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Calcite solubility in simulated geothermal brines

Description: The deposition of scale on geothermal piping surfaces has been recognized as a cause of increased pressure drop and diminished fluid flow. The two most common scales encountered in the geothermal energy field are silica and calcite. The main purpose of this study was to obtain accurate, reliable calcite solubility data in brines similar to natural geothermal brines over the temperature range of most known exploitable geothermal resources. In addition, geothermal fluid equilibrium modeling efforts and data bases can be refined and fine-turned with respect to the commercially important calcite-geothermal fluid stability problem with these data. The effect of sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate on the solubility of CaCO/sub 3/ (calcite) in high temperature solutions was measured over the 100 to 300/sup 0/C temperature range. The brines studied contained 0 to 5 wt % NaCl, 0 to 5 mM NaHCO/sub 3/, and 0.003 to 0.1 M CO/sub 2/. The data detailing calcite solubility at various temperatures are presented in tabular, graphical, and regression-equation form for each brine composition tested.
Date: February 1, 1987
Creator: Pool, K.H.; Raney, P.J. & Shannon, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vapor space characterization of Waste Tank 241-U-106 (in situ): Results from samples collected on 8/25/94

Description: This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from in situ samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-U-106 (referred to as Tank U-106). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not performed. In addition, the authors looked for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 target analytes. Of these, six were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Ten organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv in two or more of the three samples collected and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 89% of the total organic components in Tank U-106. Methyl isocyanate, a compound of possible concern in Tank U-106, was not detected. Tank U-106 is on the Organic Watch List.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Ligotke, M.W.; Lucke, R.B. & Pool, K.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-BY-112: Results from samples collected on November 18, 1994. Waste Tank Vapor Program

Description: This document presents the details of the inorganic and organic analysis that was performed on samples from the headspace of Hanford waste tank 241-BY-112. The results described were obtained to support the safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for the inorganic and organic analytes is included, as well as, a detailed description of the results which appears in the text.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H. & McVeety, B.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-BY-107: Results from samples collected on 10/26/94

Description: This report describes results of the analyses of tank-headspace samples taken from the Hanford waste Tank 241-BY-107 (referred to as Tank BY-107). Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and to analyze inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The organic analytes for TO-14 compounds were extended to include 15 analytes identified by the Toxicological Review Panel for Tank C-103 and reported in Toxicological Evaluation of Analytes from Tank 241-C-103 PAE-10189. While these analytes are only of toxicological concern for Tank C-103, program management included these analytes for future tank analyses as identified in the fiscal year work plan. This plan is attached to a letter dated 9/30/94 and addressed to Mr. T. J. Kelly of WHC. The plan also requires PNL to analyze for the permanent gases as shown in Table 3.5. The sample job was designated S4077, and samples were collected by WHC on October 26, 1994, using the vapor sampling system (VSS). Sampling devices, including six sorbent trains (for inorganic analyses), and six SUMMA{trademark} canisters (for organic analyses) were supplied to the WHC sampling staff on October 24. Samples were taken (by WHC) from the tank headspace on October 26 and were returned to PNL from the field on November 8. Inorganic (sorbent trap) samples were delivered to PNL on chain of custody (COC) 008071. The SUMMA{trademark} canisters were delivered on COC 008070. Three SUMMA{trademark} canister samples were stored at the PNL 326/23B laboratory pending further instruction from WHC to send them to the Oregon Graduate Institute (OGI) for analysis.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W. & Pool, K.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waste Tank Vapor Program: Vapor space characterization of Waste Tank 241-T-107. Results from samples collected on January 18, 1995

Description: This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-T-107 (referred to as Tank T-107). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, I was observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Six organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The estimated concentration of all 7 organic analytes observed in the tank headspace are listed in Table I and account for approximately 100% of the total organic components in Tank T-107. Two permanent gases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), were also detected in the tank-headspace samples.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Pool, K.H.; Lucke, R.B. & McVeety, B.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-BY-110: Results for samples collected on 11/11/94

Description: This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-BY-110 (referred to as Tank BY-110). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}, nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, we looked for the 40 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 15 analytes. Of these, 10 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Forty-six organic tentatively identified compounds (TICS) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv, and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantative estimates based on internal standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed and account for approximately 78% of the total organic components in Tank BY-110. Two permanent gases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), were also detected.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W. & Pool, K.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-BX-104: Results from samples collected on 12/30/94

Description: This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-BX-104 (referred to as Tank BX-104). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained. for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SOx) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, 13 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Sixty-six organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes, with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 70% of the total organic components in Tank BX-104. Two permanent gases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), were also detected.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Pool, K.H.; Ligotke, M.W. & McVeety, B.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-B-103: Results from samples collected on 2/8/95

Description: This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-B-103 (referred to as Tank B-103). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water vapor (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, five were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Twenty-six organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv, and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal standard response factors. Twenty-three TICs were measured in two or more SUMMA{trademark} canisters. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 66% of the total organic components in Tank BB-103. Two permanent gases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), were also detected. Tank B-103 is on the Organic Watch List.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H. & Lucke, R.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vapor space characterization of Waste Tank 241-TY-104 (in situ): Results from samples collected on 8/5/94

Description: This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from in situ samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-TY-104 (referred to as Tank TY-104). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not performed. In addition, the authors looked for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, eight were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Twenty-four organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 86% of the total organic components in Tank TY-104. Tank TY-104 is on the Ferrocyanide Watch List.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H. & Lucke, R.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-TY-103: Results from samples collected on 4/11/95

Description: This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-TY-103 (referred to as Tank TY-103). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, 16 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Sixteen tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 95% of the total organic components in Tank TY-103. Two permanent gases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), were also detected.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Ligotke, M.W.; Clauss, T.W. & Pool, K.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-TY-103 (in situ): Results from samples collected on August 5, 1994

Description: This document presents the details of the inorganic and organic analysis that was performed on samples from the headspace of Hanford waste tank 241-TY-103. The results described were obtained to support the safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for the inorganic and organic analytes is included, as well as, a detailed description of the results which appears in the text.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Pool, K.H.; McVeety, B.D. & Clauss, T.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-S-102: Results from samples collected on 3/14/95

Description: This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-S-102 (referred to as Tank S-102). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, 11 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Eleven tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 95% of the total organic components in Tank S-102. Two permanent gases, hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), were also detected.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Pool, K.H.; McVeety, B.D. & Clauss, T.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waste Tank Vapor Program: Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-C-110. Results from samples collected on August 18, 1994

Description: This document presents the details of the inorganic and organic analysis that was performed on samples from the headspace of Hanford waste tank 24l-C-110. The results described were obtained to support the safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for the inorganic and organic analytes is included, as well as, a detailed description of the results which appears in the text.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Ligotke, M.W.; Clauss, T.W. & Pool, K.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-C-112: Results from samples collected on 8/11/94

Description: This report describes organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-C-112 (referred to as Tank C-112). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. Organic compounds were also quantitatively determined. Five organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semiquantitative estimates. In addition, we looked for the 40 standard TO-14 analytes. None were observed above the 2-ppbv detection limit. The five organic analytes with the highest concentration are listed in Table 1 and account for 100% of the total organic components in Tank C-112.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Ligotke, M.W.; McVeety, B.D. & Pool, K.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ferrocyanide Safety Program cyanide speciation studies. Final report

Description: This report summarizes Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s fiscal year (FY) 1995 progress toward developing and implementing methods to identify and quantify cyanide species in ferrocyanide tank waste. This work was conducted for Westinghouse Hanfbrd Company`s (WHC`s) Ferrocyanide Safety Program. Currently, there are 18 high-level waste storage tanks at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site that are on a Ferrocyanide Tank Watchlist because they contain an estimated 1000 g-moles or more of precipitated ferrocyanide. In the presence of oxidizing material such as sodium nitrate or nitrite, ferrocyanide can be made to react exothermally by heating it to high temperatures or by applying an electrical spark of sufficient energy (Cady 1993). However, fuel, oxidizers, and temperature are all important parameters. If fuel, oxidizers, or high temperatures (initiators) are not present in sufficient amounts, then a runaway or propagating reaction cannot occur. To bound the safety concern, methods are needed to definitively measure and quantitate ferrocyanide concentration present within the actual waste. The target analyte concentration for cyanide in waste is approximately 0.1 to 15 wt % (as cyanide) in the original undiluted sample. After dissolution of the original sample and appropriate dilutions, the concentration range of interest in the analytical solutions can vary between 0.001 to 0.1 wt % (as cyanide). In FY 1992, 1993, and 1994, two solution (wet) methods were developed based on Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and ion chromatography (IC); these methods were chosen for further development activities. The results of these activities are described.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H. & Bryan, S.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-C-107: Results from samples collected on 9/29/94

Description: This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-C-107 (referred to as Tank C-107). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water vapor (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. Organic compounds were also quantitatively determined. Twenty organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semiquantitative estimates. In addition, the authors looked for the 55 TO-14 extended analytes. Of these, 3 were observed above the 5-ppbv detection limit. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Summary Table 1 and account for approximately 96% of the total organic components in Tank C-107. Two permanent gases, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide, were also detected.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W. & Ligotke, M.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vapor space characterization of Waste Tank 241-U-105: Results from samples collected on 2/24/95

Description: This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-U-105 (referred to as Tank U-105). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, six were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Three tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. All nine of the organic analytes identified are listed in Table 1 and account for 100% of the total organic components in Tank U-105. Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) was the only permanent gas detected in the tank-headspace sample. Tank U-105 is on the Hydrogen Watch List.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W. & Ligotke, M.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-C-109: Results from samples collected on 8/10/94

Description: This report describes results of the analyses of tank-headspace samples taken from the Hanford waste Tank 241-C-109 (referred to as Tank C-109). Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and to analyze inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The sample job was designated S4053, and samples were collected by WHC on August 10, 1994, using the vapor sampling system (VSS). Sampling devices, including six sorbent trains (for inorganic analyses) and five SUMMA{sup {trademark}} canisters (for organic analyses) were supplied to the WHC sampling staff on August 8. Samples were taken (by WHC) from the tank headspace on August 10 and were returned to PNL from the field on August 12. The samples were inspected upon delivery to the 326/23B laboratory and logged into PNL record book 55408 before implementation of PNL Technical Procedure PNL-TVP-07. Custody of the sorbent traps was transferred to PNL personnel performing the inorganic analysis and stored at refrigerated ({<=}10{degrees}C) temperature until the time of analysis. The canister was stored in the 326/23B laboratory at ambient (25{degrees}C) temperature until time of analysis. Access to the 326/23B laboratory is limited to PNL personnel working on the waste-tank safety program. Analyses described in this report were performed at PNL in the 300 area of the Hanford Reservation. Analytical methods that were used are described in the text. In summary, sorbent traps for inorganic analyses containing sample materials were either weighed (for water analysis) or desorbed with the appropriate aqueous solutions (for ammonia (NH{sub 3}) or nitrite (NO{sub 2}) analyses). The aqueous extracts were analyzed either by selective electrode or by ion chromatography (IC). Organic analyses were performed using cryogenic preconcentration followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS).
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W. & Ligotke, M.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-BY-109 (in situ): Results from samples collected on 9/22/94

Description: This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from in situ samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-BY-109 (referred to as Tank BY-109). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Summary Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. Organic compounds were also quantitatively determined. Twenty-three organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semiquantitative estimates. In addition, we looked for the 40 standard TO-14 analytes. We observed 38. Of these, only a few were observed above the 2-ppbv calibrated instrument detection limit. The ten organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Summary Table 1. The ten analytes account for approximately 84% of the total organic components in Tank BY-109.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W. & Ligotke, M.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Research on geothermal chemistry and advanced instrumentation

Description: Research at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) focuses on long-term geothermal power plant reliability. Past work concentrated on development of continuous high-temperature probes for monitoring process variables. PNL also completed a comprehensive handbook of brine treatment processes as they relate to injection well longevity. A recently completed study analyzed corrosion in the hydrocarbon system of a binary cycle plant. Over the two-year monitoring period, corrosion rates were less than 1 MPY in any part of the hydrocarbon system. The system was kept completely dry so the rates seem reasonable. Present projects include: (1) determination of gas breakout conditions at the Herber Binary Demonstration Plant operated by San Diego Gas and Electric Company; (2) generation of water mixing solubility data; (3) installation of prototype leak detectors at the Herber Plant; and (4) evaluation of state-of-the-art particle counters. 7 refs., 9 figs.
Date: September 1, 1985
Creator: Robertus, R.J.; Shannon, D.W.; Sullivan, R.G.; Kindle, C.H. & Pool, K.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prediction equations for corrosion rates of a A-537 and A-516 steels in Double Shell Slurry, Future PUREX, and Hanford Facilities Wastes

Description: Even though the interest in the corrosion of radwaste tanks goes back to the mid-1940's when waste storage was begun, and a fair amount of corrosion work has been done since then, the changes in processes and waste types have outpaced the development of new data pertinent to the new double shell tanks. As a consequence, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) began a development of corrosion data on a broad base of waste compositions in 1980. The objective of the program was to provide operations personnel with corrosion rate data as a function of waste temperature and composition. The work performed in this program examined A-537 tank steel in Double Shell Slurry and Future PUREX Wastes, at temperatures between 40 and 180/sup 0/C as well as in Hanford Facilities Waste at 25 and 50/sup 0/C. In general, the corrosion rates were less than 1 mpy (0.001 in./y) and usually less than 0.5 mpy. Excessive corrosion rates (>1 mpy) were only found in dilute waste compositions or in concentrated caustic compositions at temperatures above 140/sup 0/C. Stress corrosion cracking was only observed under similar conditions. The results are presented as polynomial prediction equations with examples of the output of existing computer codes. The codes are not provided in the text but are available from the authors. 12 refs., 5 figs., 19 tabs.
Date: June 1, 1985
Creator: Divine, J.R.; Bowen, W.M.; Mackey, D.B.; Bates, D.J. & Pool, K.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quantitative measurement of cyanide species in simulated ferrocyanide Hanford waste

Description: Analytical methods for the quantification of cyanide species in Hanford simulated high-level radioactive waste were pursued in this work. Methods studied include infrared spectroscopy (solid state and solution), Raman spectroscopy, Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy-electron dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and ion chromatography. Of these, infrared, Raman, X-ray diffraction, and ion chromatography techniques show promise in the concentration range of interest. Quantitation limits for these latter four techniques were demonstrated to be approximately 0.1 wt% (as cyanide) using simulated Hanford wastes.
Date: February 1, 1993
Creator: Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H. & Matheson, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of wear rates and mechanisms of titanium diboride-graphite composite materials proposed for use as cathodes in Hall-Heroult cells

Description: Purpose of this study was to measure the initial wear rates of TiB/sub 2/ carbon-containing cathode materials (TiB/sub 2/-G) under electrolytic conditions. Parameters evaluated included bath ratio, current density, and aluminum pad thickness. In order to measure initial wear rates, the tests were limited to 8 h.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Pool, K.H.; Brimhall, J.L.; Raney, P.J. & Hart, P.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-103: Results from samples collected on 06/12/96

Description: This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-S-103 (Tank S-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA{trademark} canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H. & Thomas, B.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department