19 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Enkephalin Metabolism in Exercise Stress

Description: Investigators have suggested that opiate peptide hormones released during exercise stress may play an important role in athletic performance or perceived effort. Their enzymatic inactivation in the periphery is of considerable interest since the opiate peptides may be regulated by enkephalin hydrolyzing enzyme (EHA). In this study, the relationship between maximal aerobic capacity (VO_2max) and EHA activity was examined in two distinct fitness groups. When the metabolic capacity was evaluated in whole blood, the unfit subjects metabolized the peptides significantly faster than their fit counterparts. Since the total enzyme activity of the two groups is similar, the difference in metabolism must result from circulating factors in the trained athletes, which slow the rate of peptide inactivation.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Jaskowski, Margaret Anne
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship Between Maximal Aerobic Capacity and Left Ventricular Function with Respect to Age

Description: In this study, the relationship between maximal aerobic capacity (VO₂max) and left ventricular function was examined in two distinct age groups. A young group (20 - 30 years of age) and an elderly group (over 60 years of age) were compared. Left ventricular function was examined over wide variations in preload accomplished by 5º head-down tilt (TILT) for ninety minutes and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) to -40 mm Hg. with two-dimensional echocardiography. A greater response to an increase in preload (TILT) was related to high VO₂max levels in the young subjects but not in the elderly groups of subjects, suggesting that lower VO₂max levels of the elderly population affected the mechanism of response to the increased levels of preload. Additionally, in the elderly, greater reductions in ventricular volume reflected increased peripheral pooling due to decreased venous tone and/or increased venous compliance during LBNP and were related to increased VO₂max. In the young, VO₂max does not appear to affect the response to reduced preload.
Date: December 1981
Creator: Page, Kimberly Ann
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Factor Analysis of Twelve Selected Resistance Exercises on the Universal Gym

Description: This study was to clarify strength factors using 12 selected exercises on the Universal Gym, and to determine what measures present a valid method of assessing strength of college-aged males, Eighty-eight males enrolled in beginning weight-training classes used the Universal Gym for twelve weeks, Subjects were tested for maximum strength on 12 exercises, Alpha and canonical factor analyses were performed on raw scores of all measures, and on scores when body weight and standing height variances were removed. A three-factor structure of upper extremity, lower extremity, and trunk strength was revealed when weight, and weight and height combined were statistically controlled. Results showed that residualized scores of weight can be used to evaluate strength on the Universal.Gym,
Date: August 1980
Creator: Watkins, Mark Edwin
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Age, Fitness Level, and Exercise Training upon Autonomic Control of Heart Rate

Description: In this study the effects of age (18-55 years), differing levels of fitness (VO 2max ranging from 35.5 to 68.8ml.kg-1.min-1) and endurance training (10 weeks) on heart rate control were investigated. Fitness level was initially determined by a VO2max stress test, succeeded by cold hand and cold face pressor test of autonomic activity. Following these baseline measurements, the subjects (32 nonsmoking male volunteers) were endurance-trained three to four times a week for a 10-week period. The baseline tests were readministered following the 10-week dynamic exercise training period. These data suggest that a natural consequence of aging is a diminishment of autonomic heart rate control; however, endurance training appears to interrupt the aging influence. Individuals of low fitness level appear to have heart rate control dominated by the sympathetic system, while individuals with high fitness levels have a vagally dominated heart rate control system.
Date: May 1980
Creator: Baun, William Boyd
Partner: UNT Libraries

Cardiovascular and Hormonal Responses to Orthostasis Following Four Hours of Head-Down Rest in Endurance-Exercise-Trained and Untrained Subjects

Description: Cardiovascular and hormonal responses to +700 head-up tilt (HUT: orthostatic challenge) were compared between six endurance exercise trained (ET) and six untrained (UT) subjects prior to and immediately following 4 hours of -60 head-down rest (HDR). The ET subjects showed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in orthostatic tolerance time (pre syncopal symptoms) during post-HDR HUT, while no difference was observed between ET and UT groups in pre-HDR HUT. The volume regulatory hormonal responses were similar between ET and UT groups whether during HUT or HDR. The pre-syncopal subjects had a greater increase in plasma arginine vasopressin and less increase in plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone during HUT than was observed in non syncopal subjects. These data suggest that HDR deconditioning was more effective in the ET subjects.
Date: December 1990
Creator: Chen, Jia-Jen
Partner: UNT Libraries

Echocardiographic Assessment of the Left Ventricle in the Spinal Cord Injured Patient

Description: Ten caucasian male quadriplegics were compared with eight sedentary caucasian male controls in regards to left ventricular dimensions and mass obtained from echocardiograrns. The interventricular septum (IVS), left ventricular posterior wall (LVPW) and left ventricular internal diameter (LVII) were within normal limits for both groups. However, the INS in the SCI were significantly thicker than controls (p <0.05). Myocardial thickness was larger in SCI subjects (p <0.05). Absolute left ventricular mass (LVM) and total left ventricular volume was not different ( p > 0.05), but SCI subjects had significantly greater LVM to lean body mass ratios. Echocardiographically, SCI patients demonstrate concentric hypertrophy. This suggests adaptive response to chronic increase in afterload pressure secondary to their daily activities and muscle spasticity.
Date: May 1989
Creator: Nock, Bonnie J. (Bonnie Jean)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Aortic Baroreceptor Reflex Control of Blood Pressure: Effect of Fitness

Description: Aortic baroreflex (ABR) control of blood pressure was examined in 7 untrained (UT) and 8 endurance exercise trained (EET) young men. ABR control of blood pressure was determined during a steady state phenylephrine infusion to increase mean arterial pressure 10-15 mmHg, combined with positive neck pressure to counteract the increased carotid sinus transmural pressure, and low levels of lower body negative pressure to counteract the increased central venous pressure. Functioning alone, the ABR was functionally adequate to control blood pressure. However, ABR control of HR was significantly diminished in the EET subjects due solely to the decrease in the ABR sensitivity. The persistent strain from an increased stroke volume resulting from endurance exercise training could be the responsible mechanism.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Andresen, Jean M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Model for Determining Induced Physiological Stress During Respirator Wear

Description: A model was developed to predict the increased physiological effort of wearing a respiratory protective device. Specifically, the model was designed to predict the effects of varying ventilatory demands on eleven respiratory variables of the man-respirator system, breath frequency (f_b), tidal volume (V_t), inspiratory flow (dvi/dt), expiratory flow (dve/dt), inspiratory mask pressure (P_mi), expiratory mask pressure (P_me), inspiratory intrathoracic pressure (P_ii), expiratory intrathoracic pressure (P_ie), inspiratory mask work (W_mi), expiratory mask work (W_me), and mask leakage index (L_i). The model was tested by experiment in which three male subjects underwent maximal exercise testing with and without the "pressure-demand" respirator. The eleven variables were determined for each thirty second period utilizing on-line computer analysis. Application of the model to these experimental conditions resulted in significant (p<.001) relationships between each of the predicted and observed variables.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Meyer, Steve D. (Steve Douglas)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Development and Validation of a Ramping Treadmill Protocol for the On-Line Measurement of Four Aerobic Parameters

Description: Previously, Whipp et. al. (J. Appl. Physiol.: Respirat. Environ. Exerc. Physiol. 50(1):217-221, 1981) demonstrated the feasibility of determining four parameters of aerobic function, identified as maximum oxygen uptake (μVO_2), VO_2 at anaerobic threshold (θan), the time constant for oxygen uptake kinetics (rVO_2) and work efficiency (η), using a short duration ramped bicycle ergometer exercise test. Because of the importance of being able to measure these parameters on a variety of measurement instruments a short duration ramping treadmill protocol has been developed. The ability of this protocol to determine the four aerobic parameters has been validated against conventional methods. The results of this investigation indicate that μVO_2, θan, rVO_2 and, η may be obtained from a single, short-duration ramping treadmill test.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Cowell, Lynda L. (Lynda Lea)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Alterations in Human Baroreceptor Reflex Regulation of Blood Pressure Following 15 Days of Simulated Microgravity Exposure

Description: Prolonged exposure to microgravity is known to invoke physiological changes which predispose individuals to orthostatic intolerance upon readaptation to the earth's gravitational field. Attenuated baroreflex responsiveness has been implicated in contributing to this inability to withstand orthostatic stress. To test this hypothesis, eight individuals were exposed to 15 days of simulated microgravity exposure using the 6° head-down bed rest model. Prior to, and after the simulated microgravity exposure, the following were assessed: a) aortic baroreflex function; b) carotid baroreflex function; c) cardiopulmonary baroreflex function; and d) the degree of interaction between the cardiopulmonary and carotid baroreflexes.
Date: August 1993
Creator: Crandall, Craig G. (Craig Gerald)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Interactions between Carotid and Cardiopulmonary Baroreceptor Populations during Dynamic Exercise in Man

Description: During dynamic exercise the arterial baroreflexes have been thought to reset to the prevailing level of systemic pressure in order to modulate transient changes in blood pressure with the same sensitivity (gain) as at rest. To test this hypothesis, cardiovascular responses to dynamic exercise and carotid baroreflex responses to graded neck suction and neck pressure (NS/NP) were examined in seven men of moderate fitness (V02 = 41.4±3.6 ml O2*kg^-1*min^-1) during two levels (20% and 40% of peak oxygen uptake) of steady-state exercise. In addition, deactivation of cardiopulmonary baroreceptors has been thought to increase carotid baroreflex responsiveness in the quiescent state in man.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Potts, Jeffrey Thomas
Partner: UNT Libraries

Fitness-Related Alterations in Blood Pressure Control: The Role of the Autonomic Nervous System

Description: Baroreflex function and cardiovascular responses to lower body negative pressure during selective autonomic blockade were evaluated in endurance exercise trained (ET) and untrained (UT) men. Baroreflex function was evaluated using a progressive intravenous infusion of phenylephrine HCL (PE) to a maximum of 0.12 mg/min. Heart rate, arterial blood pressure, cardiac output and forearm blood flow were measured at each infusion rate of PE. The reduction in forearm blood flow and concomitant rise in forearm vascular resistance was the same for each subject group. However, the heart rate decreases per unit increase of systolic or mean blood pressure were significantly (P<.05) less in the ET subjects (0.91 ± 0.30 versus 1.62 ± 0.28 for UT). During progressive lower body negative pressure with no drug intervention, the ET subjects had a significantly (P<.05) greater fall in systolic blood pressure (33.8 ± 4.8 torr versus 16.7 ± 3.9 torr). However, the change in forearm blood flow or resistance was not significantly different between groups. Blockade of parasympathetic receptors with atropine (0.04 mg/kg) eliminated the differences in response to lower body negative pressure. Blockade of cardiac sympathetic receptors with metoprolol (0.02 mg/kg) did not affect the differences observed during the control test. It was concluded that the ET subjects were less effective in regulating blood pressure than the UT subjects, because of 1) an attenuated baroreflex sensitivity, and 2) parasympathetic-mediated depression of cardiac and vasoconstrictive responses to the hypotensive stress.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Smith, Michael Lamar, 1957-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Exercise Capacity Following Four Hours of Head-Down Rest in Endurance-Exercise-Trained and Untrained Subjects

Description: Peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK) in endurance exercise trained (ET =8) subjects (VO2PEAK = 61.7 1.6 ml 02.kg.min-1) was compared to the V02 PEAK of untrained (UT = 8) subjects (V02 PEAK = 38.4 1.7 ml 02 -kg.min1) after four hours of -6* head-down rest (HDR).Although both groups showed a reduction in blood volume (BV) following HDR, this decrement was greater for ET subjects (delta BV = -3.23 0.46 mi/kg; P <0.05). The ET subjects had a greater decrease in VO2=(delta 02E -5.58 1.05 ml 02-kg.min-1; P <0.05) than their UT peers (VO2PEAK = -2.44 0.79 ml02-kg.min-1). These data suggest that the greater reductions in VO2PE, observed for the ET group were associated with a greater BV loss resulting from 4 h of HDR prior to exercise.
Date: December 1990
Creator: Williamson, Jon W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Changes in Body Composition, Plasma Alanine, and Urinary Nitrogen in Rats Subjected to Negative Caloric Balance Through Diet, Diet/Exercise, and Exercise

Description: Male Fischer rats (n=43) were used in a diet-diet/ exercise design to investigate the apparent protein sparing effects of exercise. The animals were divided into five groups: INITIAL (baseline), SEDENTARY (control), DIET, DIET/EXERCISE, and EXERCISE. Carcasses were analyzed for body composition, the blood for plasma alanine concentration and the urine for urea nitrogen concentration. The results showed no significant differences between groups in urinary urea nitrogen, plasma alanine, body weight, or carcass weights. The EXERCISE group had a significant increase in percent protein and a significant decrease in percent fat and grams of fat when compared to all other groups (p <.05).
Date: August 1982
Creator: Ayres, John J. (John Jay)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Naloxone Potentiation of Epinephrine Induced Vasoconstriction in Canine Skeletal Muscle Arteries

Description: Naloxone (NX) potentiated epinephrine (EPI) induced submaximal vasoconstriction in canine renal and skeletal muscle arterial segments, yet had no vasoconstrictor action alone. Developed tension generated in-vitro by 4 x 1mm. O.D. rings from 1st degree branches of canine femoral arteries was expressed as % of KCI induced maximum response. NX (10^-5 M) potentiated EPI induced submaximal contractions (34.2%) significantly more than contractions induced by norepinephrine, phenylephrine, lofexidine, ADH, KCI and serotonin (13.8,13.4,4.7,13.5,14.4 and 11.4% respectively). The NX response was unaffected by beta-adrenergic blockade and NX did not reverse an isoproterenol mediated vasodilation. Alphaadrenergic blockade with phentolamine completely eliminated EPI plus NX induced vasoconstriction. After washout, vessels exposed to EPI plus NX relaxed by 50% significantly faster than vessels exposed to EPI alone (18.5 and 27.9 min respectively). EPI induced vasoconstrictions were potentiated by 10^-5 M corticosterone (49.0%) which inhibits extraneuronal catecholamine uptake, but not by 10^-7 M desipramine (1.1%) which inhibits neuronal uptake. EPI induced vasoconstrictions were also potentiated by 10^-4 M pyrogallol (33.0%) which inhibits catechol-o-methyl transferase activity, but not by 10^-5 M pargyline (-1.1%) which inhibits monoamine oxidase activity. The NX effect was endothelium independent. The dose-response of various opioid receptor agonists and antagonists were compared to the NX response. A specific opioid receptor subclass could not be identified as the mediator of the NX effect. The ED_50s for NX (3.7x^-6 M) and (+)NX (8.1x^-7M) indicated a significant stereoselectivity for the (+)enantiomer. A variety of sigma receptor ligands, steroids and steroid metabolites were tested for the ability to augment EPI vasoconstrictions. Several of the opioid, sigma and steroid ligands, all with polycyclic structures, induced responses similarto those of NX. NX exerted its effect independent of traditional opiate receptors and may have influenced the cellular uptake or degradation of EPI. Endogenous compounds with sigma or steroid activity may modulate ...
Date: August 1992
Creator: Stoll, Scott Thomas
Partner: UNT Libraries

Blood Pressure Regulation During Simulated Orthostatism Prior to and Following Endurance Exercise Training

Description: Cardiovascular responses and tolerance to an orthostatic stress were examined in eight men before and after eight months of endurance exercise training. Following training, maximal oxygen consumption and blood volume were increased, and resting heart rate reduced. Orthostatic tolerance was reduced following training in all eight subjects. It was concluded that prolonged endurance training decreased orthostatic tolerance and this decrease in tolerance appeared associated with attenuated baroreflex sensitivity and alterations in autonomic balance secondary to an increased parasympathetic tone noted with training.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Stevens, Glen Harold John
Partner: UNT Libraries

Cardiorespiratory Responses to Graded Levels of Lower-body Positive Pressure During Dynamic Exercise in Man

Description: Cardiorespiratory responses to incremental dynamic exercise were assessed across four different levels of lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) and, as a separate study, during constant load (i.e constant work rate) exercise below and above each subject's ventilatory threshold (VT), both with and without 45 torr of LBPP.
Date: December 1992
Creator: Williamson, Jon W. (Jon Whitney)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Chronic Ventricular Sympathectomy : Effects on Myocardial Metabolism

Description: Chronic ventricular sympathectomy elicits changes in the coronary circulation, myocardial oxygen consumption and size of infarction resulting fromcoronary occlusion. These changes indicate a change occurring in the basic metabolism of the heart in response to the removal of its sympathetic nervous input. This hypothesis was tested using two groups of dogs, a shamoperated control and a ventricular sympathectomized group. The sympathectomy procedure was an intrapericardial surgical technique which selectively removes ventricular sympathetic input. Four weeks after surgery, left ventricular tissue samples were obtained and rapidly frozen to -80°C. Selected metabolic variables were then compared between the two groups.
Date: August 1993
Creator: Adix Longlet, Nancy J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Interactions between Carotid and Cardiopulmonary Baroreceptor Populations in Men with Varied Levels of Maximal Aerobic Power

Description: Reductions in baroreflex responsiveness have been thought to increase the prevalence of orthostatic hypotension in endurance trained athletes. To test this hypothesis, cardiovascular responses to orthostatic stress, cardiopulmonary and carotid baroreflex responsiveness, and the effect of cardiopulmonary receptor deactivation on carotid baroreflex responses were examined in 24 men categorized by maximal aerobic power (V02max) into one of three groups: high fit (HF, V0-2max=67.0±1.9 ml•kg^-1•min^-1), moderately fit (MF, V0-2max=50.9±1.4 ml•kg^-1•min^-1), and low fit (LF, V0-2max=38.9±1.5 ml•kg^-1•min^-1). Orthostatic stress was induced using lower body negative pressure (LBNP) at -5, -10, -15, -20, -35, and -50 torr. Cardiopulmonary baroreflex responsiveness was assessed as the slope of the relationship between forearm vascular resistance (FVR, strain gauge plethysmography) and central venous pressure (CVP, dependent arm technigue) during LBNP<-35 torr. Carotid baroreflex responsiveness was assessed as the change in heart rate (HR, electrocardiography) or mean arterial pressure (MAP, radial artery catheter) elicited by 600 msec pulses of neck pressure and neck suction (NP/NS) from +40 to -70 torr. Pressures were applied using a lead collar wrapped about the subjects' necks during held expiration. Stimulus response data were fit to a logistic model and the parameters describing the curve were compared using two-factor ANOVA. The reductions CVP, mean (MAP), systolic, and pulse pressures during LBNP were similar between groups (P<0.05). However, diastolic blood pressure increased during LBNP m all but the HF group. (P<0.05). The slope of the FVR/CVP relationship did not differ between groups, nor did the form of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex stimulus response curve change during LBNP. changes in HR elicited with NP/NS were not different between groups (£>0.05). The range of the MAP stimulus response curve, however, was significantly less in the HP group compared to either the MP or LF group (£<0.05). These data imply that carotid baroreflex control of HR is unaltered ...
Date: August 1989
Creator: Pawelczyk, James A. (James Anthony)
Partner: UNT Libraries