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Prompt processes in heavy ion reactions

Description: We test a relaxation model based on two body nucleon-nucleon scattering processes to interpret phenomena observed in heavy ion reactions. We use the Boltzmann Master Equation to accomplish this. By assuming that the projectile nucleons partition the total excitation with equal a-priori probability of all configurations, we are able to reproduce several sets of neutron spectra from /sup 20/Ne and /sup 12/C induced reactions on /sup 165/Ho and from reactions of /sup 40/Ar or /sup 40/Ca. We point out ambiguities in deducing angle-integrated energy spectra from double differential spectra. With no additional free parameters, our model successfully reproduces a large body of high energy ..gamma..-ray spectra by assuming an incoherent n-p-bremsstrahlung mechanism. 45 refs., 13 figs.
Date: December 1, 1987
Creator: Blann, M. & Remington, B.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heavy ion precompound phenomena: A glance at hard gamma and subthreshold pion production

Description: We test a relaxation model based on two body nucleon-nucleon scattering processes to interpret phenomena observed in heavy ion reactions. We use the Boltzmann master equation to accomplish this. By assuming that the projectile nucleons share the total excitation with equal a-priori probability of all configurations, we are able to reproduce several sets of neutron spectra from /sup 20/Ne and /sup 12/C induced reactions on /sup 165/Ho. With no additional free parameters our model successfully reproduces subthreshold pion production cross sections, high energy ..gamma..-ray spectra, and angular distributions of high energy ..gamma..-rays. 40 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: August 1, 1987
Creator: Blann, M. & Remington, B.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dynamical processes in heavy ion reactions

Description: In this report I review the physical assumptions of the Boltzmann Master Equation (BME). Comparisons of the model with experimental neutron spectra gated on evaporation residues for a range of incident projectile energies and masses are presented; next, I compare n spectra gated on projectile-like fragments, followed by comparisons with ungated, inclusive proton spectra. I will then consider secondary effects from the nucleon-nucleon processes involved in the heavy ion relaxation processes, specifically the high energy ..gamma..-rays which have been observed at energies up to 140 MeV in collisions of heavy ions of 20/endash/84 MeV/..mu... Another secondary effect, subthreshold pion production, was covered in the XVII School and will not be repeated. 39 refs., 16 figs.
Date: July 25, 1988
Creator: Blann, M. & Remington, B.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent applications of the Boltzmann master equation to heavy ion precompound decay phenomena

Description: The Boltzmann master equation (BME) is described and used as a tool to interpret preequilibrium neutron emission from heavy ion collisions gated on evaporation residue or fission fragments. The same approach is used to interpret neutron spectra gated on deep inelastic and quasi-elastic heavy ion collisions. Less successful applications of BME to proton inclusive data with 40 MeV/u incident /sup 12/C ions are presented, and improvements required in the exciton injection term are discussed.
Date: June 1, 1988
Creator: Blann, M. & Remington, B.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scaling Extreme Astrophysical Phenomena to the Laboratory

Description: High-energy-density (HED) physics refers broadly to the study of macroscopic collections of matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density. The experimental facilities most widely used for these studies are high-power lasers and magnetic-pinch generators. The HED physics pursued on these facilities is still in its infancy, yet new regimes of experimental science are emerging. Examples from astrophysics include work relevant to planetary interiors, supernovae, astrophysical jets, and accreting compact objects (such as neutron stars and black holes). In this paper, we review a selection of recent results in this new field of HED laboratory astrophysics and provide a brief look ahead to the coming decade.
Date: November 1, 2007
Creator: Remington, B A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Hypothesis of the Magnetostatic Turbulence and its Implications for Astrophysics

Description: Arguments are presented in favor of a possible existence of a random, force-free magnetic field. Ponderomotive forces in such a field are small, and the evolutionary time is much longer than Alfven crossing time over the vortex scale, whence the suggested term ''magnetostatic''. The presence of this long-lived random magnetic field provides stiffness with respect to large-scale compressional motions. On the other hand, such a field cannot be detected by techniques involving line-of-sight averaging. It may therefore be a source of stiffness for various astrophysical objects, ranging from plasmas in clusters of galaxies to the interiors of molecular clouds in HII regions, and remaining at the same time undetectable. Analysis of large-scale motions on the background of the magnetostatic turbulence is presented; it is concluded that these large-scale motions can be roughly described by a usual hydrodynamics for the matter with an isotropic pressure; the adiabatic index is 4/3.
Date: February 26, 2007
Creator: Ryutov, D D & Remington, B A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Similarity Laws for Collisionless Interaction of Superstrong Electromagnetic Fields with a Plasma

Description: Several similarity laws for the collisionless interaction of ultra-intense electromagnetic fields with a plasma of an arbitrary initial shape is presented. Both ultra-relativistic and non-relativistic cases are covered. The ion motion is included. A brief discussion of possible ways of experimental verification of scaling laws is presented. The results can be of interest for experiments and numerical simulations in the areas of particle acceleration, harmonic generation, and Coulomb explosion of clusters.
Date: October 18, 2005
Creator: Ryutov, D D & Remington, B A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The proceedings of the 1st international workshop on laboratory astrophysics experiments with large lasers

Description: The world has stood witness to the development of a number of highly sophisticated and flexible, high power laser facilities (energies up to 50 kJ and powers up to 50 TW), driven largely by the world-wide effort in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The charter of diagnosing implosions with detailed, quantitative measurements has driven the ICF laser facilities to be exceedingly versatile and well equipped with diagnostics. Interestingly, there is considerable overlap in the physics of ICF and astrophysics. Both typically involve compressible radiative hydrodynamics, radiation transport, complex opacities, and equations of state of dense matter. Surprisingly, however, there has been little communication between these two communities to date. With the recent declassification of ICF in the USA, and the approval to commence with construction of the next generation ``superlasers``, the 2 MJ National Ignition Facility in the US, and its equivalent, the LMJ laser in France, the situation is ripe for change. . Given the physics similarities that exist between ICF and astrophysics, one strongly suspects that there should exist regions of overlap where supporting research on the large lasers could be beneficial to the astrophysics community. As a catalyst for discussions to this end, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory sponsored this workshop. Approximately 100 scientists attended from around the world, representing eight countries: the USA, Canada, UK, France, Germany, Russia, Japan, and Israel. A total of 30 technical papers were presented. The two day workshop was divided into four sessions, focusing on nonlinear hydrodynamics, radiative hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and atomic physics-opacities. Copies of the presentations are contained in these proceedings.
Date: August 9, 1996
Creator: Remington, B.A. & Goldstein, W.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Detector distance selection for ICF temperature measurements by neutron TOF techniques

Description: Fuel ion temperatures for laser-driven, inertial-confinement fusion targets are often determined by neutron time-of-flight (TOF) techniques. The error in the temperature measurement is a minimum at a target-to-detector distance that depends on both target and detector characteristics. The error is dominated by the detector response at shorter distances and by the number of detected neutrons at larger distances. We develop equations that relate the temperature error to the target ion temperature, the number of neutrons detected, target-to-detector distance, and the detector impulse response; and present sample calculations of the error for D-D and D-T plasmas observed by typical Nova neutron TOF detectors. The detector placement is important for minimizing temperature error for target yield below 10{sup 10} neutrons. 4 refs., 2 figs.
Date: September 4, 1990
Creator: Lerche, R.A. & Remington, B.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laboratory characterization of Woelter x-ray optics

Description: We have conducted an extensive series of characterization measurements of a Woe1ter incidence x-ray microscope. The measurements were carried out on 5% sectors of the Woe1ter x-ray optic in a laboratory utilizing a high brightness, ``point`` x-ray source and fall into two categories. (1) Absolute reflectance measurements as a function of x-ray energy were made with Si(Li) detectors to acquire continuum spectra prior to and after reflecting off the Woe1ter optic. (2) Spatial resolution measurements were made using back-illuminated pinholes or grids imaged onto film or an x-ray CCD camera. The depth of field was mapped out by varying the distance between the Woe1ter optic and the backlit grid.
Date: April 1, 1994
Creator: Remington, B. A. & Morales, R. I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Frontier HED Science accessible on NIF

Description: With the advent of high-energy-density (HED) experimental facilities, such as high-energy lasers and fast Z-pinch pulsed-power facilities, millimeter-scale quantities of matter can be placed in extreme states of density, temperature, and/or velocity. With the commissioning of the NIF laser facility in the very near future, regimes experimentally accessible will be pushed to even higher densities and pressures. This is enabling the emergence of a new class of experimental science, wherein the properties of matter and the processes that occur under the most extreme physical conditions can be examined in the laboratory. Areas particularly suitable to laboratory astrophysics include the study of opacities relevant to stellar interiors, equations of state relevant to planetary interiors, strong shock-driven nonlinear hydrodynamics and radiative dynamics relevant to supernova explosions and subsequent evolution, protostellar jets and high Mach number flows, radiatively driven molecular clouds, nonlinear photoevaporation front dynamics, and photoionized plasmas relevant to accretion disks around compact objects such as black holes and neutron stars. In the area of materials science and condensed matter physics, material properties such as phase, elastic coefficients such as shear modulus, Peierls stress, and transport coefficients such as thermal diffusivity can be accessed at considerably higher densities and pressure than any existing data. In the field of nonlinear optical phenomena, NIF will be an unparalleled setting for studying the nonlinear interactions of a ''statistical ensemble'' of 100 high power beams in large volumes of plasma. In the area of nuclear physics, nuclear reaction rates in dense, highly screened plasmas and on ignition implosions, reactions from excited nuclear states via multi-hit reactions should be possible. A selection from this frontier HED science accessible on NIF will be presented.
Date: September 24, 2007
Creator: Remington, B A; Ho, D D & Ilinskij, A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modelling off Hugoniot Loading Using Ramp Compression in Single Crystal Copper

Description: The application of a ramp load to a sample is a method by which the thermodynamic variables of the high pressure state can be controlled. The faster the loading rate, the higher the entropy and higher the temperature. This paper describes moleculer dynamics (MD) simulations with 25 million atoms which investigate ramp loading of single crystal copper. The simulations followed the propagation of a 300ps ramp load to 3Mbar along the [100] direction copper. The simulations were long enough to allow the wave front to steepen into a shock, at which point the simulated copper sample shock melted.
Date: November 29, 2010
Creator: Hawreliak, J; Remington, B A; Lorenzana, H; Bringa, E & Wark, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental astrophysics with high power lasers and Z pinches

Description: With the advent of high energy density (HED) experimental facilities, such as high-energy lasers and fast Z-pinch, pulsed-power facilities, mm-scale quantities of matter can be placed in extreme states of density, temperature, and/or velocity. This has enabled the emergence of a new class of experimental science, HED laboratory astrophysics, wherein the properties of matter and the processes that occur under extreme astrophysical conditions can be examined in the laboratory. Areas particularly suitable to this class of experimental astrophysics include the study of opacities relevant to stellar interiors; equations of state relevant to planetary interiors; strong shock driven nonlinear hydrodynamics and radiative dynamics, relevant to supernova explosions and subsequent evolution; protostellar jets and high Mach-number flows; radiatively driven molecular clouds and nonlinear photoevaporation front dynamics; and photoionized plasmas relevant to accretion disks around compact objects, such as black holes and neutron stars.
Date: December 10, 2004
Creator: Remington, B A; Drake, R P & Ryutov, D D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Materials Response under extreme conditions

Description: Solid state experiments at extreme pressures, 10-100 GPa (0.1-1 Mbar) and strain rates (10{sup 6}-10{sup 8} s{sup -1}) are being developed on high-energy laser facilities. The goal is an experimental capability to test constitutive models for high-pressure, solid-state strength for a variety of materials. Relevant constitutive models are discussed, and our progress in developing a quasi-isentropic, ramped-pressure, shockless drive is given. Designs to test the constitutive models with experiments measuring perturbation growth due to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in solid-state samples are presented.
Date: October 6, 2005
Creator: Remington, B A; Lorenz, K T; Pollaine, S & McNaney, J M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calibration and Characterization of Single Photon Counting Cameras for Short-Pulse Laser Experiments

Description: The photon counting efficiency of various CCD based cameras was studied as a function of x-ray energy and exposure. A pair of Spectral Instruments Model 800 CCD cameras fitted with 16 {micro}m thick back-illuminated CCDs were calibrated at low x-ray energy using two well established histogram methods, a standard pixel for pixel histogram and the single pixel event histogram method. In addition, two new thick substrate CCDs were evaluated for use at high energy. One was a commercially available Princeton Instruments LCX1300 deep depletion CCD camera while the other was a custom designed 650 {micro}m thick partially depleted CCD fitted to a SI 800 camera body. It is shown that at high x-ray energy, only a pixel-summing algorithm was able to derive spectral data due to the spreading of x-ray events over many pixels in the thicker substrate CCDs. This paper will describe the different algorithms used to extract spectra and the absolute detection efficiencies using these algorithms. These detectors will be very useful to detect high-energy x-ray photons from high-intensity short pulse laser interactions.
Date: May 5, 2008
Creator: Maddox, B R; Park, H; Remington, B A & McKernan, M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laboratory measurements of materials in extreme conditions; The use of high energy radiation sources for high pressure studies

Description: High energy lasers can be used to study material conditions that are appropriate fort inertial confinement fusion: that is, materials at high densities, temperatures, and pressures. Pulsed power devices can offer similar opportunities. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be a high energy multi-beam laser designed to achieve the thermonuclear ignition of a mm-scale DT-filled target in the laboratory. At the same time, NE will provide the physics community with a unique tool for the study of high energy density matter at states unreachable by any other laboratory technique. Here we describe how these lasers and pulsed power tools can contribute to investigations of high energy density matter in the areas of material properties and equations of state, extend present laboratory shock techniques such as high-speed jets to new regimes, and allow study of extreme conditions found in astrophysical phenomena.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Cauble, R. & Remington, B.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supernova hydrodynamicas experiments using the Nova laser

Description: We are developing experiments using the Nova laser to investigate (1) compressible nonlinear hydrodynamic mixing relevant to the first few hours of the supernova (SN) explosion and (2) ejecta-ambient plasma interactions relevant to the early SN remnant phase. The experiments and astrophysical implications are discussed.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Remington, B.A.; Glendinning, S.G. & Estabrook, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spatial resolution of gated x-ray pinhole cameras

Description: The new camera FXI was investigated. Spatial resolution, or its Fourier transform, the modulation transfer function (MTF), is critical for quantitative interpretation of recent hydrodynamic instability data taken on the Nova laser. We have taken data corresponding to backlit straight edges, pinholes, and grids, both on the bench and {ital in}{ital situ} on Nova. For both the pinhole and edge data, the MTF at all wavelengths of interest can be deduced from a single image. Grids are of more limited usefulness, giving the MTF value only at the spatial period of the grid. These different techniques for characterizing the MTF of gated x-ray pinhole cameras are discussed, with results specific to the FXI presented.
Date: May 15, 1996
Creator: Robey, H.F.; Budil, K.S. & Remington, B.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Structure of mix in a rayleigh-taylor unstable fuild cell

Description: Laser-induced fluorescence is used to image the central plane of the mix region of two immiscible liquids subject to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The familiar bubbles and spikes display a complex internal structure. This small-scale structure creates a large contact area whose density is constant in time. The size of the mixing zone, defined in a new way, grows with coefficient ab >= 0.054.
Date: September 2, 1997
Creator: Schneider, M.B.; Dimonte, G. & Remington, B.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High energy-density science on the National Ignition Facility

Description: The National Ignition Facility, as well as its French counterpart Le Laser Megajoule, have been designed to confront one of the most difficult and compelling problem in shock physics - the creation of a hot, compassed DT plasma surrounded and confined by cold, nearly degenerate DT fuel. At the same time, these laser facilities will present the shock physics community with unique tools for the study of high energy density matter at states unreachable by any other laboratory technique. Here we describe how these lasers can contribute to investigations of high energy density in the area of material properties and equations of state, extend present laboratory shock techniques such as high-speed jets to new regimes, and allow study of extreme conditions found in astrophysical phenomena.
Date: August 1997
Creator: Campbell, E. M.; Cauble, R. & Remington, B. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrodynamic instability experiments on the Nova laser

Description: Hydrodynamic instabilities in compressible plasmas play a critical role in the fields of inertial confinement fusion (ICF), astrophysics, and high energy-density physics. We are, investigating hydrodynamic instabilities such as the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability, at high compression at the Nova laser in a series of experiments, both in planar and in spherical geometry. In the indirect drive approach, a thermal x-ray drive is generated by focusing the Nova laser beams into a Au cylindrical radiation cavity (hohlraum). Issues in the instability evolution that we are examining are shock propagation and foil compression, RT growth of 2D versus 3D single-mode perturbations, drive pulse shape, perturbation location at the ablation front versus at an embedded interface, and multimode perturbation growth and nonlinear saturation. The effects of convergence on RT growth are being investigated both with hemispherical implosions of packages mounted on the hohlraum wall and with spherical implosions of capsules at the center of the hohlraum. Single-mode perturbations are pre-imposed at the ablation front of these capsules as a seed for the RT growth. In our direct drive experiments, we are investigating the effect of laser imprinting and subsequent RT growth on planar foils, both at {lambda}{sub Laser} = 1/3 {mu}m and 1/2 {mu}m. An overview is given describing recent progress in each of these areas.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Remington, B.A.; Glendinning, S.G. & Kalantar, D.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A novel method for diagnosing the growth of subresolution-scale perturbations

Description: We have demonstrated a technique for diagnosing the growth of subresolution-scale perturbations by the appearance of longer-wavelength, coupled modes once the growth has proceeded into the nonlinear regime. Comparison of the growth rate of this larger scale feature with numerical simulations can then be used to infer the growth rates of the initial perturbations. This experiment was conceived as an analog of large-scale computer simulations where the large eddy approximation is applied. There a subgrid-scale model is used to represent the effects of small scales on large-scale motion, which is directly numerically simulated.
Date: May 3, 1996
Creator: Budil, K. S.; Remington, B. A. & Perry, T. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Classical Rayleigh Taylor experiments on Nova

Description: The evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in a compressible medium was investigated both at an accelerating embedded interface and at the ablation front in a new series of experiments on Nova. The x-ray drive generated in a hohlraum ablatively accelerated a planar target consisting of a doped plastic pusher which was in some cases backed by a higher density titanium payload. Both target types were diagnosed by face-on and side-on radiography. Experiments have been done with a variety of wavelengths and initial amplitudes. In the case where the perturbed RT-unstable embedded interface is isolated from the ablation front, short wavelength perturbations are observed to grow strongly. When the perturbation is at the ablation front, the short wavelengths are observed to be severely stabilized.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Budil, K.S.; Remington, B.A. & Peyser, T.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department