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Potential for energy conservation in the cement industry

Description: This report assesses the potential for energy conservation in the cement industry. Energy consumption per ton of cement decreased 20% between 1972 and 1982. During this same period, the cement industry became heavily dependent on coal and coke as its primary fuel source. Although the energy consumed per ton of cement has declined markedly in the past ten years, the industry still uses more than three and a half times the fuel that is theoretically required to produce a ton of clinker. Improving kiln thermal efficiency offers the greatest opportunity for saving fuel. Improving the efficiency of finish grinding offers the greatest potential for reducing electricity use. Technologies are currently available to the cement industry to reduce its average fuel consumption per ton by product by as much as 40% and its electricity consumption per ton by about 10%. The major impediment to adopting these technologies is the cement industry's lack of capital as a result of low or no profits in recent years.
Date: February 1, 1985
Creator: Garrett-Price, B.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

User manual for Conservation Project Data Base

Description: This User Manual describes the Conservation Project Data Base developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Department of Energy's Office of Conservation (CE). Purpose of this data base is to provide a centralized storehouse of information on planned and ongoing projects funded by CE. The data base is a powerful analytical tool that will enable CE to quickly analyze the composition of their project portfolio. The data base uses dBase III on an IBM PC. Over 80 data items are stored for each project. A menu-driven applications program was developed as an alternative to using standard dBase III commands. The menu-driven program prompts the user to add data, edit data, perform on-screen searches of the data base, sort the data base by any variable or combination of variables, or print hard-copy reports of various data items.
Date: June 1, 1985
Creator: Garrett-Price, B.A. & Fassbender, L.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of the National Survey of Compensation with other surveys of research and development professionals. Final report on universe update

Description: The National Survey of Compensation Paid Scientists and Engineers Engaged in Research and Development (NSC) has been conducted for the Department of Energy since 1967. During this time the NSC has come to be considered the most comprehensive survey of its kind available in the United States. Its methodology and results are reliable and highly useful to compensation personnel in research and development (R and D) establishments. Each year project staff pinpoint areas of improvement which are necessary and desirable. The three tasks that are the subject of this report have been undertaken to maintain and improve the NSC and increase its usefulness to participants. The three tasks are: an update of the universe listing; comparison of NSC survey methodology and results with other surveys of research and development professionals; and development of a methodology to project salaries for the near-term. Each task is described.
Date: October 1, 1981
Creator: Newborg, J.; Spurgeon, M.; Price, B. & Evans, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multiangle light-scattering analysis of murine teratocarcinoma cells

Description: Stem cells of the mouse testicular teratocarcinoma are capable of giving rise in vivo and in vitro to a wide variety of cell and tissue types representative of each embryonic germ layer. Multiangle light-scattering measurements in a flow system have been made on these stem cells and on a variety of their differentiated derivatives. This technique is capable of distinguishing the stem cells from parietal yolk sac cells, visceral yolk sac cells, neuronal cells, and squamous cells. However, multipotential stem cells cannot be distinguished from stem cells which are restricted in their development to a single pathway.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Swartzendruber, D.E.; Price, B.J. & Rall, L.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

R and D opportunities in gas-side fouling. Executive summary

Description: This report provides an overview of five research reports that were generated for the Fouling and Corrosion Program. In addition, a listing of research and development opportunities in gas-side fouling is provided. R and D opportunities are designated as technology transfer, basic research, or applied research opportunities.
Date: February 1, 1984
Creator: Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L. & Fassbender, L.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potential for energy conservation in the glass industry

Description: While the glass industry (flat glass, container glass, pressed and blown glass, and insulation fiber glass) has reduced its specific energy use (Btu/ton) by almost 30% since 1972, significant potential for further reduction still remains. State-of-the-art technologies are available which could lead to incremental improvements in glass industry energy productivity; however, these technologies must compete for capital with projects undertaken for other reasons (e.g., capacity expansion, equipment rebuild, labor cost reduction, product quality improvement, or compliance with environmental, health or safety regulations). Narrowing profit margins in the large tonnage segments of the glass industry in recent years and the fact that energy costs represent less than 25% of the value added in glass manufacture have combined to impede the widespread adoption of many state-of-the-art conservation technologies. Savings in energy costs alone have not provided the incentive to justify the capital expenditures required to realize the energy savings. Beyond implementation of state-of-the-art technologies, significant potential energy savings could accrue from advanced technologies which represent a radical departure from current glass making technology. Long-term research and development (R and D) programs, which address the technical and economic barriers associated with advanced, energy-conserving technologies, offer the opportunity to realize this energy-saving potential.
Date: June 1, 1986
Creator: Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, A.G. & Bruno, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Industrial fouling: problem characterization, economic assessment, and review of prevention, mitigation, and accommodation techniques

Description: A comprehensive overview of heat exchanger fouling in the manufacturing industries is provided. Specifically, this overview addresses: the characteristics of industrial fouling problems; the mitigation and accommodation techniques currently used by industry; and the types and magnitude of costs associated with industrial fouling. A detailed review of the fouling problems, costs and mitigation techniques is provided for the food, textile, pulp and paper, chemical, petroleum, cement, glass and primary metals industries.
Date: February 1, 1984
Creator: Garrett-Price, B.A.; Smith, S.A. & Watts, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of geothermal, solar, and conventional space heating costs in the United States

Description: The costs of residential heating throughout the United States using conventional, solar, and geothermal energy were determined under current and projected conditions. These costs are very sensitive to location - being dependent on the local prices of conventional energy supplies, local solar insolation, climate, and the proximity and temperature of potential geothermal resources. Geothermal district heating systems will become economically feasible in most urban centers north of a line extending roughly from Los Angeles to Baltimore. West of the Rockies high temperature (> 90/sup 0/C) geothermal energy will predominate and will be transported up to 50 miles to the urban centers. East of the Rockies low temperature (60 to 90/sup 0/C) geothermal energy will predominate and will be located within ten miles of the urban centers. Solar heating systems, with conventional heating backup, will become economically feasible throughout the country. The most economical applications will be in suburban and rural areas in the intermountain West and into the Great Plains region. Conventional heating will remain most economic: (1) in urban centers in the South (where annual heat demand is low); (2) in Northern urban centers which are too distant from geothermal resources; and (3) in suburban and rural areas with low solar insolation. Conventional energy will supplement solar energy in most locations.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Bloomster, C.H.; Price, B.A. & Fassbender, L.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economics of geothermal, solar, and conventional space heating

Description: The competitive outlook for geothermal and solar heating changed dramatically during the past year. With the recent sharp price increases in imported oil and natural gas and the planned decontrol of domestic prices, geothermal and solar energy will become competitive for space heating throughout most of the country. Under these new conditions, geothermal energy could competitively provide about 40% of the national demand for space heat and domestic hot water (about 7 quads based on 1980 demands). Nearly all of the geothermal energy demand would be in high-population-density areas. Solar energy could competitively provide about 50% (about 9 quads) of the annual demand. Most of the solar energy demand would be concentrated in suburban and rural areas. Conventional energy should remain competitive for about 30% (about 5 quads) of the annual demand. Conventional energy demand would be concentrated in the South and as supplemental energy for solar/conventional systems. Geothermal, solar, and conventional energy would be equally competitive for about 20% of the annual demand, which is why the individual market shares add to 120%.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H. & Price, B.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sorting of a murine granulocytic progenitor cell by use of laser light scattering measurements

Description: Multiangle light-scattering measurements provided a useful basis for analysis and separation of bone marrow cell suspensions. Six to eight major subpopulations of cells could be distinguished by simultaneous measurements of forward and 90/sup 0/ light-scattering, which is more than with any other known cell separation method. The observation that CFU-c were found in only one of these subpopulations confirms the conclusions that CFU-c are a homogeneous population of a single cell type.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Visser, J.W.M.; Cram, L.S.; Martin, J.C.; Salzman, G.C. & Price, B.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of existing residential energy-efficiency rating systems and measuring tools

Description: Three categories of rating systems/tools were identified: prescriptive, calculational, and performance. Prescriptive systems include rating systems that assign points to various conservation features. Most systems that have been implemented to date have been prescriptive systems. The vast majority of these are investor-owned utility programs affiliated with the National Energy Watch program of the Edison Electric Institute. The calculational category includes computational tools that can be used to estimate energy consumption. This estimate could then be transformed, probably by indexing, into a rating. The available computational tools range from very simple to complex tools requiring use of a main-frame computer. Performance systems refer to residential energy-efficiency ratings that are based on past fuel consumption of a home. There are few of these systems. For each identified system/tool, the name, address, and telephone number of the developer is included. In addition, relevant publications discussing the system/tool are cited. The extent of field validation/verification of individual systems and tools is discussed. In general, there has been little validation/verification done. A bibliography of literature relevant to the use and implementation of a home energy rating system is also included.
Date: October 1, 1982
Creator: Hendrickson, P.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A. & Williams, T.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance and market evaluation of the bladeless turbine

Description: The three-inch diameter prototype bladeless turbine was tested with air over a range of inlet pressures from 20 to 100 psia and speeds of 10, 20, 30 and 40 thousand rpm. The peak efficiency of 22.5 percent was recorded at a pressure of 98 psia and a speed of 40,000 rpm. Efficiency increased slightly with speed and inlet pressure over the range of test conditions. The test program was somewhat hindered by mechanical failures. The turbine bearings in particular were unreliable, with two instances of outright failure and numerous cases of erratic performance. A model of the bladeless turbine was developed to aid in interpreting the experimental results. A macroscopic approach, incorporating several favorable assumptions, was taken to place a reasonable upper bound on turbine efficiency. The model analytically examines the flow through the air inlet nozzles and the interaction between the fluid jet and the turbine blades. The analysis indicates that the maximum possible efficiency of a tangential flow turbine with straight axial blades is 50 percent. This is a direct consequence of turning the fluid only 90 degrees relative to the turbine blade. The adoption of the bladeless turbine as the expander in an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) will depend to a great extent on the efficiency of the turbine. The market potential for ORC technology will also impact the adoption of the bladeless turbine. Other expanders have demonstrated efficiencies of 60 to 80% in ORC systems. The Gamell turbine had a peak test efficiency of 22.5% and a maximum theoretical efficiency of 50%. Costs of the turbine are highly uncertain, relying to a great extent on cost reductions achieved through quantity production and through learning.
Date: October 1, 1982
Creator: Garrett-Price, B.A.; Barnhart, J.S. & Eschbach, E.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cost of meeting geothermal liquid effluent disposal regulations

Description: Background information is presented on the characteristics of liquid wastes and the available disposal options. Regulations that may directly or indirectly influence liquid waste disposal are reviewed. An assessment of the available wastewater-treatment systems is provided. A case study of expected liquid-waste-treatment and disposal costs is summarized. (MHR)
Date: June 1, 1981
Creator: Wells, K.D.; Currie, J.W.; Price, B.A. & Rogers, E.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cogeneration handbook for the food processing industry. [Contains glossary]

Description: The decision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the food processing industry. Appendices B through O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.
Date: March 1, 1984
Creator: Eakin, D.E.; Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L.; Fasbender, A.G. & Gorges, H.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cogeneration handbook for the textile industry. [Contains glossary]

Description: The decision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the textile industry. Appendices B through O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.
Date: March 1, 1984
Creator: Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Moore, N.L.; Fassbender, A.G.; Eakin, D.E. & Gorges, H.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cogeneration handbook for the petroleum refining industry. [Contains glossary]

Description: The decision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the petroleum refining industry. Appendices B through O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.
Date: March 1, 1984
Creator: Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L.; Fassbender, A.G.; Eakin, D.E. & Gorges, H.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cogeneration handbook for the chemical process industries. [Contains glossary]

Description: The desision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the chemical industry. Appendices B through O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.
Date: March 1, 1984
Creator: Fassbender, A.G.; Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L.; Eakin, D.E. & Gorges, H.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of methods for separating small quantities of hydrogen isotopes from an inert gas

Description: It is frequent within tritium processing systems that a small amount of hydrogen isotopes (Q{sub 2}) must be separated from an inert gas such as He, Ar and N{sub 2}. Thus, a study of presently available technologies for effecting such a separation was performed. A base case and seven technology alternatives were identified and a simple design of each was prepared. These technologies included oxidation-adsorption-metal bed reduction, oxidation-adsorption-palladium membrane reactor, cryogenic adsorption, cryogenic trapping, cryogenic distillation, hollow fiber membranes, gettering and permeators. It was found that all but the last two methods were unattractive for recovering Q{sub 2} from N{sub 2}. Reasons for technology rejection included (1) the method unnecessarily turns the hydrogen isotopes into water, resulting in a cumbersome and more hazardous operation, (2) the method would not work without further processing, and (3) while the method would work, it would only do so in an impractical way. On the other hand, getters and permeators were found to be attractive methods for this application. Both of these methods would perform the separation in a straightforward, essentially zero-waste, single step operation. The only drawback for permeators was that limited low-partial Q{sub 2} pressure data is available. The drawbacks for getters are their susceptibility to irreversible and exothermic reaction with common species such as oxygen and water, and the lack of long-term operation of such beds. More research is envisioned for both of these methods to mature these attractive technologies.
Date: March 1, 1998
Creator: Willms, R.S.; Tuggle, D.; Birdsell, S.; Parkinson, J.; Price, B. & Lohmeir, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cogeneration handbook for the pulp and paper industry. [Contains glossary]

Description: The decision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the pulp and paper industry. Appendices B and O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.
Date: March 1, 1984
Creator: Griffin, E.A.; Moore, N.L.; Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, A.G.; Eakin, D.E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of solar options for small power systems applications. Volume III. Analysis of concepts

Description: A comparative analysis of solar thermal conversion concepts that are potentially suitable for development as small electric power systems (1 to 10 MWe) is given. Seven generic types of collectors, together with associated subsystems for electric power generation, were considered. The collectors can be classified into three categories: (1) two-axis tracking (with compound-curvature reflecting surfaces; (2) one-axis tracking (with single-curvature reflecting suraces; and (3) nontracking (with low-concentration reflecting surfaces). All seven collectors were analyzed in conceptual system configurations with Rankine-cycle engines. In addition, two of the collectors (the Point Focus Central Receiver and the Point Focus Distributed Receiver) were analyzed with Brayton-cycle engines, and the latter of the two also was analyzed with Stirling-cycle engines. This volume describes the systems analyses performed on all the alternative configurations of the seven generic collector concepts and the results obtained. The SOLSTEP computer code used to determine each configuration's system cost and performance is briefly described. The collector and receiver performance calculations used are also presented. The capital investment and related costs that were obtained from the systems studies are presented, and the levelized energy costs are given as a function of capacity factor obtained from the systems studies. Included also are the values of the other attributes used in the concepts' final ranking. The comments, conclusions, and recommendations developed by the PNL study team during the concept characterization and systems analysis tasks of the study are presented. (WHK)
Date: September 1, 1980
Creator: Laity, W.W.; Aase, D.T.; Apley, W.J.; Bird, S.P.; Drost, M.K.; Garrett-Price, B.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of generic solar thermal systems for large power applications. Volume II. Analysis of thermal energy production costs for systems from 50 to 600 MWt

Description: A comparative analysis of solar thermal concepts that are potentially suitable for development as large process heat systems (50 to 600 MWt) was performed. The concepts considered can be classified into three categories based on the type of solar tracking used by the collector: (1) two-axis tracking, in which concentrators track the sun's motion in both azimuth and altitude; (2) one-axis tracking, in which concentrators track changes in either azimuth or altitude; and (3) non-tracking, in which the concentrators are fixed. Seven generic types of collectors were considered. Conceptual designs developed for the seven systems were based on common assumptions of available technology in the 1990 to 2000 time frame. Costs were estimated on the basis of identical assumptions, ground rules, methodologies, and unit costs of materials and labor applied uniformly to all of the concepts.
Date: June 1, 1981
Creator: Bird, S.P.; Apley, W.J.; Barnhart, J.S.; Brown, D.R.; Drost, M.K.; Fort, J.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams

Description: The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)
Date: May 1, 1984
Creator: Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of generic solar thermal systems for large power applications: analysis of electric power generating costs for systems larger than 10 MWe

Description: Seven generic types of collectors, together with associated subsystems for electric power generation, were considered. The collectors can be classified into three categories: (1) two-axis tracking (with compound-curvature reflecting surfaces); (2) one-axis tracking (with single-curvature reflecting surfaces); and (3) nontracking (with low-concentration reflecting surfaces). All seven collectors were analyzed in conceptual system configurations with Rankine-cycle engines. In addition, two of the collectors were analyzed with Brayton-cycle engines, and one was analyzed with a Stirling-cycle engine. With these engine options, and the consideration of both thermal and electrical storage for the Brayton-cycle central receiver, 11 systems were formulated for analysis. Conceptual designs developed for the 11 systems were based on common assumptions of available technology in the 1990 to 2000 time frame. No attempt was made to perform a detailed optimization of each conceptual design. Rather, designs best suited for a comparative evaluation of the concepts were formulated. Costs were estimated on the basis of identical assumptions, ground rules, methodologies, and unit costs of materials and labor applied uniformly to all of the concepts. The computer code SOLSTEP was used to analyze the thermodynamic performance characteristics and energy costs of the 11 concepts. Year-long simulations were performed using meteorological and insolation data for Barstow, California. Results for each concept include levelized energy costs and capacity factors for various combinations of storage capacity and collector field size.
Date: November 1, 1980
Creator: Apley, W.J.; Bird, S.P.; Brown, D.R.; Drost, M.K.; Fort, J.A.; Garrett-Price, B.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department