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Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

Description: Sonoma offers the first cost-effective, broad-area, high-resolution, real-time motion imagery system for surveillance applications. Sonoma is unique in its ability to provide continuous, real-time video imagery of an area the size of a small city with resolutions sufficient to track 8,000 moving objects in the field of view. At higher resolutions and over smaller areas, Sonoma can even track the movement of individual people. The visual impact of the data available from Sonoma is already causing a paradigm shift in the architecture and operation of other surveillance systems. Sonoma is expected to cost just one-tenth the price of comparably sized sensor systems. Cameras mounted on an airborne platform constantly monitor an area, feeding data to the ground for real-time analysis. Sonoma was designed to provide real-time data for actionable intelligence in situations such as monitoring traffic, special events, border security, and harbors. If a Sonoma system had been available in the aftermath of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes, emergency responders would have had real-time information on roads, water levels, and traffic conditions, perhaps saving many lives.
Date: March 24, 2006
Creator: Pennington, D M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Observation of anomalous low J-value Stokes and anti-Stokes lines in stimulated rotational Raman scattering over long air paths

Description: Anomalous low-J-value Stokes and anti-Stokes lines in stimulated rotational Raman scattering are observed with large Fresnel number, linearly polarized beams. Forced light scattering at the rotational intermodulation frequency is also observed. Dynamics of the Stokes-anti-Stokes coupling will be discussed. 5 refs., 2 figs.
Date: November 20, 1987
Creator: Pennington, D.M. & Henesian, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of ultrafast photothermal surface expansion and diffusivity in GaAs via laser-induced dynamic gratings

Description: This thesis details the first direct ultrafast measurements of the dynamic thermal expansion of a surface and the temperature dependent surface thermal diffusivity using a two-color reflection transient grating technique. Studies were performed on p-type, n-type, and undoped GaAs(100) samples over a wide range of temperatures. By utilizing a 90 fs ultraviolet probe with visible excitation beams, the effects of interband saturation and carrier dynamics become negligible; thus lattice expansion due to heating and subsequent contraction caused by cooling provided the dominant influence on the probe. At room temperature a rise due to thermal expansion was observed, corresponding to a maximum net displacement of {approximately} 1 {Angstrom} at 32 ps. The diffracted signal was composed of two components, thermal expansion of the surface and heat flow away from the surface, thus allowing a determination of the rate of expansion as well as the surface thermal diffusivity, D{sub S}. By varying the fringe spacing of the grating, this technique has the potential to separate the signal contributions to the expansion of the lattice in the perpendicular and parallel directions. In the data presented here a large fringe spacing was used, thus the dominant contribution to the rising edge of the signal was expansion perpendicular to the surface. Comparison of he results with a straightforward thermal model yields good agreement over a range of temperatures (20--300{degrees}K). Values for D{sub S} in GaAs were measured and found to be in reasonable agreement with bulk values above 50{degrees}K. Below 50{degrees}K, D{sub S} were determined to be up to an order of magnitude slower than the bulk diffusivity due to increased phonon boundary scattering. The applicability and advantages of the TG technique for studying photothermal and photoacoustic phenomena are discussed.
Date: April 1, 1992
Creator: Pennington, D. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Petawatt laser system and targeting performance

Description: We recently demonstrated the production of 1.25 PW of peak power in the Nova/Petawatt Laser Facility, generating > 600 J in < 450 fs. Results of the first focused irradiance tests, at 500 J and deployment of a novel targeting system will be presented.
Date: April 30, 1997
Creator: Pennington, D.M.; Perry, M.D. & Britten, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Petawatt laser system

Description: We recently demonstrated the production of over a petawatt of peak power in the Nova/Petawatt Laser Facility, generating > 600 J in {approximately} 440 fs. The Petawatt Laser Project was initiated to develop the capability to test the fast ignitor concept for inertial confinement fusion (ICF), and to provide a unique capability in high energy density physics. The laser was designed to produce near kJ pulses with a pulse duration adjustable between 0.5 and 20 ps. At the shortest pulse lengths, this laser is expected to surpass 10 21 W/cm 2 when focused later this year. Currently, this system is limited to 600 J pulses in a 46.3-cm beam. Expansion of the beam to 58 cm, with the installation of 94-cm gratings, will enable 1 kJ operation. Target experiments with petawatt pulses will be possible either integrated with Nova in the 10 beam target chamber or as a stand alone system in an independent, dedicated chamber. Focusing the beam onto a target will be accomplished using an on axis parabolic mirror. The design of a novel targeting system enabling the production of ultrahigh contrast pulses and an easily variable effective focal length is also described.
Date: March 11, 1997
Creator: Pennington, D.M.; Perry, M.D. & Stuart, B.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gain saturation studies in LG-750 and LG-770 amplifier glass

Description: Experiments were performed on the 100-J class Optical Sciences Laser (OSL) at LLNL to characterize the saturation fluence and small-signal gain of a solid-state Nd:glass amplifier utilizing LG-750 and LG-770, an amplifier glass developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These high quality measurements of gain saturation at NIF level fluences, i.e., 10-15 J/cm{sup 2}, provide essential parameters for the amplifier performance codes used to design NIF and future high power laser systems. The small-signal gain, saturation fluence and square-pulse distortion were measured as a function of input fluence and pulse length in platinum-free LG-750 and LG-770. The input fluence, output fluence, small-signal gain and passive losses were measured to allow calculation of the saturation fluence. Least square fits of the output vs. input fluence data using a Frantz-Nodvik model was used to obtain an average saturation fluence for each data set. Overall, gain saturation in LG-750 and LG-770 is comparable at long pulse lengths. For shorter pulse length, < 5 ns, LG-770 exhibits a stronger pulse length dependence than LG-750, possibly due to a longer terminal level lifetime. LG-770 also has a higher cross- section, which is reflected by its slightly higher extraction efficiency. 52 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: March 10, 1997
Creator: Pennington, D.M.; Milam, D. & Eimerl, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Efficient broadband third harmonic frequency conversion via angular dispersion

Description: In this paper we present experimental measurements and theoretical modeling of third harmonic (3{omega}) conversion efficiency with optical bandwidth. Third harmonic conversion efficiency drops precipitously as the input bandwidth significantly exceeds the phase matching limitations of the conversion crystals. For Type I/Type II frequency tripling, conversion efficiency be-gins to decrease for bandwidths greater than {approximately}60 GHz. However, conversion efficiency corresponding to monochromatic phase-matched beams can be recovered provided that the instantaneous Propagation vectors are phase matched at all times. This is achieved by imposing angular spectral dispersion (ASD) on the input beam via a diffraction grating, with a dispersion such that the phase mismatch for each frequency is zero. Experiments were performed on the Optical Sciences Laser (OSL), a 1--100 J class laser at LLNL. These experiments used a 200 GHz bandwidth source produced by a multipassed electro-optic phase modulator. The spectrum produced was composed of discrete frequency components spaced at 3 GHz intervals. Angular dispersion was incorporated by the addition of a 1200 gr/mm diffraction grating oriented at the Littrow angle, and capable of rotation about the beam direction. Experiments were performed with a pulse length of 1-ns and a 1{omega} input intensity of {approximately} 4 GW/cm{sup 2} for near optimal dispersion for phase matching, 5.2 {mu}rad/GHz, with 0.1, 60, and 155 GHz bandwidth, as well as for partial dispersion compensation, 1.66 {mu}rad/GHz, with 155 GHz and 0.1 GHz bandwidth. The direction of dispersion was varied incrementally 360{degrees} about the beam diameter. The addition of the grating to the beamline reduced the narrowband conversion efficiency by approximately 10%.
Date: July 18, 1995
Creator: Pennington, D.M.; Henesian, M.A.; Milam, D. & Eimerl, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High power spectral and spatial beam control using self-phase modulation and a multisegment monochromator

Description: We present a novel optical system for forming high power beams with spatial separation of selected spectral components. Self-phase modulation in an optical fiber creates multiple wavelengths. a segmented diffraction grating device provides spectral control.
Date: June 1, 1994
Creator: Wilcox, R.; Pennington, D.; Eimerl, D.; Weiland, T. & Henesian, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

X-ray imaging to characterize MeV electronics propagation through plastic targets

Description: A high intensity laser pulse incident on an overdense plasma generates high energy electrons at the critical surface which propagate into the plasma. The details of this propagation is critical to the Fast Ignition process. The energetic electrons emerge as a jet on the far side, but the spread and propagation direction of the jet within the plasma is not well known. By embedding several thin high Z layers in a CH film one can directly image the progress of the electron beam. It loses enough energy to heat the medium through which it travels to hundreds of eV. At that temperature a film, even buried under CH, emits sufficiently hard thermal x-rays to allow imaging the heated area with an x-ray pinhole camera. The film can be thin enough to also see the emissions from another layer near the front of the film. If these two images are visible simultaneously, one can measure the beam spread and propagation direction within the plastic.
Date: September 3, 1999
Creator: Key, M H; Stephens, R B; Koch, J & Pennington, D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dynamics of surface thermal expansion and diffusivity using two-color reflection transient gratings

Description: We report ultrafast measurements of the dynamic thermal expansion of a surface and the temperature dependent surface thermal diffusivity using a two-color reflection transient grating technique. Studies were performed on p-type, n-type, and undoped GaAs(100) samples at several temperatures. Using a 75 fs ultraviolet probe with visible excitation beams, the electronic effects that dominate single color experiments become negligible; thus surface expansion due to heating and the subsequent contraction caused by cooling provide the dominant influence on the diffracted probe. The diffracted signal was composed of two components, thermal expansion of the surface and heat flow away from the surface, allowing the determination of the rate of expansion as well as the surface thermal diffusivity. At room temperature a signal rise due to thermal expansion was observed, corresponding to a maximum average displacement of {approx} 1 {angstrom} at 32 ps. Large fringe spacings were used, thus the dominant contributions to the signal were expansion and diffusion perpendicular to the surface. Values for the surface thermal diffusivity of GaAs were measured and found to be in reasonable agreement with bulk values above 50{degrees}K. Below 50{degrees}K, the diffusivity at the surface was more than an order of magnitude slower than in the bulk due to increased phonon boundary scattering. Comparison of the results with a straightforward thermal model yields good agreement over a range of temperatures (12--300{degrees}K). The applicability and advantages of the transient grating technique for studying photothermal and photoacoustic phenomena are discussed.
Date: February 1, 1993
Creator: Pennington, D. M. & Harris, C. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Adaptive Optics Views of the Hubble Deep Fields Final report on LLNL LDRD Project 03-ERD-002

Description: We used laser guide star adaptive optics at the Lick and Keck Observatories to study active galactic nuclei and galaxies, with emphasis on those in the early Universe. The goals were to observe large galaxies like our own Milky Way in the process of their initial assembly from sub-components, to identify central active galactic nuclei due to accreting black holes in galaxy cores, and to measure rates of star formation and evolution in galaxies. In the distant universe our focus was on the GOODS and GEMS fields (regions in the Northern and Southern sky that include the Hubble Deep Fields) as well as the Extended Groth Strip and COSMOS fields. Each of these parts of the sky has been intensively studied at multiple wavelengths by the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, the XMM Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and several ground-based telescopes including the Very Large Array radio interferometer, in order to gain an unbiased view of a significant statistical sample of galaxies in the early universe.
Date: February 17, 2007
Creator: Max, C E; Gavel, D; Pennington, D; Gibbard, S; van Dam, M; Larkin, J et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Precision short-pulse damage test station utilizing optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification

Description: The next generation of high-energy petawatt (HEPW)-class lasers will utilize multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings for pulse compression, due to their high efficiency and high damage threshold for picosecond pulses. The peak power of HEPW lasers will be determined by the aperture and damage threshold of the final dielectric grating in the pulse compressor and final focusing optics. We have developed a short-pulse damage test station for accurate determination of the damage threshold of the optics used on future HEPW lasers. Our damage test station is based on a highly stable, high-beam-quality optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier (OPCPA) operating at 1053 nm at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. We present the design of our OPCPA system pumped by a commercial Q-switched pump laser and the results of the full system characterization. Initial short-pulse damage experiments in the far field using our system have been performed.
Date: March 22, 2004
Creator: Jovanovic, I; Brown, C; Wattellier, B; Nielsen, N; Molander, W; Stuart, B et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A four-color beam smoothing irradiation system for laser-plasma interaction experiments at LLNL

Description: A novel four-color beam smoothing scheme with a capability similar to that planned for the proposed National Ignition Facility has been deployed on the Nova laser, and has been successfully used for laser fusion experiments. Wavefront aberrations in high power laser systems produce nonuniformities in the energy distribution of the focal spot that can significantly degrade the coupling of the energy into a fusion target, driving various plasma instabilities. The introduction of temporal and spatial incoherence over the face of the beam using techniques such as smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) can reduce these variation in the focal irradiance when averaged over a finite time interval. We developed a multiple frequency source that is spatially separated into four quadrants, each containing a different central frequency. Each quadrant is independently converted to the third harmonic in a four-segment Type I/ Type II KDP crystal array with independent phase-matching for efficient frequency conversion. Up to 2.3 kJ of third harmonic light is generated in a 1 ns pulse, corresponding to up to 65% conversion efficiency. SSD is implemented by adding limited frequency modulated bandwidth to each frequency component. Smoothing by spectral dispersion is implemented during the spatial separation of the FM modulated beams to provide additional smoothing, reaching a 16% rms intensity variation level. The four- color system was successfully used to probe NIF-like plasmas, producing {lt} 1% SBS backscatter at {gt} 2x10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. This paper discusses the detailed implementation and performance of the segmented four-color system on the Nova laser system.
Date: June 26, 1995
Creator: Pennington, D. M.; Henesian, M. A.; Wilcox, R. B.; Weiland, T. L.; Eimerl, D.; Ehrlich, R. B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Developing beam phasing on the Nova laser

Description: We are presently adding the capability to irradiate indirectly-driven Nova targets with two rings of illumination inside each end of the hohlraum for studies of time-dependent second Legendre (P2) and time- integrated fourth Legendre (P4) flux asymmetry control. The rings will be formed with specially designed kinoform phase plates (KPPs), which will direct each half of each beam into two separate rings that are nearly uniform azimuthally. The timing and temporal pulse shape of the outer rings will be controlled independently from those of the inner rings, allowing for phasing of the pulse shapes to control time dependent asymmetry. Modifications to the incident beam diagnostics (IBDS) will enable us to verify that acceptable levels of power balance among the contributing segments of each ring have been achieved on each shot. Current techniques for precision beam pointing and timing are expected to be sufficiently accurate for these experiments. We present a design for an affordable retrofit to achieve beam phasing on Nova, results of a simplified demonstration, and calculations highlighting the anticipated benefits.
Date: March 10, 1997
Creator: Ehrlich, R.B.; Amendt, P.A.; Dixit, S.N.; Hammel, B.A.; Kalantar, D.H.; Pennington, D.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurements of deep heating generated by ultra-intense laser-plasma interactions

Description: We measure 300 eV thermal temperatures at near-solid densities by x-ray spectroscopy of tracer layers buried up to 30 pm inside CH slabs which are irradiated by a 0.5 kJ, 5 ps laser. X-ray imaging data suggest that collimated electron transport produces comparable temperatures as deep as 200 pm, and unexpectedly show the heated regions to be 50-120 pm-diameter rings. The data indicate that intense lasers can directionally heat solid matter to high temperatures over large distances; the results are relevant for fast-ignition inertial-confinement fusion and hot, dense plasma research
Date: August 25, 1999
Creator: Hatchett, S P; Key, M H; Koch, J A; Lee, R W; Pennington, D; Stephens, R B et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Implementation and performance of beam smoothing on 10 beams of the Nova Laser

Description: Recent simulations and experiments on Nova indicate that some level of smoothing may be required to suppress filamentation in plasmas on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), resulting in the addition of 1-D smoothing capability to the current baseline design. Control of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and filamentation is considered essential to the success of laser fusion because they affect the amount and location of laser energy delivered to the x-ray conversion region (hohlraum wall) for indirect drive and to the absorptive region for direct drive, Smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD)[1], reduces these instabilities by reducing nonuniformities in the focal irradiance when averaged over a finite time interval. We have installed SSD on Nova to produce beam smoothing on all 10 beam lines. A single dispersion grating is located in a position common to all 10 beam lines early in the preamplifier chain. This location limits the 1{omega} bandwidth to 2.2 {angstrom} with sufficient dispersion to displace the speckle field of each frequency component at the target plane by one half speckle diameter. Several beam lines were modified to allow orientation of the dispersion on each arm relative to the hohlraum wall. After conversion to the third harmonic the beam passes through a kinoform phase plate (KPP) designed to produce an elliptical spot at best focus. The KPPs produce a focal spot having an elliptical flat-top envelope with a superimposed speckle pattern. Over 93% of the energy is contained in the central 400 km. Calculations indicate a 16% rms. intensity variance will be reached after 330 ps for a single beam.
Date: March 11, 1997
Creator: Pennington, D. M.; Dixit, S. N.; Weiland, T. L.; Ehrlich, R. & Rothenberg, J. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-resolution wavefront control of high-power laser systems

Description: Nearly every new large-scale laser system application at LLNL has requirements for beam control which exceed the current level of available technology. For applications such as inertial confinement fusion, laser isotope separation, laser machining, and laser the ability to transport significant power to a target while maintaining good beam quality is critical. There are many ways that laser wavefront quality can be degraded. Thermal effects due to the interaction of high-power laser or pump light with the internal optical components or with the ambient gas are common causes of wavefront degradation. For many years, adaptive optics based on thing deformable glass mirrors with piezoelectric or electrostrictive actuators have be used to remove the low-order wavefront errors from high-power laser systems. These adaptive optics systems have successfully improved laser beam quality, but have also generally revealed additional high-spatial-frequency errors, both because the low-order errors have been reduced and because deformable mirrors have often introduced some high-spatial-frequency components due to manufacturing errors. Many current and emerging laser applications fall into the high-resolution category where there is an increased need for the correction of high spatial frequency aberrations which requires correctors with thousands of degrees of freedom. The largest Deformable Mirrors currently available have less than one thousand degrees of freedom at a cost of approximately $1M. A deformable mirror capable of meeting these high spatial resolution requirements would be cost prohibitive. Therefore a new approach using a different wavefront control technology is needed. One new wavefront control approach is the use of liquid-crystal (LC) spatial light modulator (SLM) technology for the controlling the phase of linearly polarized light. Current LC SLM technology provides high-spatial-resolution wavefront control, with hundreds of thousands of degrees of freedom, more than two orders of magnitude greater than the best Deformable Mirrors currently made. Even with the increased ...
Date: July 8, 1999
Creator: Brase, J; Brown, C; Carrano, C; Kartz, M; Olivier, S; Pennington, D et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser Research and Development Studies for Laser Guide Star Systems

Description: In this paper we consider two CW solid state laser approaches to a 589 nm LGS system. Both are based on the technique of sum-frequency generation, but differ in the cavity architecture. Both technologies are very promising and are worth of further consideration. This preliminary proposal is intended to encompass both designs. A down select shall be performed early in the project execution to focus on the most promising option. The two design options consist of: (1) A dual-frequency resonator with intra-cavity doubling in LB0 offers the promise of a simple architecture and may scale more easily to high power. This design has been shown to be highly reliable, efficient and high power when used in frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers for programs at LLNL and in commercial products. The challenge in this design is the demonstration of a high power13 18 nm oscillator with adequate suppression of the 1064 nm line. (2) A MOPA based design uses commercial low power oscillators to produce both wavelengths, then amplifies the wavelengths before doubling. This design requires the demonstration of a 1318 nm amplifier, though the design is scaled from a kW CW amplifier already delivered to a customer at a different wavelength. The design must also demonstrate high power scaling of sum-frequency generation in the relatively new nonlinear material, PPLN. The first step in the process would be to further evaluate the two conceptual options for technical feasibility, cost and constructability. Then a down selection to one design would be conducted. Finally, R&amp;D on that design would then proceed. Minimal testing should be required for this selection. The majority of the funding received would be allocated to development of the design selected.
Date: February 23, 2000
Creator: Pennington, D.; Beach, R.; Ebbers, C.; Erbert, G.; Nguyen, H.; Page, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of a Nova beamline with high damage threshold glass

Description: We report on measurements made on a Nova beamline whose output amplifier stages contain new high damage threshold, platinum particle-free laser glass. We project future operating limits for the Nova ten beam amplifier system. 4 refs.
Date: November 19, 1987
Creator: Bibeau, C.; Ehrlich, R.B.; Lawson, J.K.; Laumann, C.W.; Pennington, D.M.; Weiland, T.L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of bandwidth on beam smoothing and frequency conversion at the third harmonic of the Nova laser

Description: We present the results of experiments performed on the Nova laser system to determine the effect of bandwidth on third harmonic (3{omega}) frequency conversion and beam smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD). Our experiments utilized a wide bandwidth fiber optic cross-phase modulated (XPM) source and a narrower bandwidth microwave modulated (FM) source, each centered at 1053 nm (1{omega}). The FM source produced {approximately}2 cm{sup {minus}1} of bandwidth, modulated at 3 GHz; the XPM bandwidth was varied from 5 to 15 cm{sup {minus}1}, modulated by the temporally noisy output of a multimode Nd:glass laser ({le} 500 GHz). The FM beam showed no evidence of self-phase modulation in the laser chain produced by intensity fluctuations, and 1{omega} bandwidth was tripled upon conversion to 3{omega} (2--6 cm{sup {minus}1}). The 1{omega} XPM bandwidth increased by {ge} 25% due to self-phase modulation in the laser chain (16--22 cm{sup {minus}1}) due to it`s relative noisy temporal structure. Over 50% of the 1{omega} XPM bandwidth was transferred to the 3{omega} beam (22--36 cm{sup {minus}1}), yielding 0.13% bandwidth at 3{omega}. The maximum intrinsic narrowband 3{omega} frequency conversion obtained using a type-II/type-II KDP crystal array was 62%. The intrinsic efficiency obtained at the Nova 10-beam chamber is typically > 65%. We have developed broadband frequency conversion codes and broadband pulse simulations to model our results, and have obtained good agreement with experiment. Using a random phase plate without bandwidth, we obtained a smoothing level, {sigma}/I {approximately} 0.79, defined by the rms variance normalized with respect to the average intensity. This is less than the theoretically expected value of 1 for an ideal speckle pattern, and could be evidence of polarization smoothing as a result of focus lens birefringence. With spectral dispersion and RPP we demonstrated an excellent level of smoothing with the XPM source.
Date: May 1, 1993
Creator: Pennington, D. M.; Henesian, M. A.; Dixit, S. N.; Powell, H. T.; Thompson, C. E. & Weiland, T. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multi-watt 589nm fiber laser source

Description: We have demonstrated 3.5W of 589nm light from a fiber laser using periodically poled stoichiometric Lithium Tantalate (PPSLT) as the frequency conversion crystal. The system employs 938nm and 1583nm fiber lasers, which were sum-frequency mixed in PPSLT to generate 589nm light. The 938nm fiber laser consists of a single frequency diode laser master oscillator (200mW), which was amplified in two stages to &gt;15W using cladding pumped Nd{sup 3+} fiber amplifiers. The fiber amplifiers operate at 938nm and minimize amplified spontaneous emission at 1088nm by employing a specialty fiber design, which maximizes the core size relative to the cladding diameter. This design allows the 3-level laser system to operate at high inversion, thus making it competitive with the competing 1088nm 4-level laser transition. At 15W, the 938nm laser has an M{sup 2} of 1.1 and good polarization (correctable with a quarter and half wave plate to &gt;15:1). The 1583nm fiber laser consists of a Koheras 1583nm fiber DFB laser that is pre-amplified to 100mW, phase modulated and then amplified to 14W in a commercial IPG fiber amplifier. As a part of our research efforts we are also investigating pulsed laser formats and power scaling of the 589nm system. We will discuss the fiber laser design and operation as well as our results in power scaling at 589nm.
Date: January 19, 2006
Creator: Dawson, J. W.; Drobshoff, A. D.; Beach, R. J.; Messerly, M. J.; Payne, S. A.; Brown A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Petawatt laser and target irradiation system at LLNL

Description: In May, 1996, we demonstrated the production over a petawatt of peak power in the Nova/Petawatt Laser Facility, generating 620 J in {approximately} 430 fs. Results of the first focused irradiance tests, and recent deployment of a novel targeting system will be presented.
Date: June 6, 1997
Creator: Pennington, D.M.; Perry, M.D.; Britten, J.A.; Brown, C.G.; Herman, S.; Homer, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-resolution wavefront control using liquid crystal spatial light modulators

Description: Liquid crystal spatial light modulator technology appropriate for high-resolution wavefront control has recently become commercially available. Some of these devices have several hundred thousand controllable degrees of freedom, more than two orders of magnitude greater than the largest conventional deformable mirror. We will present results of experiments to characterize the optical properties of these devices and to utilize them to correct aberrations in an optical system. We will also present application scenarios for these devices in high-power laser systems.
Date: July 20, 1999
Creator: Bauman, B J; Brase, J M; Brown, C G; Cooke, J B; Kartz, M W; Olivier, S S et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energetic Proton Generation in Ultra-Intense Laser-Solid Interactions

Description: An explanation for the energetic ions observed in the PetaWatt experiments is presented. In solid target experiments with focused intensities exceeding 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}, high-energy electron generation, hard bremsstrahlung, and energetic protons have been observed on the backside of the target. In this report, we attempt to explain the physical process present that will explain the presence of these energetic protons, as well as explain the number, energy, and angular spread of the protons observed in experiment. In particular, we hypothesize that hot electrons produced on the front of the target are sent through to the back off the target, where they ionize the hydrogen layer there. These ions are then accelerated by the hot electron cloud, to tens of MeV energies in distances of order tens of microns, whereupon they end up being detected in the radiographic and spectrographic detectors.
Date: March 1, 2000
Creator: Wilks, S.C.; Langdon, A.B.; Cowan, T.E.; Roth, M.; Singh, M.; Hatchett, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department