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Suspending Insoluble Solids Waste Tanks with Shrouded Axial Impeller Mixers

Description: The Savannah River Site is in the process of removing waste (sludge and salt cake) from million gallon waste tanks. The authors are conducted a test program to determine mixer requirements for suspending sludge heels using shrouded axial impeller mixers. The authors will present and discuss the data generated during the tests.
Date: November 9, 1998
Creator: Poirier, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer in Agitated Tanks Containing Non-Newtonian Fluids

Description: The purpose of the tests was to investigate the effects of operating parameters, such as KTPB concentration, time, sodium molarity, temperature, salt composition, sludge concentration, and radiation dose, on benzene retention and release. This paper describes the results of the tests.
Date: November 6, 1998
Creator: Poirier, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Suspending Zeolite Particles In Tanks

Description: The Savannah River Site (SRS) is in the process of removing waste (sludge and salt cake) from million gallon waste tanks. The current practice for removing waste from the tanks is adding water, agitating the tanks with long shaft vertical centrifugal pumps, and pumping the sludge/salt solution from the tank to downstream treatment processes. This practice has left sludge heels ({tilde} 30,000 gallons) in the bottom of the tanks. SRS is evaluating shrouded axial impeller mixers for removing the sludge heels in the waste tanks. The authors conducted a test program to determine mixer requirements for suspending sludge heels using the shrouded axial impeller mixers. The tests were performed with zeolite in scaled tanks which have diameters of 1.5, 6.0, and 18.75 feet. The mixer speeds required to suspend zeolite particles were measured at each scale. The data were analyzed with various scaling methods to compare their ability to describe the suspension of insoluble solids with the mixers and to apply the data to a full-scale waste tank. The impact of changes in particle properties and operating parameters was also evaluated. The conclusions of the work are: Scaling of the suspension of fast settling zeolite particles was best described by the constant power per unit volume method. Increasing the zeolite particle concentration increased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. Decreasing the zeolite particle size from 0.7 mm � 0.3 mm decreased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. Increasing the number of mixers in the tank decreased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. A velocity of 1.6 ft/sec two inches above the tank bottom is needed to suspend zeolite particles.
Date: January 19, 1999
Creator: Poirier, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cross-Flow Filtration of Simulated High-Level Waste Sludge (Tank 8F)

Description: This report discussed results of tests which investigated filter performance with slurry containing simulated Tank 8F Sludge at concentrations between 0.044 wt percent and 4.80 wt percent. Testing used a slurry containing 3.5 wt percent Tank 8F simulated sludge and a target concentration of 0.06 weight percent MST.
Date: June 7, 2001
Creator: Poirier, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Benzene Evolution Rates from Saltstone Prepared with 2X ITP Flowsheet Concentrations of Phenylborates and Heated to 85 Degrees C

Description: The Saltstone Facility provides the final treatment and disposal of low level liquid wastes streams. At the Saltstone Facility, the waste is mixed with cement, flyash, and slag to form a grout, which is pumped into large concrete vaults where it cures. The facility started radioactive operations in June 1990. High Level Waste Engineering requested Savannah River Technology Center to determine the effect of TPB and its decomposition products (i.e., 3PB, 2PB, and 1PB) on the saltstone process. Previous testing performed by SRTC determined saltstone benzene evolution rates a function of ITP filtrate composition. Testing by the Thermal Fluids Laboratory has shown at design operation, the temperature in the Z-area vaults could reach 85 degrees Celsius. Saltstone asked SRTC to perform additional testing to determine whether curing at 85 degrees Celsius could change saltstone benzene evolution rates. This document describes the test performed to determine the effect of curing temperature on the benzene evolution rates.
Date: August 23, 2000
Creator: Poirier, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Flocculation and Filtration Procedures Applied to WSRC Sludge: A Report from B. Yarar, Colorado School of Mines

Description: This report, addresses fundamentals of flocculation processes shedding light on why WSRC researchers have not been able to report the discovery of a successful flocculant and acceptable filtration rates. It also underscores the importance of applying an optimized flocculation-testing regime, which has not been adopted by these researchers. The final part of the report proposes a research scheme which should lead to a successful choice of flocculants, filtration aids (surfactants) and a filtration regime, as well recommendations for work that should be carried out to make up for the deficiencies of the limited WSRC work where a better performance should be the outcome.
Date: June 4, 2001
Creator: Poirier, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Benzene TCLP results from saltstone prepared with 2X ITP flowsheet concentrations of phenylborates

Description: The Savannah River Site (SRS) teamed with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and ITT Flygt Corporation to conduct a test program evaluating shrouded axial propeller mixers (Flygt mixers) for heel removal in SRS Tank 19. SRS is identifying and investigating techniques to remove sludge heels from waste tanks such as Tank 19.
Date: July 25, 2000
Creator: Poirier, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Filtration of a Hanford AW-101 Waste Sample

Description: The objectives of this test were: determine the optimum filter operating parameters to maximize filter flux; determine whether the mean filter flux across the dewatering cycle matches or exceeds the plant design throughput; dewater the feed sample to 20 wt percentage insoluble solids; wash the sample to determine which species are removed during the washing process; provide filtrate to the ion exchange test program; the project flowsheet for the separation of LAW entrained solids assumes the entrained solids slurry from ultrafiltration contains 20 wt percentage insoluble solids by weight. These tests must therefore confirm that the slurry rheology is compatible with this requirement. No solids must pass into the ultrafiltration permeate; and after the filtration stage is complete, the rig will be chemically cleaned to determine if the clean water flux can be returned to pre-operation (clean) levels.
Date: May 12, 2004
Creator: POIRIER, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Axial Pressure Drop Measurements during Pilot-Scale Testing of a Mott Crossflow Filter

Description: The Department of Energy selected caustic side solvent extraction (CSSX) as the preferred cesium removal technology for Savannah River Site waste. As a pretreatment step for the CSSX flowsheet, personnel contact the incoming salt solution that contains entrained sludge with monosodium titanate (MST) to adsorb strontium and select actinides. They filter the resulting slurry to remove the sludge and MST. The conclusions from this work is detailed in this report.
Date: May 13, 2003
Creator: Poirier, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pilot-Scale Testing of a 0.1 Micron Filter with SRS Simulated High Level Waste

Description: The Savannah River Site selected caustic side solvent extraction as the preferred treatment technology for SRS High Level Waste. As a pretreatment step for the CSSX process the facility will contact the incoming salt solution which contains entrained sludge with monosodium titanate to adsorb strontium and selected alpha emitting radionuclides. Savannah River Technology Center and University of South Carolina personnel conducted engineering scale filtration tests using the Filtration Research Engineering Demonstration facility.
Date: December 10, 2003
Creator: Poirier, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of Alternative Approaches for Cleaning Mott Porous Metal Filters

Description: The Department of Energy selected Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred cesium removal technology for Savannah River Site (SRS) waste. As a pretreatment step for the CSSX flowsheet, the incoming salt solution that contains entrained sludge is contacted with monosodium titanate (MST) to adsorb strontium and select actinides. The resulting slurry is filtered to remove the sludge and MST. Filter fouling occurs during this process. At times, personnel can increase the filtrate rate by backpulsing or scouring. At other times, the filtrate rate drops significantly and only chemical cleaning will restore filter performance. The current baseline technology for filter cleaning uses 0.5 M oxalic acid. The Salt Processing Project (SPP) at SRS, through the Tanks Focus Area, requested an evaluation of other cleaning agents to determine their effectiveness at removing trapped sludge and MST solids compared with the baseline oxalic acid method. A review of the technical literature identified compounds that appear effective at dissolving solid compounds. Consultation with the SPP management team, engineering personnel, and researchers led to a selection of oxalic acid, nitric acid, citric acid, and ascorbic acid for testing. Tests used simulated waste and actual waste as follows. Personnel placed simulated or actual SRS High Level Waste sludge and MST in a beaker. They added the selected cleaning agents, stirred the beakers, and collected supernate samples periodically analyzing for dissolved metals.
Date: October 30, 2003
Creator: Poirier, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Particle Size of Simulated SRS Sludge, Actual SRS Sludge, and Monosodium Titanate

Description: The authors reviewed and compiled typical data from prior measurements of the size of simulated sludge, actual sludge, and monosodium titanate (MST) particles. For the actual waste, the authors attempted to collect all available data from prior measurements. Since few prior measurements exist and since these analyses occurred using different analytical methods that span over two decades, the authors cannot verify the consistency of the methods used to make the measurements nor fully ensure the reliability of the information.
Date: August 7, 2003
Creator: Poirier, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alpha Removal Process Filter Cleaning Recommendations

Description: The Savannah River Site (SRS) is developing a process to treat radioactive waste that is low in cesium-137, but high in strontium-90, plutonium, uranium, and neptunium. Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) personnel asked Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) personnel to provide recommendations for chemically cleaning the Alpha Removal Process filters. The authors reviewed previous SRTC filter cleaning experience with bench-scale radioactive filters and pilot-scale simulant filters from tests with simulated and actual waste. From reviewing the previous filter cleaning data and assuming the heel in the 512-S filtration system is 85 gallons or less, the authors recommendations and approach to the inquiry are contained in this report.
Date: October 30, 2003
Creator: Poirier, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recommendation for Using Smaller (0.1 micro sign) Pore-Size Media for Filtration in Salt Waste Processing Project

Description: Based on experimental studies with simulated and actual wastes, we recommend adopting the use of 0.1-micron pore-size, sintered stainless-steel filter elements within the design of the Salt Waste Processing Facility. Furthermore, adopting the smaller pore size elements for the Actinide Removal Process would result in a significant risk to the start-up schedule due to delays for buying, installing, and testing new equipment. The existing 0.5-micron pore-size filters will provide nearly equivalent service with no additional capital investment. Unless the planned filter test at Building 512-S fails to meet specifications, the project should proceed with the existing equipment, including spares. When the existing equipment reaches the end of the service life, management can consider replacement with the smaller pore-size elements. The laboratory studies indicate that use of the smaller pore size equipment will result in greater protection against particulate fines passing to downstream facilities while giving equivalent or superior processing rates than provided by the 0.5-micron elements.
Date: May 2, 2003
Creator: Poirier, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Phase C Flygt Mixer Test Results

Description: The Savannah River Site (SRS) teamed with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and ITT Flygt Corporation to conduct a test program evaluating shrouded axial propeller mixers (Flygt mixers) for heel removal in SRS Tank 19. SRS is identifying and investigating techniques to remove sludge heels from waste tanks such as Tank 19.
Date: June 8, 1999
Creator: Poirier, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defining And Characterizing Sample Representativeness For DWPF Melter Feed Samples

Description: Representative sampling is important throughout the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) process, and the demonstrated success of the DWPF process to achieve glass product quality over the past two decades is a direct result of the quality of information obtained from the process. The objective of this report was to present sampling methods that the Savannah River Site (SRS) used to qualify waste being dispositioned at the DWPF. The goal was to emphasize the methodology, not a list of outcomes from those studies. This methodology includes proven methods for taking representative samples, the use of controlled analytical methods, and data interpretation and reporting that considers the uncertainty of all error sources. Numerous sampling studies were conducted during the development of the DWPF process and still continue to be performed in order to evaluate options for process improvement. Study designs were based on use of statistical tools applicable to the determination of uncertainties associated with the data needs. Successful designs are apt to be repeated, so this report chose only to include prototypic case studies that typify the characteristics of frequently used designs. Case studies have been presented for studying in-tank homogeneity, evaluating the suitability of sampler systems, determining factors that affect mixing and sampling, comparing the final waste glass product chemical composition and durability to that of the glass pour stream sample and other samples from process vessels, and assessing the uniformity of the chemical composition in the waste glass product. Many of these studies efficiently addressed more than one of these areas of concern associated with demonstrating sample representativeness and provide examples of statistical tools in use for DWPF. The time when many of these designs were implemented was in an age when the sampling ideas of Pierre Gy were not as widespread as they are today. Nonetheless, the ...
Date: October 29, 2013
Creator: Shine, E. P. & Poirier, M. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alternative filtration testing program: Pre-evaluation of test results

Description: Based on results of testing eight solids removal technologies and one pretreatment option, it is recommended that a centrifugal ultrafilter and polymeric ultrafilter undergo further testing as possible alternatives to the Norton Ceramic filters. Deep bed filtration should be considered as a third alternative, if a backwashable cartridge filter is shown to be inefficient in separate testing.
Date: September 28, 1990
Creator: Georgeton, G.K. & Poirier, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Alternative Filter Media for the Rotary Microfilter

Description: The Savannah River Site is currently developing and testing several processes to treat high level radioactive liquid waste. Each of these processes has a solid-liquid separation process that limits its throughput. Savannah River National Laboratory researchers identified and tested the rotary microfilter as a technology to increase solid-liquid separation throughput. The authors believe the rotary microfilter throughput can be improved by using a better filter membrane. Previous testing showed that asymmetric filters composed of a ceramic membrane on top of a stainless steel support produced higher filter flux than 100% stainless steel symmetric filters in crossflow filter tests. Savannah River National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working together to develop asymmetric ceramic ? stainless steel composite filters and asymmetric 100% stainless steel filters to improve the throughput of the rotary microfilter. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Inorganic Membrane Group fabricated samples of alternative filter membranes. In addition, Savannah River National Laboratory obtained samples of filter membranes from Pall, Porvair, and SpinTek. They tested these samples in a static test cell with feed slurries containing monosodium titanate and simulated sludge.
Date: November 9, 2011
Creator: Poirier, M. R.; Herman, D. T. & Bhave, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rheology Of MonoSodium Titanate (MST) And Modified Mst (mMST) Mixtures Relevant To The Salt Waste Processing Facility

Description: The Savannah River National Laboratory performed measurements of the rheology of suspensions and settled layers of treated material applicable to the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility. Suspended solids mixtures included monosodium titanate (MST) or modified MST (mMST) at various solid concentrations and soluble ion concentrations with and without the inclusion of kaolin clay or simulated sludge. Layers of settled solids were MST/sludge or mMST/sludge mixtures, either with or without sorbed strontium, over a range of initial solids concentrations, soluble ion concentrations, and settling times.
Date: July 31, 2013
Creator: Koopman, D. C.; Martino, C. J.; Shehee, T. C. & Poirier, M. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

F-Canyon Sludge Physical Properties

Description: The Site Deactivation and Decommissioning (SDD) Organization is evaluating options to disposition the 800 underground tanks (including removal of the sludge heels from these tanks). To support this effort, D&D requested assistance from Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel to determine the pertinent physical properties to effectively mobilize the sludge from these tanks (Tanks 804, 808, and 809). SDD provided SRNL with samples of the sludge from Tanks 804, 808, and 809. The authors measured the following physical properties for each tank: particle settling rate, shear strength (i.e., settled solids yield stress), slurry rheology (i.e., yield stress and consistency), total solids concentration in the sludge, soluble solids concentration of the sludge, sludge density, and particle size distribution.
Date: August 22, 2005
Creator: Poirier, M. R.; Hansen, P. R. & Fink, S. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Composition and Flow Behavior of F-Canyon Tank 804 Sludge following Manganese Addition and pH Adjustment

Description: The Site Deactivation and Decommissioning (SDD) Organization is evaluating options to disposition the 800 underground tanks (including removal of the sludge heels from these tanks). To support this effort, SDD requested assistance from Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel to examine the composition and flow characteristics of the Tank 804 sludge slurry after diluting it 10:1 with water, adding manganese nitrate to produce a slurry containing 5.5 wt % manganese (40:1 ratio of Mn:Pu), and adding sufficient 8 M caustic to raise the pH to 7, 10, and 14. Researchers prepared slurries containing one part Tank 804 sludge and 10 parts water. The water contained 5.5 wt % manganese (which SDD will add to poison the plutonium in Tank 804) and was pH adjusted to 3, 7, 10, or 14. They hand mixed (i.e., shook) these slurries and allowed them to sit overnight. With the pH 3, 7, and 10 slurries, much of the sludge remained stuck to the container wall. With the pH 14 slurry, most of the sludge appeared to be suspended in the slurry. They collected samples from the top and bottom of each container, which were analyzed for plutonium, manganese, and organic constituents. Following sampling, they placed the remaining material into a viscometer and measured the relationship between applied shear stress and shear rate. The pH 14 slurry was placed in a spiral ''race track'' apparatus and allowed to gravity drain.
Date: November 30, 2005
Creator: Poirier, M. R.; Stallings, M. E.; Burket, P.R. & Fink, S. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biofouling of microfilters at the Savannah River Site F/H-Area Effluent Treatment Facility

Description: The F/H-Effluent Treatment Facility uses state-of-the-art water treatment processes to remove contaminants from low-level radioactive wastewater at the Savannah River Site. The plant replaces seepage basins that were closed to comply with the 1984 amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The facility removes both radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants from the effluents orginating from onsite waste management facilities. The unit processes involve filtration, ion exchange, activated carbon absorption, and reverse osmosis. The filtration step is prone to considerable fouling, reducing the overall throughput of the facility. The filters utilized in the process are Norton Ceraflo{trademark} ceramic microfilters. It was discovered that bacteria were primarily responsible for the severe filter fouling. Inorganic fouling was also observed, but was not normally as severe as the bacterial fouling. The bacteria densities necessary to induce severe fouling were not significantly higher than those often found in surface water streams. Diversion of waste streams containing the highest quantity of bacteria, and various methods of source reduction were implemented, which dramatically improved the filter performance. Addition of aluminum nitrate at low pH further improved the filter performance.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: McCabe, D.J.; Wiggins, A.W.; Poirier, M.R. & Hazen, T.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

F/H Effluent Treatment Facility filtration upgrade alternative evaluations overview

Description: The F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) was designed to treat process wastewater from the 200-F/H Production Facilities (routine wastewater) as well as intermittent flows from the F/H Retention Basins and F/H Cooling Water Basins (nonroutine wastewater). Since start-up of the ETF at SRS in 1988, the treatment process has experienced difficulties processing routine and nonroutine wastewater. Studies have identified high bacteria and bacterial decomposition products in the wastewater as the cause for excessive fouling of the filtration system. In order to meet Waste Management requirements for the treatment of processed wastewater, an upgrade of the ETF filtration system is being developed. This upgrade must be able to process the nonroutine wastewater at design capacity. As a result, a study of alternative filter technologies was conducted utilizing simulated wastewater. The simulated wastewater tests have been completed. Three filter technologies, centrifugal polymeric ultrafilters, tubular polymeric ultrafilters, and backwashable cartridge filters have been selected for further evaluation utilizing actual ETF wastewater.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Miles, W.C. Jr.; Poirier, M.R. & Brown, D.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department