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Plasma and Beam Production Experiments with HYBRIS, aMicrowave-assisted H- Ion

Description: A two-stage ion source concept had been presented a few years ago, consisting of a proven H- ion source and a 2.45-GHz Electron Cyclotron-Resonance (ECR) type ion source, here used as a plasma cathode. This paper describes the experimental development path pursued at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, from the early concept to a working unit that produces plasma in both stages and creates a negative particle beam. Without cesiation applied to the second stage, the H{sup -} fraction of this beam is very low, yielding 75 micro-amperes of extracted ion beam current at best. The apparent limitations of this approach and envisaged improvements are discussed.
Date: September 13, 2006
Creator: Keller, R. AUTHOR-Kwan, S.; Hahto, S.; Regis, M. & Wallig, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fast Pulsing Neutron Generators for Security Application

Description: Active neutron interrogation has been demonstrated to be an effective method of detecting shielded fissile material. A fast fall-time/fast pulsing neutron generator is needed primarily for differential die-away technique (DDA) interrogation systems. A compact neutron generator, currently being developed in Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, employs an array of 0.6-mm-dia apertures (instead of one 6-mm-dia aperture) such that gating the beamlets can be done with low voltage and a small gap to achieve sub-microsecond ion beam fall time and low background neutrons. Arrays of 16 apertures (4x4) and 100 apertures (10x10) have been designed and fabricated for a beam extraction experiment. The preliminary results showed that, using a gating voltage of 1200 V and a gap distance of 1 mm, the fall time of extracted ion beam pulses is approximately 0.15 mu s at beam energies of 1000 eV.
Date: April 24, 2009
Creator: Ji, Q.; Regis, M. & Kwan, J. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microwave Ion Source and Beam Injection for an Accelerator-drivenNeutron Source

Description: An over-dense microwave driven ion source capable ofproducing deuterium (or hydrogen) beams at 100-200 mA/cm2 and with atomicfraction>90 percent was designed and tested with an electrostaticlow energy beam transport section (LEBT). This ion source wasincorporatedinto the design of an Accelerator Driven Neutron Source(ADNS). The other key components in the ADNS include a 6 MeV RFQaccelerator, a beam bending and scanning system, and a deuterium gastarget. In this design a 40 mA D+ beam is produced from a 6 mm diameteraperture using a 60 kV extraction voltage. The LEBT section consists of 5electrodes arranged to form 2 Einzel lenses that focus the beam into theRFQ entrance. To create the ECR condition, 2 induction coils are used tocreate ~; 875 Gauss on axis inside the source chamber. To prevent HVbreakdown in the LEBT a magnetic field clamp is necessary to minimize thefield in this region. Matching of the microwave power from the waveguideto the plasma is done by an autotuner. We observed significantimprovement of the beam quality after installing a boron nitride linerinside the ion source. The measured emittance data are compared withPBGUNS simulations.
Date: February 15, 2007
Creator: Vainionpaa, J.H.; Gough, R.; Hoff, M.; Kwan, J.W.; Ludewigt,B.A.; Regis, M.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fast fall-time ion beam in neutron generators

Description: Ion beam with a fast fall time is useful in building neutron generators for the application of detecting hidden, gamma-shielded SNM using differential die-away (DDA) technique. Typically a fall time of less than 1 {micro}s can't be achieved by just turning off the power to the ion source due to the slow decay of plasma density (partly determined by the fall time of the RF power in the circuit). In this paper, we discuss the method of using an array of mini-apertures (instead of one large aperture beam) such that gating the beamlets can be done with low voltage and a small gap. This geometry minimizes the problem of voltage breakdown as well as reducing the time of flight to produce fast gating. We have designed and fabricated an array of 16 apertures (4 x 4) for a beam extraction experiment. Using a gating voltage of 1400 V and a gap distance of 1 mm, the fall time of extracted ion beam pulses is less than 1 {micro}s at various beam energies ranging between 400 eV to 800 eV. Usually merging an array of beamlets suffers the loss of beam brightness, i.e., emittance growth, but that is not an important issue for neutron source applications.
Date: August 10, 2008
Creator: Ji, Q.; Kwan, J.; Regis, M.; Wu, Y.; Wilde, S.B. & Wallig, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Approach towards a Long-life, Microwave-assisted H- Ion Soucrefor Proton Drivers

Description: This paper reports on experiments aimed at developing a new high-intensity H{sup -} ion source with long lifetime whose concept had recently been introduced. Starting from the motivation for this effort, several steps of the earlier development work are recapitulated, and the performance of the latest design variant is discussed in detail. The basic concept consists in coupling an ECR ion source to a standard SNS multi-cusp H{sup -} ion source that is driven by pulsed dc, rather than rf, power. As a key result, an electron beam of 1.5 A current has been extracted from the ECR discharge operating at 1.9 kW c. w. power, and a maximum discharge current of 17.5 A was achieved in the H{sup -} ion source. Production of H{sup -} ions, however could not yet been demonstrated in the one, preliminary, experiment conducted so far. The paper concludes by outlining further envisaged development steps for the plasma generator and an expansion towards a novel extraction system.
Date: October 26, 2005
Creator: Keller, R.; Regis, M.; Wallig, J.; Hahto, S.; Monroy, M.; Ratti,A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A hybrid ion-source concept for a proton driver front-end

Description: A novel concept for creating intense beams of negative hydrogen ion beams has been devised, and first steps towards its realization have been taken. In this approach, an ECR plasma generator operating at 2.45 GHz frequency is utilized as a plasma cathode, and electrons are extracted instead of ions and injected at moderate energy into an SNS type multi-cusp H{sup -} ion source. This secondary source is then driven by chopped d. c. power, rather than rf power, but does not need filaments which are the cause for the rather short lifetime of conventional H{sup -} sources. The development of this ion source is primarily aimed at the future beam-power goal of 3 MW for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) [1] that will be pursued after the start of SNS operations. The first two phases of this development effort have been successfully passed: assembly of a test stand and verification of the performance of an rf-driven SNS ion-source prototype and extraction of electrons with more than 200 mA current from a 2.45-GHz ECR ion source obtained on loan from Argonne National Laboratory. An electron-extraction chamber that joins these ECR and H{sup -} sources has been fabricated, and the next goal is the demonstration of actual H{sup -} ion production by this novel, hybrid ion source. This paper describes the source principle and design in detail, reports on the current status of the development work, and gives an outlook on future lines of development.
Date: October 18, 2004
Creator: Keller, R.; Luft, P.; Regis, M.; Wallig, J.; Monroy, M.; Ratti,A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CANCELLED Microwave Ion Source and Beam Injection for anAccelerator-Driven Neut ron Source

Description: An over-dense microwave driven ion source capable of producing deuterium (or hydrogen) beams at 100-200 mA/cm{sup 2} and with atomic fraction > 90% was designed and tested with an electrostatic low energy beam transport section (LEBT). This ion source was incorporated into the design of an Accelerator Driven Neutron Source (ADNS). The other key components in the ADNS include a 6 MeV RFQ accelerator, a beam bending and scanning system, and a deuterium gas target. In this design a 40 mA D{sup +} beam is produced from a 6 mm diameter aperture using a 60 kV extraction voltage. The LEBT section consists of 5 electrodes arranged to form 2 Einzel lenses that focus the beam into the RFQ entrance. To create the ECR condition, 2 induction coils are used to create {approx} 875 Gauss on axis inside the source chamber. To prevent HV breakdown in the LEBT a magnetic field clamp is necessary to minimize the field in this region. Matching of the microwave power from the waveguide to the plasma is done by an autotuner. They observed significant improvement of the beam quality after installing a boron nitride liner inside the ion source. The measured emittance data are compared with PBGUNS simulations.
Date: February 27, 2007
Creator: Vainionpaa, J.H.; Gough, R.; Hoff, M.; Kwan, J.W.; Ludewigt,B.A.; Regis, M.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HEAVY ION FUSION SCIENCE VIRTUALNATIONAL LABORATORY 2nd QUARTER 2009 MILESTONE REPORT: Perform beam and target experiments with a new induction bunching module, extended FEPS plasma, and improved target diagnostic and positioning equipment on NDCX

Description: This effort contains two main components: The new induction-bunching module is expected to deliver higher fluence in the bunched beam, and the new target positioner will enable a significantly enhanced target physics repetition rate. The velocity ramp that bunches the K{sup +} beam in the neutralized drift compression section is established with a bipolar voltage ramp applied to an acceleration gap. An induction acceleration module creates this voltage waveform. The new bunching module (IBM) specially built for NDCX has approximately twice the capability (volt-seconds) as our original IBM. We reported on the beam line design for the best use of the bunching module in our FY08 Q2 report. Based on simulations and theoretical work, we chose to extend the drift compression section and use the additional volt-seconds to extend the pulse duration and keep the peak voltage swing (and velocity excursions) similar to the present module. Simulations showed that this approach, which extends the drift section, to be advantageous because it limits the chromatic aberrations in the beam spot on target. To this end, colleagues at PPPL have fabricated the meter-long extension to the ferroelectric plasma source and it was installed on the beam line with the new IBM in January 2009. Simulation results suggest a factor of two increase in energy deposition from the bunched beam. In the first WDM target run (August-November 2008) the target handling setup required opening the vacuum system to manually replace the target after each shot (which destroys the target). Because of the requirement for careful alignment of each individual target, the target shot repetition rate was no greater than 1 shot per day. Initial results of this run are reported in our FY08 4th Quarter Milestone Report. Based on the valuable experience gained in the initial run, we have designed and installed an ...
Date: March 31, 2009
Creator: Bieniosek, F.M.; Anders, A.; Barnard, J.J.; Dickinson, M.R.; Gilson, E.; Greenway, W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HEAVY ION FUSION SCIENCE VIRTUAL NATIONAL LABORATORY 3nd QUARTER 2009 MILESTONE REPORT: Upgrade plasma source configuration and carry out initial experiments. Characterize improvements in focal spot beam intensity

Description: Simulations suggest that the plasma density must exceed the beam density throughout the drift compression and focusing section in order to inhibit the space charge forces that would limit the spot size and beam intensity on the target. WDM experiments will therefore require plasma densities up to 10{sup 14}/cm{sup 3}, with the highest density in the last few centimeters before the target. This work was guided by the simulations performed for the FY09 Q1 milestone. This milestone has been met and we report results of modifications made to the NDCX beamline to improve the longitudinal and radial distribution of the neutralizing plasma in the region near the target plane. In Section 2, we review pertinent simulation results from the FY09 Q1 milestone. Section 3 describes the design, and beam measurements following installation, of a biased, self-supporting metal grid that produces neutralizing electrons from glancing interception of beam ions. Section 4 describes the design and initial testing of a compact Ferro-Electric Plasma Source (FEPS) that will remove the remaining 'exclusion zone' in the neutralizing plasma close to the target plane. Section 5 describes the modification of the beamline to decrease the gap between the FEPS section exit and the final focus solenoid (FFS). Section 6 presents a summary and conclusions.
Date: June 30, 2009
Creator: Lidia, S.; Anders, A.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Dorf, M.; Faltens, A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department