1, 1984
Creator: Reynolds, D.A. & Herting, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The fate of organics from hot semiworks in CR vault

Description: The 244-CR vault contains four tanks: two 40,000-gallon carbon steel tanks and two 15,000-gallon stainless steel tanks. On occasion, the waste from 201-C Semiworks was routed through the tanks in 244-CR. This had the potential for mixing the organics from 201-C Semiworks and a residual heel in 244-CR which may be acidic. The purpose of this study is to determine if there is a possibility that a reactive waste could be present in 244-CR vault.
Date: August 23, 1999
Creator: Reynolds, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of 241 AN tank farm flammable gas behavior

Description: The 241 AN Tank Farm tanks 241-AN-103, -104, and 105 are Flammable Gas Watch List tanks. Characteristics exhibited by these tanks (i.e., surface level drops, pressure increases, and temperature profiles) are similar to those exhibited by tank 241-SY-101, which is also a Watch List tank. Although the characteristics exhibited by tank 241-SY-101 are also present in tanks 241-AN-103, -104, and 105, they are exhibited to a lesser degree in the AN Tank Farm tanks. The 241 AN Tank Farm tanks have only small surface level drops, and the pressure changes that occur are not sufficient to release an amount of gas that would cause the dome space to exceed the lower flammability limit (LFL) for hydrogen. Therefore, additional restrictions are probably unnecessary for working within the 241 AN Tank Farm, either within the dome space of the tanks or in the waste.
Date: January 1, 1994
Creator: Reynolds, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Modern Interpretation of the Barney Diagram for Aluminum Solubility in Tank Waste

Description: Experimental and modeling studies of aluminum solubility in Hanford tank waste have been developed and refined for many years in efforts to resolve new issues or develop waste treatment flowsheets. The earliest of these studies was conducted by G. Scott Barney, who performed solubility studies in highly concentrated electrolyte solutions to support evaporator campaign flowsheets in the 1970's. The 'Barney Diagram', a term still widely used at Hanford today, suggested gibbsite ({gamma}-Al(OH){sub 3}) was much more soluble in tank waste than in simple sodium hydroxide solutions. These results, which were highly surprising at the time, continue to be applied to new situations where aluminum solubility in tank waste is of interest. Here, we review the history and provide a modern explanation for the large gibbsite solubility observed by Barney, an explanation based on basic research that has been performed and published in the last 30 years. This explanation has both thermodynamic and kinetic aspects. Thermodynamically, saturated salt solutions stabilize soluble aluminate species that are minor components in simple sodium hydroxide solutions. These species are the aluminate dimer and the sodium-aluminate ion-pair. Ion-pairs must be present in the Barney simulants because calculations showed that there was insufficient space between the highly concentrated ions for a water molecule. Thus, most of the ions in the simulants have to be ion-paired. Kinetics likely played a role as well. The simulants were incubated for four to seven days, and more recent data indicate that this was unlikely sufficient time to achieve equilibrium from supersaturation. These results allow us to evaluate applications of the Barney results to current and future tank waste issues or flowsheets.
Date: December 16, 2009
Creator: Reynolds, J. G. & Reynolds, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbonizing Properties of American Coals: Index of Coals Tested by the Bureau of Mines

Description: Introduction; "The purpose of this paper is to present in collected and sequential form such a list of the coals that have been studied in the carbonization-section labatories of the Bureau of Mines for their carbonizing properties and yields of coke and coal chemicals."
Date: 1954
Creator: Brown, R. L.; Davis, J. D.; Reynolds, D. A. & Smith, F. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of BM-AGA and Slot-Oven Experimental Methods of Carbonization, with Results for Eleven Coals

Description: From Introduction and Summary: "However, with the completion and satisfactory performance of an experimental vertical slot oven of 500-pound capacity at the University of Illinois Geological Survey Laboratory, the opportunity to directly compare BM-AGA coke with coke made by two-sided heating became available and the necessary test apparatus was installed. This report compares the results obtained by the two methods."
Date: 1950
Creator: Davis, J. D.; Reynolds, D. A.; Wolfson, D. E. & Birge, G. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vapor sampling of the headspace of radioactive waste storage tanks

Description: This paper recants the history of vapor sampling in the headspaces of radioactive waste storage tanks at Hanford. The first two tanks to receive extensive vapor pressure sampling were Tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-C-103. At various times, a gas chromatography, on-line mass spectrometer, solid state hydrogen monitor, FTIR, and radio acoustic ammonia monitor have been installed. The head space gas sampling activities will continue for the next few years. The current goal is to sample the headspace for all the tanks. Some tank headspaces will be sampled several times to see the data vary with time. Other tanks will have continuous monitors installed to provide additional data.
Date: May 22, 1996
Creator: Reynolds, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nanosatellite program at Sandia National Laboratories

Description: The concept of building extremely small satellites which, either independently or as a collective, can perform missions which are comparable to their much larger cousins, has fascinated scientists and engineers for several years now. In addition to the now commonplace microelectronic integrated circuits, the more recent advent of technologies such as photonic integrated circuits (PIC's) and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) have placed such a goal within their grasp. Key to the acceptance of this technology will be the ability to manufacture these very small satellites in quantity without sacrificing their performance or versatility. In support of its nuclear treaty verification, proliferation monitoring and other remote sensing missions, Sandia National laboratories has had a 35-year history of providing highly capable systems, densely packaged for unintrusive piggyback missions on government satellites. As monitoring requirements have become more challenging and remote sensing technologies become more sophisticated, packaging greater capability into these systems has become a requirement. Likewise, dwindling budgets are pushing satellite programs toward smaller and smaller platforms, reinforcing the need for smaller, cheaper satellite systems. In the next step of its miniaturization plan, Sandia has begun development of technologies for a highly integrated miniature satellite. The focus of this development is to achieve nanosat or smaller dimensions while maintaining significant capability utilizing semiconductor wafer-level integration and, at the same time promoting affordability through modular generic construction.
Date: November 11, 1999
Creator: Reynolds, D.A.; Kern, J.P. & Schoeneman, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimate of Known Recoverable Reserves and Preparation and Carbonizing Properties of Coking Coal in Campbell County, Tennessee

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over investigations of coking coal reserves of Campbell County, Tennessee. Testing to determine suitability for producing metallurgical coke is also presented. This report includes tables, maps, and illustrations.
Date: September 1956
Creator: Williams, Lloyd; Gibbs, H. K.; Crentz, William L. & Reynolds, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimate of Known Recoverable Reserves of Coking Coal in Raleigh County, West Virginia

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines to evaluate the known estimates of coking coal in Raleigh County, West Virginia. The investigation discusses the properties of coal and coal blends found in this region. This report contains tables, and maps.
Date: June 1952
Creator: Dowd, James J.; Toenges, Albert L.; Abernethy, R. F. & Reynolds, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimate of Known Recoverable Reserves of Coking Coal in Marshall County, West Virginia

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over investigations of coking-coal reserves of Marshall County, West Virginia. Methods used, and measurements of coal reserves are listed. This report includes tables, and maps.
Date: April 1956
Creator: Dowd, James J.; Provost, John M.; Abernethy, R. F. & Reynolds, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimate of Known Recoverable Reserves of Coking Coal in Logan County, West Virginia

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over investigations of coking-coal reserves of Logan County, West Virginia. Methods used, and measurements of coal reserves are listed. This report includes tables, and maps.
Date: September 1956
Creator: Tavenner, William H.; Dowd, James J.; Abernethy, R. F. & Reynolds, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical and chemically-related considerations associated with sluicing tank C-106 waste to tank AY-102

Description: New data on tank 241-C-106 were obtained from grab sampling and from compatibility testing of tank C-106 and tank AY-102 wastes. All chemistry-associated and other compatibility Information compiled in this report strongly suggests that the sluicing of the contents of tank C-106, in accord with appropriate controls, will pose no unacceptable risk to workers, public safety, or the environment. In addition, it is expected that the sluicing operation will successfully resolve the High-Heat Safety Issue for tank C-106.
Date: April 4, 1997
Creator: Reynolds, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of Coal Deposits in the Coal Creek District, Gunnison County, Colorado: Progress Report 1

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines on studies of coal deposits of the Coal Creek district. The physicality, geology, and characteristics of samples are listed. This report includes tables, and a map.
Date: April 1947
Creator: Toenges, Albert L.; Turnbull, Louis A.; Davis, J. D. & Reynolds, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimate of Known Recoverable Reserves of Coking Coal in Jefferson County, Pennsylvania

Description: Report of investigations issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines evaluating the known reserves of coking coal in Jefferson County, Pennsylvania. The properties of coal and coal blends from the area are analyzed. This report includes tables, and maps.
Date: January 1952
Creator: Dowd, James J.; Toenges, Albert L.; Abernethy, R. F. & Reynolds, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimate of Known Recoverable Reserves of Coking Coal in Marion County, West Virginia

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over investigations of coking-coal reserves of Marion County, West Virginia. Methods used, and measurements of coal reserves are listed. This report includes tables, and maps.
Date: October 1956
Creator: Provost, John M.; Dowd, James J.; Abernethy, R. F. & Reynolds, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimate of Known Recoverable Reserves of Coking Coal in Monongalia County, West Virginia

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over investigations of coking-coal reserves of Monongalia County, West Virginia. Methods used, and measurements of coal reserves are listed. This report includes tables, and maps.
Date: June 1956
Creator: Travis, Raymond G.; Dowd, James J.; Abernethy, R. F. & Reynolds, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Carbon Monoxide Recorder and Alarm

Description: Technical paper issued by the Bureau of Mines over the development of carbon monoxide alarms and recorders. Descriptions of the recording equipment are presented and discussed. This paper includes tables, photographs, and illustrations.
Date: 1926
Creator: Katz, Sidney H.; Reynolds, D. A.; Frevert, H. W. & Bloomfield, J. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimate of Known Recoverable Reserves of Coking Coal in Knott County, Kentucky

Description: Report of investigations issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines regarding the estimates of known reserves of coking coal located in Knott County, Kentucky. The investigation also discusses properties of coal and coal blends from the area. This report includes maps and tables.
Date: July 1952
Creator: Dowd, James J.; Toenges, Albert L.; Abernethy, R. F. & Reynolds, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimate of Known Recoverable Reserves of Coking Coal in Clarion County, Pennsylvania

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over investigations of coking-coal reserves of Clarion County, Pennsylvania. Methods used, and measurements of coal reserves are listed. This report includes tables, and maps.
Date: May 1956
Creator: Blaylock, D. W.; Dowd, James J.; Abernethy, R. F. & Reynolds, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimate of Known Recoverable Reserves and the Preparation and Carbonizing Properties of Coking Coal in Anderson County, Tennessee

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over investigations of coking coal reserves of Anderson County, Tennessee. Testing to determine suitability for producing metallurgical coke is also presented. This report includes tables, maps, photographs, and illustrations.
Date: December 1955
Creator: Williams, Lloyd; James, Curtis; Gandrud, B. W. & Reynolds, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department