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Event sequence quantification for a loss of shutdown cooling accident in the GCFR

Description: A summary is presented of the core-wide sequence of events of a postulated total loss of forced and natural convection decay heat removal in a shutdown Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR). It outlines the analytical methods and results for the progression of the accident sequence. This hypothetical accident proceeds in the distinct phases of cladding melting, assembly wall melting and molten steel relocation into the interassembly spacing, and fuel relocation. It identifies the key phenomena of the event sequence and the concerns and mechanisms of both recriticality and recriticality prevention.
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Frank, M. & Reilly, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Metal hydride technology

Description: A promising alternative for hydrogen storage is storage as a metal hydride. The properties and applications of those systems which have proven or potential utility as hydrogen storage compounds are summarized. Specific systems discussed are magnesium alloy hydrides, iron-titanium alloys, titanium-chromium alloys, and rare earth alloys. (LK)
Date: February 1, 1979
Creator: Reilly, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coefficient of thermal expansion of fluorinert as a function of volume percent absorbed air

Description: The relationship between the coefficient of volumetric thermal expansion of liquid Fluorinert FC-86 and the volume percent of absorbed air was examined experimentally. A special test apparatus was built for this purpose. A floating liquid seal was used to isolate the Fluorinert sample from the atmosphere. This prevented gas absorption during thermal cycling yet allowed the sample to expand and contract freely during testing. It was found that the coefficient of thermal expansion is not influenced by the percentage of absorbed air.
Date: June 1, 1982
Creator: Reilly, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogen storage and purification systems. II. August 1972-June 1974

Description: Pressure-composition isotherms are given for the following systems: FeTi-H/sub 2/ (0, 30, 40, 55, 70/sup 0/C); Fe/sub 0/ /sub 95/V/sub 0/ /sub 05/Ti/sub 1/ /sub 0/-H/sub 2/ (40/sup 0/C); Fe/sub 1/ /sub 0/Cu/sub 0/ /sub 1/Ti/sub 1/ /sub 0/-H/sub 2/ (40/sup 0/C); Fe/sub 0/ /sub 9/Mo/sub 0/ /sub 1/Ti-H/sub 2/ (40/sup 0/C); two (Fe, Cr, Ti)-H/sub 2/ (40/sup 0/C); three (Fe, Mn, Ti)-H/sub 2/ (40, 70/sup 0/C); Fe/sub 0/ /sub 8/Mn/sub 0/ /sub 2/Ti-H/sub 2/ (61/sup 0/C); Fe/sub 0/ /sub 9/Mn/sub 0/ /sub 1/Ti/sub 1/ /sub 0/-H/sub 2/ (30, 40, 50/sup 0/C); CoTi-H/sub 2/ (123, 138, 154/sup 0/C); Mg/sub 2/Al/sub 3/-H/sub 2/ (302, 326/sup 0/C); LaNi/sub 5/-H/sub 2/ (40/sup 0/C); and La/sub 4/ /sub 75/Pt/sub 0/ /sub 25/-H/sub 2/ (40/sup 0/C).
Date: August 1, 1974
Creator: Reilly, J.J. & Wiswall, R.H. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemistry of intermetallic hydrides

Description: Certain intermetallic hydrides are safe, convenient and inexpensive hydrogen storage compounds. A particular advantage of such compounds is the ease with which their properties can be modified by small changes in alloy composition or preparation. This quality can be exploited to optimize their storage properties for particular applications, e.g. as intermetallic hydride electrodes in batteries. We will be concerned herein with the more important aspects of the thermodynamic and structural principles which regulate the behavior of intermetallic hydrogen systems and then illustrate their application using the archetype hydrides of LaNi5, FeTi and Mg alloys. The practical utility of these classes of materials will be briefly noted.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Reilly, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Metal hydride reasearch and development program at Brookhaven National Laboratory

Description: A progress report is presented covering work performed in the hydrogen materials development program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for FY78 which encompasses the time period from October 1, 1977 through September 30, 1978. The subjects to be discussed here concern properties of importance in the utilization of metal hydrides as energy storage media. Most of the areas of research were initiated prior to FY78, however all of the results contained in this manuscript were obtained during the aforementioned period of time. The following subjects will be discussed: the properties of ferro-titanium and chrome-titanium alloy hydrides.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Johnson, J.R. & Reilly, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Use of Manganese Substituted Ferrotitanium Alloys for Energy Storage

Description: Experimental results are presented on properties of major practical importance in the utilization of manganese-substituted ferrotitanium alloys as hydrogen storage media. Consideration is given to (1) pressure-composition-temperature characteristics, (2) particle attrition properties, (3) effects of long-term cycling on alloy stability, (4) ease of activation and reactivation, and (5) effects of contaminants on alloy activity. The performance of ternary alloys is compared with that of titanium iron as is the development of an optimum ternary alloy for use with a particular peak shaving operation, i.e., the regenerative H2-Cl system.
Date: December 5, 1977
Creator: Johnson, J.R. & Reilly, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synthesis and characterization of metal hydride electrodes. Interim report

Description: The objective of this project is to elucidate the compositional and structural parameters that affect the thermodynamics, kinetics and stability of alloy hydride electrodes and to use this information in the development of new high capacity long life hydride electrodes for rechargeable batteries. The work focuses on the development of AB{sub 5} alloys and the application of in situ methods, at NSLS, such as x-ray absorption (XAS), to elucidate the role of the alloying elements in hydrogen storage and corrosion inhibition. The most significant results to date are: The decay of electrode capacity on cycling was directly related to alloy corrosion. The rate of corrosion depended in part on both the alloy composition and the partial molar volume of hydrogen, V{sub H}. The corrosion rate depended on the composition of the A component in AB{sub 5} (LaNi{sub 5} type) alloys. Partial substitution of La with Ce in AB{sub 5} alloys substantially inhibits electrode corrosion on cycling. Recent results indicate that Co also greatly inhibits electrode corrosion, possibly by minimizing V{sub H}. The AB{sub 5} alloys investigated included LaNi{sub 5}, ternary alloys (e.g. LaN{sub 4.8}Sn{sub 0.2} and La{sub 0.8}Ce{sub 0.2}Ni{sub 5}), alloys with various substitutions for both La and Ni (e.g. La{sub 0.8}Ce{sub 0.2}Ni{sub 4.8}Sn{sub 0.2}) and mischmetal (Mm) alloys of the type normally used in batteries, such as MmB{sub 5} (B = Ni{sub 3.55}Mn{sub 0.4}A1{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.75}). A major effort was devoted to the effects of La substitution in the A component. Both in situ and ex situ XAS measurements are used to study the electronic effects that occur on the addition of various metal substitutions and on the ingress of hydrogen.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: McBreen, J. & Reilly, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of fuel shares in the residential sector: 1960 to 1995

Description: Historical and future energy use by fuel type in the residential sector of the United States are examined. Of interest is the likely relative demand for fuels as they affect national policy issues such as the potential shortfall of electric generating capacity in the mid to late 1990's and the ability of the residential sector to switch rapdily among fuels in response to fuel shortages, price increases and other factors. Factors affecting the share of a fuel used rather than the aggregate level of energy use are studied. However, the share of a fuel used is not independent of the level of energy consumption. In the analysis, the level of consumption of each fuel is computed as an intermediate result and is reported for completeness.
Date: August 1, 1986
Creator: Reilly, J.M.; Shankle, S.A. & Pomykala, J.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preparation and some properties of H/sub x/REBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7/ (RE = Er, Nd, Dy, Ho, Gd) superconductors

Description: Hydrogen gas has been found to react directly with the subject oxides. Most exhibit a small region of H solid solubility which remains superconducting with a slight increase in critical temperature (1 to 2K). At higher H contents a hydrogen rich hydride phase precipitates which is amorphous. The H rich phases are not superconducting at 4K or above. Neutron diffraction studies of D/sub 1.55/YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7/ confirm that the D rich phase is amorphous but that its precipitation causes increased microtwinning in the D saturated oxide. 12 refs., 3 figs.
Date: January 1, 1988
Creator: Johnson, J.; Suenaga, M.; Thompson, P. & Reilly, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tool compensation using statistical process control on complex milling operations

Description: In today`s competitive manufacturing environment, many companies increasingly rely on numerical control (NC) mills to produce products at a reasonable cost. Typically, this is done by producing as many features as possible at each machining operation to minimize the total number of shop hours invested per part. Consequently, the number of cutting tools involved in one operation can become quite large since NC mills have the capacity to use in excess of 100 cutting tools. As the number of cutting tools increases, the difficulty of applying optimum tool compensation grows exponentially, quickly overwhelming machine operators and engineers. A systematic method of managing tool compensation is required. The name statistical process control (SPC) suggests a technique in which statistics are used to stabilize and control a machining operation. Feedback and control theory, the study of the stabilization of electronic and mechanical systems, states that control can be established by way of a feedback network. If these concepts were combined, SPC would stabilize and control manufacturing operations through the incorporation of statistically processed feedback. In its simplest application, SPC has been used as a tool to analyze inspection data. In its most mature application, SPC can be the link that applies process feedback. The approach involves: (1) identifying the significant process variables adjusted by the operator; (2) developing mathematical relationships that convert strategic part measurements into variable adjustments; and (3) implementing SPC charts that record required adjustment to each variable.
Date: March 1, 1994
Creator: Reilly, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of the Edmonds-Reilly Model to model energy-sector impacts of greenhouse gas emissions control strategies

Description: The purpose of this paper is to document the results of our application of the Edmonds-Reilly Model (ERM) using several scenarios provided in connection with the 1991 Energy Modeling Forum (EMF). The purpose of this session of the forum is to compare the efforts of several modeling teams using common assumptions to examine the energy sector impacts of strategies to control greenhouse gas emissions. Because the output of this exercise is data-rich, most of this exposition is in graphical form with the narrative serving mainly as a roadmap for moving from one highlight to the next. The following sessions briefly describe the model and some of the special modifications made for this effort. The case-by-case discussion is contained in Section IV, followed by a summary of the potential pitfalls involved in attempting to assess the cost of emissions reduction from the model data.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Barns, D.W.; Edmonds, J.A. & Reilly, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Existence of fcc TiCr/sub 1/ /sub 8/H/sub 5/ /sub 3/

Description: Originally an orthorhombic structure was assigned to the non-stoichiometric hydride TiCr/sub 1/ /sub 8/H/sub 3/ /sub 6/. Recent neutron and x-ray diffraction data indicated, however, that an alternate interpretation was possible, i.e. the solid consists of two hydride phases, an ..cap alpha..' Laves phase having a composition of TiCr/sub 1/ /sub 8/H/sub 2/ /sub 8/ and an fcc phase with a much higher hydrogen content. This proved to be the case and it has been determined that the high concentration phase has a disordered fluorite structure with a/sub o/=4.27 A. Its hydrogen content, as estimated from diffraction peak intensities, corresponds to TiCr/sub 1/ /sub 8/H/sub 5/ /sub 3/. We have not been able to produce single phase fcc material but have prepared a mixed phase sample with an overall composition of TiCr/sub 1/ /sub 8/H/sub 4/ /sub 8/. The high-pressure reaction leading to the formation of the fluorite phase is very sluggish and irreversible. Pressure-composition-temperature (p-c-T) properties of this system have been determined and are discussed and a revised phase diagram is proposed.
Date: February 1, 1982
Creator: Johnson, J.R.; Reilly, J.J.; Reidinger, F.; Corliss, L.M. & Hastings, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lattice expansion as a measure of surface segregation and solubility of hydrogen in. cap alpha. -FeTiH/sub x/

Description: The lattice expansion of ..cap alpha..-FeTiH/sub x/ was found to be anomalously small as a function of hydrogen content. The apparent partial molar volume of hydrogen, anti V/sub H/, was 0.1 +- 0.1 cc/g atom (FeTiH/sub <0.03/), a value much lower than the accepted range of 2.2 to 1.4 cc/g atom previously reported for hydrogen-metal solutions. The behavior is attributed to preferential occupation by hydrogen of Ti rich sites produced by surface segregation effects which are known to occur in activated FeTi. The ..cap alpha../..cap alpha.. + ..beta.. phase boundary is estimated to occur at an overall composition equivalent to FeTi/sub approx. 0.04/. At this composition approx. 85% of the total hydrogen content is estimated to be associated with surface layers approx. 100 A in depth. Unactivated FeTi (low surface area) behaved quite differently and it is clear that in the low dilution region surface segregation effects play a dominant role with respect to system behavior. Evidence is also presented that strain and dislocations produced by a hydriding-dehydriding cycle increase hydrogen solubility and shift the phase boundary towards higher hydrogen contents.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Reilly, J.J.; Johnson, J.R.; Reidinger, F.; Lynch, J.F.; Tanaka, J. & Wiswall, R.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Irreversible effects in the FeTi/H system

Description: The equilibrium hydrogen absorption isotherm using annealed, strain-free FeTi, exhibits only one plateau up to a composition of FeTiH/sub 1.95/. However, the desorption isotherm, determined immediately after the first hydriding step, exhibits the usual two plateaux. X-ray diffraction results of samples with compositions within the absorption plateau limits indicate the major phases present to be ..cap alpha.. and ..gamma.., although a small amount of ..beta.. phase was always detected. Apparently the absorption isotherm represents the direct conversion of ..cap alpha.. ..-->.. ..gamma.. and ..beta.. phase precipitation is almost completely suppressed. Thermodynamic quantities for this conversion are given. The results are attributed to the influence of lattice strain upon the behavior of the ..beta..1 and ..beta..2 phases. A practical consequence of the effect is the distortion of the pressure-composition isotherm in the ..beta..-..gamma.. region as a function of hydriding-dehydriding cycles. This is caused by an increase in H solubility of the ..beta.. and ..gamma.. phases and the widening of the phase composition limits as the strain increases with cycle number. However, after many hundreds of cycles there is no further significant increase in strain and the isotherm shape becomes essentially fixed and reproducible. The distortion is reversible by mild annealing.
Date: March 1, 1982
Creator: Reilly, J.J.; Johnson, J.R.; Lynch, J.F. & Reidinger, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of possible future atmospheric retention of fossil fuel CO/sub 2/

Description: This report investigates the likely rates and the potential range of future CO/sub 2/ emissions, combined with knowledge of the global cycle of carbon, to estimate a possible range of future atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations through the year 2075. Historic fossil fuel usage to the present, growing at a rate of 4.5% per year until 1973 and at a slower rate of 1.9% after 1973, was combined with three scenarios of projected emissions growth ranging from approximately 0.2 to 2.8% per year to provide annual CO/sub 2/ emissions data for two different carbon cycle models. The emissions scenarios were constructed using an energy-economic model and by varying key parameters within the bounds of currently expected future values. The extreme values for CO/sub 2/ emissions in the year 2075 are 6.8 x 10/sup 15/ and 91 x 10/sup 15/ g C year/sup -1/. Carbon cycle model simulations used a range of year - 1800 preindustrial atmospheric concentrations of 245 to 292 ppM CO/sub 2/ and three scenarios of bioshere conversion as additional atmospheric CO/sub 2/ source terms. These simulations yield a range of possible atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations in year 2075 of approximately 500 to 1500 ppM, with a median of about 700 ppM. The time at which atmospheric CO/sub 2/ would potentially double from the preindustrial level ranges from year 2025 to >2075. The practical, programmatic value of this forecast exercise is that it forces quantitative definition of the assumptions, and the uncertainties therein, which form the basis of our understanding of the natural biogeochemical cycle of carbon and both historic and future human influences on the dynamics of the global cycle. Assumptions about the possible range of future atmospheric CO/sub 2/ levels provide a basis on which to evaluate the implications of these changes on climate and the biosphere. ...
Date: September 1, 1984
Creator: Edmonds, J.A.; Reilly, J.; Trabalka, J.R. & Reichle, D.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiation effects on resins and zeolites at Three Mile Island Unit II

Description: Radiation effects on resin and zeolite used in the waste cleanup at Three Mile Island Unit II have been examined both experimentally and in-situ. Hydrogen and organic gases are generated due to absorbed radiation as a function of resin material, curie loading and residual water content. Significant oxygen scavaging was demonstrated in the organic resin liners. Hydrogen and oxygen gases in near stoichiometric quantities are generated from irradiation of residual water in inorganic zeolites. Gas generation was determined to be directly proportional to curie content but correlates poorly with residual water content in zeolite vessels. Results of the gas generation analyses of EPICOR II liners show that vessels with less than 166 curies had almost no hydrogen generated during two years of storage and therefore did not require safety measures for shipment or storage. Experimental measurements done at research laboratories predicted similar results associated with hydrogen gas generation and oxygen depletion. X-ray diffraction examinations and ion exchange capacity measurements indicated no evidence of irradiation effects on the structure or cesium exchange capacity for zeolites exposed to 10/sup 10/ rads. Darkening and damage of organic resin due to radiation has been identified. Breaking and agglomeration of the purification demineralizer resin is believed to be the result of temperature effects. No damage was identified from radiation effects on zeolite. Organic and inorganic sorbents used in the processing of contaminated waters at TMI-2 have been shown to be effective in maintaining long-term stability under high radiation conditions. The effects of radiolytic degradation have been shown by direct measurements and simulation tests and are of use in their general application throughout the industry.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Reilly, J.K.; Grant, P.J.; Quinn, G.J. & Hofstetter, K.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of the Edmonds-Reilly Model to model energy-sector impacts of greenhouse gas emissions control strategies

Description: The purpose of this paper is to document the results of our application of the Edmonds-Reilly Model (ERM) using several scenarios provided in connection with the 1991 Energy Modeling Forum (EMF). The purpose of this session of the forum is to compare the efforts of several modeling teams using common assumptions to examine the energy sector impacts of strategies to control greenhouse gas emissions. Because the output of this exercise is data-rich, most of this exposition is in graphical form with the narrative serving mainly as a roadmap for moving from one highlight to the next. The following sessions briefly describe the model and some of the special modifications made for this effort. The case-by-case discussion is contained in Section IV, followed by a summary of the potential pitfalls involved in attempting to assess the cost of emissions reduction from the model data.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Barns, D. W.; Edmonds, J. A. & Reilly, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ALUMINUM HYDRIDE, A1H3, AS A HYDROGEN STORAGE COMPOUND.

Description: Aluminum hydride is a covalent, binary hydride that has been known for more than 60 years and is an attractive medium for on-board automotive hydrogen storage, since it contains 10.1% by wt. hydrogen with a density of 1.48 g/ml. There are at least 7 non-solvated AlH{sub 3} phases, namely {alpha}, {alpha}{prime}, {beta}, {gamma}, {var_epsilon} and {zeta}. The properties of {alpha}-AlH{sub 3}, obtained from the Dow Chemical Co. in 1980, have been previously reported. Here we present a description of the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of freshly prepared {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma} phases of AlH{sub 3}. In all cases the decomposition kinetics are appreciable below 100 C and all will meet the DOE 2010 gravimetric and volumetric vehicular system targets (6 wt% H{sub 2} and 0.045 kg/L). However, further research will be required to develop an efficient and economical process to regenerate AlH{sub 3} from the spent Al powder.
Date: November 27, 2006
Creator: GRAETZ, J.; REILLY, J.; SANDROCK, G.; JOHNSON, J.; ZHOU, W.M. & WEGRZYN, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE LOCAL TITANIUM ENVIRONMENT IN DOPED SODIUM ALUMINUM HYDRIDE USING X-RAY ADSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY.

Description: Ti K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to explore the local titanium environment and valence in 2-4 mol% Ti-doped sodium alanate. An estimate of the oxidation state of the dopant, based upon known standards, revealed a zero-valent titanium atom. An analysis of the near-edge and extended fine structures indicates that the Ti does not enter substitutional or interstitial sites in the NaAlH{sub 4} lattice. Rather, the Ti is located on/near the surface and is coordinated by 10.2 {+-} 1 aluminum atoms with an interatomic distance of 2.82 {+-} 0.01 {angstrom}, similar to that of TiAl{sub 3}. The Fourier transformed EXAFS spectra reveals a lack of long-range order around the Ti dopant indicating that the Ti forms nano-clusters of TiAl{sub 3}. The similarity of the spectra in the hydrided and dehydrided samples suggests that the local Ti environment is nearly invariant during hydrogen cycling.
Date: November 30, 2004
Creator: GRAETZ, J.; IGNATOV, A. YU; TYSON, T.A.; REILLY, J.J. & JOHNSON, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department