9 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Linear and nonlinear methods for detecting cracks in beams

Description: This paper presents experimental results from the vibration of a polycarbonate beam containing a crack that opens and closes during vibration. Several techniques were employed to detect and locate the crack making use of the nonlinearity. ``Harmonic mode shapes`` proved to be more sensitive to damage than conventional mode shapes. Instantaneous frequency and time-frequency methods also showed clear signatures for the crack. The results indicate that nonlinearities may provide increased capabilities for structural damage detection and location.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Prime, M.B. & Shevitz, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mapping residual stresses after foreign object damage using the contour method

Description: A 51-mm thick plate of High-Strength Low-Alloy (HSLA-100) steel was impacted by a 6.4 mm diameter tungsten carbide sphere traveling at 2.2 km/sec. The projectile penetration left a 10 mm diameter and 12 mm deep crater. A residual stress map over a cross-section through the crater was measured by the contour method. The predominant feature of the stress map was a peak compressive stress of 900 MPa, or 1.3 times the yield strength, centered about 1.5 crater radii below the crater floor. The results were compared with an explicit finite element simulation of the impact event. The model has good agreement with the measured residual stresses. As part of the study, residual stresses in the as-received HSLA-100 plate were also measured and found to be a typical quenching stress distribution with peak compressive stress of about 165 MPa a few mm below the surface and tensile stress of 200 MPa in the center of the plate thickness.
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Prime, M. B. (Michael B.) & Martineau, R. L. (Rick L.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Damage identification and health monitoring of structural and mechanical systems from changes in their vibration characteristics: A literature review

Description: This report contains a review of the technical literature concerning the detection, location, and characterization of structural damage via techniques that examine changes in measured structural vibration response. The report first categorizes the methods according to required measured data and analysis technique. The analysis categories include changes in modal frequencies, changes in measured mode shapes (and their derivatives), and changes in measured flexibility coefficients. Methods that use property (stiffness, mass, damping) matrix updating, detection of nonlinear response, and damage detection via neural networks are also summarized. The applications of the various methods to different types of engineering problems are categorized by type of structure and are summarized. The types of structures include beams, trusses, plates, shells, bridges, offshore platforms, other large civil structures, aerospace structures, and composite structures. The report describes the development of the damage-identification methods and applications and summarizes the current state-of-the-art of the technology. The critical issues for future research in the area of damage identification are also discussed.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Doebling, S.W.; Farrar, C.R.; Prime, M.B. & Shevitz, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An explicit model of expanding cylindrical shells subjected to high explosive detonations

Description: A viscoplastic constitutive model was formulated to model the high strain-rate expansion of thin cylindrical shells subjected to internal explosive detonations. This model provides insight into the development of plastic instabilities, which occur on the surface of the shells prior to failure. The effects of shock heating and damage in the form of microvoid nucleation, growth, and coalescence were incorporated using the Johnson-Cook strength model with the Mie-Grueneisen equation of state and a modified Gurson yield surface. This model was implemented into ABAQUS/Explicit as a user material subroutine. A cylindrical copper shell was modeled using both axisymmetric and plane strain elements. The high explosive material inside of the cylinder was simulated using the high explosive burn model in ABAQUS/Explicit. Two experiments were conducted involving explosive-filled, copper cylinders and good agreement was obtained between the numerical results and experimental data.
Date: April 1, 1999
Creator: Martineau, R.L.; Prime, M.B.; Anderson, C.A. & Smith, F.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Residual stress measurement by successive extension of a slot: A literature review

Description: This report reviews the technical literature on techniques that employ successive extension of a slot and the resulting deformations to measure residual stress. Such techniques are known variously in the literature as the compliance or crack compliance method, the successive cracking method, the slotting method, and a fracture mechanics based approach. The report introduces the field and describes the basic aspects of these methods. The report then reviews all literature on the theoretical developments of the method. The theory portion first considers forward method solutions including fracture mechanics, finite element, analytical, and body force methods. Then it examines inverse solutions, including incremental inverses and series expansions. Next, the report reviews all experimental applications of slotting methods. Aspects reviewed include the specimen geometry and material, the details of making the slot, the method used to measure deformation, and the theoretical solutions used to solve for stress. Finally, the report makes a brief qualitative comparison between slotting methods and other residual stress measurement methods.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Prime, M.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quenching and Cold-Work Residual Stresses in Aluminum Hand Forgings : Contour Method Measurement and FEM Prediction

Description: The cold-compression stress relief process used to reduce the quench-induced stresses in high-strength aerospace aluminum alloy forgings does not fully relieve the stresses. This study measured and predicted the residual stress in 7050-T74 (solution heat treated, quenched, and artificially overaged) and 7050-T7452 (cold compressed prior to aging) hand forgings. The manufacturing process was simulated by finite element analysis. First, a thermal analysis simulated the quench using appropriate thermal boundary conditions and temperature dependent material properties. Second, a structural analysis used the thermal history and a temperature and strain-rate dependent constitutive model to predict the stresses after quenching. Third, the structural analysis was continued to simulate the multiple cold compressions of the stress relief process. Experimentally, the residual stresses in the forgings were mapped using the contour method, which involved cutting the forgings using wire EDM and then measuring the contour of the cut surface using a CMM. Multiple cuts were used to map different stress components. The results show a spatially periodic variation of stresses that results from the periodic nature of the cold work stress relief process. The results compare favorably with the finite element prediction of the stresses.
Date: January 1, 2003
Creator: Prime, M. B. (Michael B.); Newborn, M. A. (Mark A.) & Balog, J. A. (John A.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Several methods applied to measuring residual stress in a known specimen

Description: In this study, a beam with a precisely known residual stress distribution provided a unique experimental opportunity. A plastically bent beam was carefully prepared in order to provide a specimen with a known residual stress profile. 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn austenitic stainless steel was obtained as 43 mm square forged stock. Several methods were used to determine the residual stresses, and the results were compared to the known values. Some subtleties of applying the various methods were exposed.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Prime, M.B.; Rangaswamy, P.; Daymond, M.R. & Abelin, T.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A comprehensive monitoring system for damage identification and location in large structural and mechanical systems

Description: This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project has focused on developing and experimentally verifying a suite of analytical tools for identifying the onset of damage in structural and mechanical systems from changes in their vibration characteristics. A MATLAB-based computer code referred to as Damage Identification And Modal Analysis of Data (DIAMOND) was developed. The code was then extensively exercised on data obtained from a variety of test structures. The most notable structure was an in situ bridge located ten mile north of Truth or Consequences, New Mexico. The suite of tools contained in DIAMOND is now being applied to the nuclear weapons enhanced surveillance program and an industrial partner has asked to enter into a partnership so that they can implement routines from DIAMOND into their commercial damage assessment hardware for large civil engineering structures. Because of the large volume of requests from around the world for DIAMOND, it can now be downloaded from the web site: http://esaea-www.esa.lanl.gov/damage{_}id.
Date: November 1, 1998
Creator: Farrar, C.R.; Doebling, S.W. & Prime, M.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Neural network based system for damage identification and location in structural and mechanical systems

Description: This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Recent advances in wireless, remotely monitored data acquisition systems coupled with the development of vibration-based damage detection algorithms make the possibility of self- or remotely-monitored structures and mechanical systems appear to be within the capabilities of current technology. However, before such a system can be relied upon to perform this monitoring, the variability of the vibration properties that are the basis for the damage detection algorithm must be understood and quantified. This understanding is necessary so that the artificial intelligence/expert system that is employed to discriminate when changes in modal properties are indicative of damage will not yield false indications of damage. To this end, this project has focused on developing statistical methods for quantifying variability in identified vibration proper ties of structural and mechanical systems.
Date: November 1, 1998
Creator: Farrar, C.R.; Doebling, S.W.; Prime, M.B.; Cornwell, P.; Kam, M.; Straser, E.G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department